• The motivation of vocational students in a college setting /

      Broyden, Lewis W.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-01)
      This qualitative study explores the motivation of College Vocational Program (CVP) students at one campus of a large College of Applied Arts and Technology (CAAT a) in urban southern Ontario. The study is in response to my close involvement with the CVP students as an instructor for five years, and my observation that a greater understanding of the motivational influences affecting the students' involvement in the program would strengthen teaching and learning, and enhance the CVP educational experience for students and instructors. This study was limited to one CVP program, and a small sample of convenience of 9 CVP male and female students and 6 instructors selected from two classes. The students were chosen based on their verbal abilities to communicate their thoughts, feelings, and experiences in regard to answering the research questions posed. Through interviews with students, instructors, and ajob coach, this study addressed four main questions relevant to college vocational students and motivation: defining student success, encouragement, discouragement, and perceptions about academic and vocationalleaming. The interview questions for both students and instructors were designed by me and were based on themes derived from the literature and from my experience in the program. The findings identify that the students and instructors see success in the program in a slightly different way, the importance of relationships and structure, the hindering effect of disabilities and the importance of accommodation, and the strong aspiration of the students wanting to learn in a supportive accepting environment. The study concludes with implications for further research and theory development.
    • Motivational differences in science course enrolment shown by males and females in grades 9 through OAC

      Leone, Domenica M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1991-11-04)
      A sample of 1,345 students enrolled in advanced-level science courses from Grades 9 through OAe was surveyed in order to gain perspective into the existence of motivational differences attributing to science course enrolment by gender. Records of enrolment were examined in order to detect patterns and trends. A questionnaire was devised and piloted. It measured five motivational variables - demographics, science and science-related experiences, science ability and attitudes, impressions about women in science, and importance of science and science-related skills. The students also provided some impressions about the image of scientists. Results of the questionnaire were analyzed for frequency of responses and for significant gender differences using the chi-square. Differences were found to exist in the areas of science anxiety as it relates to testing and oral participation; in motivation generated by the performance of extra-curricular science and science-related activities, and by the classroom environment; in impressions of women in science; in the importance of science skills, and in the area of teacher influence. The study also showed a differential enrolment of females, with an emphasis on biology and chemistry. The males were enrolled in courses of physics and chemistry. The findings lead to numerous suggested strategies and programs for encouraging the participation of females in science education and careers.
    • Myths of Modern Education

      Mike, Countryman; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2015-02-23)
      My focus is on assessment criteria of language proficiency in community college education. To demand clear writing is an application of scientism; it seeks to keep separate the fact/value distinction of positivism. This dangerously undermines the democratizing possibilities of education, since clear writing, taken to its extreme, is ultimately anonymous and dehumanizing. The active student-as-citizen is, therefore, subsumed under the neoliberal dictate of the passive student-as-consumer. The process of language acquisition is reduced to a fictitious act of knowledge transmission and regurgitation, and, therefore, those subversive aspects of language learning, such as creativity and critical inquiry, are undermined. An initial overview of the tenets of modernity will provide a conceptual framework for this examination.
    • A narrative journey of teacher reflexivity and authenticity in technological environments /

      Jupp, Louise.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2007-06-29)
      This qualitative narrative inquiry was driven by my desire to further explore my personal discovery that my utilization of educational technologies in teaching and learning environments seemed to heighten a sense of creativity, which in turn increased reflective practice and authenticity in my teaching. A narrative inquiry approach was used as it offered the opportunity to uncover the deeper meanings of authenticity and reflection as participants' personal experiences were coconstructed and reconstructed in relationship with me and in relationship to a social milieu. To gain further insight into this potential phenomenon, I engaged in 2 conversational interviews with 2 other teachers from an Ontario College in a large urban centre who have utilized educational technologies in their teaching and learning communities and I maintained a research journal, constructed during the interview process, to record my own emerging narrative accounts, reflections, insights and further questions. The field texts consisted of transcriptions of the interviews and my reflective journal. Research texts were developed as field texts were listened to multiple times and texts were examined for meanings and themes. The educational technologies that both women focused on in the interview were digital video of children as they play, learn and develop and the use of an audible teacher voice in online courses. The invitation given to students to explore and discover meaning in videos of children as they watched them with the teacher seemed to be a catalyst for authenticity and a sense of synergy in the classroom. The power of the audible teacher voice came through as an essential component in online learning environments to offer students a sense of humanness and connection with the teacher. Relationships in both online and face to face classrooms emerged as a necessary and central component to all teaching and learning communities. The theme of paradox also emerged as participants recognized that educational technologies can be used in ways that enhance creativity, authenticity, reflection and relationships or in ways that hinder these qualities in the teaching and learning community. Knowledge of the common experiences of college educators who utilize educational technologies, specifically digital video of children to educate early childhood educators, might give meaning and insight to inform the practice of other teachers who seek authentic, reflexive practice in the classroom and in on line environments.
    • Narratives of Experience in Education: Living and Working Through Poverty in a Rural Community

      Grenville, Heather; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-04-02)
      In this study, I use my own experiences in education as a former elementary student, research assistant, and as a current secondary school teacher, to examine how living in a marginalised rural community challenged by poverty affected my formal education. The purpose of this study was to use stories to: (a) explore my formative elementary education growing up in a community that was experiencing poverty, and; (b) to examine the impact and implications of these experiences for me as a teacher and researcher considering the topic of poverty and education. This study used narrative inquiry to explore stories of education, focusing on experiences living and working in a rural community. My role in the study was both as participant and researcher as I investigate, through story, how I was raised in a marginalised, rural community faced with challenges of poverty and how I relate to my current role as a teacher working in a similar, rural high school. My own experiences and reflections form the basis of the study, but I used the contributions of secondary participants to offer alternative perspective of my interpretation of events. Participants in this study were asked to write about and/or retell their lived stories of working in areas affected by challenging circumstances. From my stories and those of secondary participants, three themes were explored: student authorship, teaching practice, and community involvement. An examination of these themes through commonplaces of place, sociality and time (Connelly and Clandinin, 2006) provide a context for other educators and researchers to consider or reconsider teaching practices in school communities affected by poverty.
    • The nature of bullying among secondary school students /

      Kartasinski, Linda M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence and effect of bullying in a secondary school. Six hundred and fifty-nine student volunteers completed a survey which included a quantitative component of 40 questions and 3 questions which required a written response. The results suggest that approximately 1 student in 10 was involved in a bullying situation either as a bully or a victim. As age increased, physical bullying decreased whereas psychological remained high in the senior years of high school. Boys were involved more in bullying than girls, especially in the junior years. The effects of bullying could be devastating to the point of school avoidance or early school leaving. The results also indicate that much of the bullying was not being reported. The implication for the education system is that more needs to be done to prevent bullying, to encourage the reporting of bullying, and to deal with the aftermath of a bullying situation.
    • The nature of the highly artistic student in visual arts at secondary school /

      Visconti, Victoria Marie.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-09)
      This qualitative investigation examined the nature of 7 highly artistic visual arts students at 2 secondary schools in southcentral Ontario. Through interviews, questionnaires, observations, and artwork documents, this study attempted to understand these highly artistic students in terms of creativity, motivation, social and emotional perspectives, and cognitive processes. Data collection occuned over a 3-monlh period. and the data analysis program NVivo 7 was used for coding to develop themes and categories for organizing data. The findings of this study illustrate the significant place that \ isual arts can lake in the growth and development for the youth of today. Participants idcniificd dcxclopnig critical thinking and problem-solving skills, taking risks, and meeting challenges ilirouuh their engagement in the creative process. The transferability of these skills \\ as referenced to numerous aspects of their lives. By enhancing individual perspectives through the study of visual arts, their local and world connections were extended, and environmental and societal concerns evolved. In addition, the communicative opportunities that visual arts provided for these students in terms of personal expression provided emotional health and paths of personal discovery. Through the participants' production of artwork with the many stages this involves, combined with insight into their needs, the participants relayed miportant suggestions for programming enhancements and educational settmgs lor \ isiial arts classrooms. These suggestions are meaningful for educators and curriculum developers of the future.
    • New Teacher Perceptions of Inclusive Pedagogies: Designing New Future for the Changing Classroom

      Soleas, Eleftherios; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Our perceptions of knowledge attainment have changed (Bezemer & Kress, 2010). The type of students our teachers once were is vastly different from the students they currently teach. We need our next generation to thrive in a dynamically, interactive world saturated with opportunities for meaning making (Kress & Selander, 2012). Our current students are responsible for continuing our society, but that does not mean we need them to become us (Gee, 2009). Rather desperately, we need them to be thinkers and expressive in a variety of modes. The world will be different when they take their rightful place as the next generation of leaders, and so too must their thinking be different (Cope & Kalantzis, 2000). This explanatory mixed-method study (Creswell, 2013; Mertens, 2014) involved an investigation into perceptions of new teachers regarding inclusive pedagogies like Universal Design for Learning (CAST, 2011). It specifically discusses the contemporary thinking of 44 new Ontario teachers regarding inclusive pedagogies in their teacher education as well as their relative intent to utilize them in their practice. This study reveals a distinct tone of skepticism and provides suggestions for the continued improvement of teacher education programs in this province.
    • Novice teachers' perceptions of the extent to which the Brock University teacher education program focused on methods of promoting responsibility in students

      Flockhart, Katie M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      The purpose of this study was to determine novice t~ache~s' perceptions of th~ extent to which the Brock University teacher education program focused on strategies for promoting responsibility in students. Individual interviews were conducted with ten randomly selected teachers who were graduates of this teacher education program between the years of 1989 and 1992, and a follow-up group discussion activity, with the same teachers, was also held. Findings revealed that the topic of personal responsibility was discussed within various components of the program, including counselling group sessions, but that these discussions were often brief, indirect and inconsistent. Some of the strategies which the teachers used in their own classrooms to promote responsibility in students were ones which they had acquired from those counselling group °sessions or from associate teachers. Various strategies included: setting ~lear expectations of students with positive and negative consequences for behaviour (e.g., material rewards and detentions, respectively), cemmunic?ting'with other teachers an~ parents, and -. suspending students from school. A teacher's choice of any particular strategy seemed to be affected by his or her personality, teaching sUbject and region of employment, as well as certain aspects of the teacher education program. It was concluded that many of the teachers appeared to be controlling rude and vio~ent- behaviour, as opposed to promoting responsible behaviour. Recommendations were made for the pre-service program, as well as induction and inservice programs, to increase teacher preparedness for promoting responsible student behaviour. One of these recommendations addressed the need to help teachers learn how to effectively communicate with their students.
    • Nurses' attitudes toward computers before and two months after training

      Noble, E. J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-07-09)
      This study examined nurses' attitudes toward computers before training and 2 months after training. A quantitative approach and a nonexperimental survey design were used in this study. Stronge and Brodt's (1985) instrument, Nurses' Attitudes Toward Computerization Questionnaire, was used to assess 27 nurses' attitudes prior to and 2 months after computer training. Demographic variables also were collected on the questionnaires. The results of this study showed that, overall, nurses had positive attitudes towards computers in both questionnaires. The results of the first questionnaire were consistent with other studies. There were no studies that involved a follow-up questionnaire using Stronge and Brodt's (1985) instrument. Attitude scores of Questionnaire 2 were higher than attitude scores of Questionnaire 1. More time for nursing tasks, less time for quality patient care, and threat to job security questions were found to be statistically significant. This study found no statistical significance between attitudes and demographic variables. Younger nurses a~d nurses with fewer years of computer experience were most likely to exhibit positive attitudes. Implications for practice and future research were discussed. Some limitations were identified and discussed.
    • Nursing staffs' perceptions of a generic service manager position

      Lankshear, Sara.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      The recent reengineering within the health care industry has challenged many assumptions regarding traditional structures and roles. Within a product-line management structure, the traditional viewpoint that those who manage patient care areas must have a nursing background, is an example of one such assumption being challenged. The nursing profession is often seen as the greatest obstacle to the implementation of a product-line management structure and generic manager positions (does not require a nursing background), due to the perceived loss of professional identity. This qualitative study focused on how nursing staff within a chronic care and rehabilitation facility perceived a generic service manager position. Focus groups were conducted in three phases, over a 14 month period of time. The data collected from the focus groups were then coded according to common themes. Each phase was analyzed independently, with the study concluding with an analysis and interpretation of the collective results. The results of this study revealed a significant shift in how the nursing staff perceived their professional identity and accountability in light of the implementation of the generic Service Manager position. Initial reactions of personal and professional vulnerability and resentment were seen to transform into an increased ability to explicitly articulate the role of nursing. Changes in behavior that were described included: increased consultation and collaboration with other
    • The Nutritional Knowledge, Eating Habits, and Body Image of Adolescent Females

      Gray, Sarah K.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-03-04)
      This mixed methods investigation examined the nutritional knowledge and habits of adolescent girls in grades 9 through 12 at a secondary school in southern Ontario. Through questionnaires, interviews, and the use of teaching and curriculum documents, this study attempted to understand whether the current nutrition curriculum is influential in developing students' nutritional knowledge, healthy eating habits, and a favourable body image. Data collection occurred over a 2-month period, involving 90 female participants, and the data analysis program SPSS was used for analysis of the quantitative questionnaire data. Interview data were organized into categories, and analysis of any emerging themes occurred. Teaching and curriculum documents were examined to determine any overlap and develop an understanding of the participants' exposure and experience within nutrition within the classroom setting. The findings of this study suggest that the current nutrition education did have an impact on the participants' nutrition knowledge. However, the impact on their eating habits and body image was limited in the context it was measured and tested. The knowledge learned within the classroom may not always be applied outside of the classroom. This study suggests that improvement in the current nutrition curriculum may be needed to have a bigger impact on adolescent females. The findings from the study shine light on areas of improvements for educators as well as development of future curriculum. Changes may need to be made not only in the specific curriculum content and expectations but also the delivery of it by the classroom teacher.
    • Occupational therapist and client experiences of a mental health group

      Jones, Shirley E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-11-04)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the client and occupational therapist experiences of a mental health group. A secondary aim was to explore the extent to which this group seemed to have reflected a client-centred approach. The topic emerged from personal and professional issues related to the therapist as teacher and to inconsistencies in practice with the profession's client-centred philosophy. This philosophy, the study's frame of reference, was established in terms of themes related to the client-therapist relationship and to client values. Typical practice was illustrated through an extensive literature review. Structured didacticexperiential methods aiming toward skill development were predominant. The interpretive sciences and, to a lesser extent, the critical sciences directed the methodology. An ongoing support group at a community mental health clinic was selected as the focus of the study; the occupational therapist leader and three members became the key participants. A series of conversational interviews, the . core method of data collection, was supplemented by observation, document review, further interviews, and fieldnotes. Transcriptions of conversations were returned to participants for verification and for further reflection. Analysis primarily consisted of coding and organizing data according to emerging themes. The participants' experiences of group, presented as narrative stories within a group session vignette, were also returned to participants. There was a common understanding of the group's structure and the importance of having "air time" within the group; however, differences in perceptions of such things as the importance of the group in members' lives were noted. All members valued the therapeutic aspects of group, the role of group as weekly activity and, to a lesser extent, the learning that came from group. The researcher's perspective provided a critique of the group experience from a client-centred perspective. Some areas of consistency with client-centred practice were noted (e.g., therapist attitudes); however the group seemed to function far from a client-centred ideal. Members held little authority in a relationship dominated by the leaders, and leader agendas rather than member values controlled the session. Possible reasons for this discrepancy ranging from past health care encounters through to co-leader discord emerged. The actual and potential significance of this study was discussed according to many areas of implications: to OT practice, especially client-centred group practice, to theory development, to further areas of research and methodology considerations, to people involved in the group and to my personal growth and development.
    • One of Us or One of Them: A Generic Qualitative Study on the Efficacy of the Funds of Knowledge Strategy to Reduce Teacher Ethnocentrism

      Phillips-Jefford, Munjeera; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-08-18)
      The purpose of this study was to examine whether English a Second Language (ESL) instructors’ ethnocentrism could be reduced using multicultural education (MCE) principles. There were three focus group discussions and a Likert scale questionnaire. The findings demonstrated that while ESL instructors were conscious of systemic barriers, media stereotypes, and bullying, more diversity training is required in order to improve teachers’ attitudes, responses, and instructional strategies regarding integration issues due to the increasing diversity of learners present in classrooms today. The findings of the study also demonstrated that MCE principles could be used to effectively raise the awareness of ESL instructors when dealing with integration and assimilation issues. When immigration, human rights, and multicultural policies were examined critically, ESL instructors were able to improve their cross-cultural skills in the classroom to be more inclusive towards diverse ethnic groups by giving learners greater opportunities to express themselves. As a result, learners’ knowledge, experience, and skills were validated in the classroom leading to a more meaningful learning experience.
    • Online problem-based learning : perceptions of nursing educators /

      Scott, Barbara.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-05-21)
      A qualitative study was conducted to detennine 5 nursing educators' perceptions about the online application of a problem-based learning strategy in undergraduate nursing education. The question asked in the study was: Can the essential elements of face-to-face problem-based learning be supported in an online format? The data for this study came from 2 individual tape-recorded interviews with each of the 5 participants over a 3-month period and from a researchjournaI. The educators felt that student-centered learning and critical thinking could be supported within an online format. However, they noted that challenges could exist in terms of developing tutor roles, fostering student self-direction, facilitating group process and connections, and incorporating a nursing philosophy of online learning. The importance of tailoring an online problem-based learning course to reflect educators' philosophies and values in nursing emerged as an important theme from the interview responses. Overall, the participants suggested that an ideal environment would blend both face-to-face and online elements and that fewer elements would be offered in the first 2 years of the nursing program. They described a hybrid model of problem-based learning in which the online component could be used to support face-to-face sessions.
    • The only child grows up: exploring adult only-child educators /

      Schmid, Michelle.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2007-06-29)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of adult only-child educators. The researcher explored the extent to which the experiences of growing up in a one-child family influenced the participants' professional experiences. This was a qualitative study. A narrative case study approach was used, and data were collected from 4 participants through 1 -to- 1 interviews. The narratives were analyzed, and common themes were identified. The findings showed that many of the participants' only-child experiences have influenced their professional roles as educators. This was largely with respect to their interactions with students. These participants valued positive relationships founded on genuine care and concern for their students. The participants also fostered a positive educational environment that provided high levels of support for the social learning and character development of their students. There are several implications for educational practice resulting from this study. Educators and other school personnel must be critically aware of meeting the socialization needs of their students. Consideration must be given to developing schoolwide initiatives related to the social skills development and character education of students. In addition, preservice and inservice teacher education programs must ensure that educators are prepared to provide rich environments where relationships with students are central and social learning opportunities are prevalent.
    • Organizational change: implications of culture and leadership in the transformation to a total quality management paradigm

      Meuser, Elizabeth, A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      The study was undertaken to investigate organizational readiness for change to a total quality management (TQM) paradigm as the corporate-wide strategy within a long-term care facility. The focus of the study was on leadership values and organizational cultural characteristics that could either accelerate or impede the change process at The Public Hospital. structurally, the ~tudy included 'three distinct components. The first component examined the management philosophy outlined by Deming (1986) and his contemporary Juran (1989) in order to determine what leadership values best support the new Total Quality Management paradigm. Secondly, this information was compared to present leadership values at The Public Hospital with the purpose of identifying opportunities for improvement within the organization's current culture as the hospital moves toward the desired TQM culture. The final component, a roadmap, was developed to reflect the most appropriate direction for organizational change at The Public Hospital.
    • The origins of exercise adherence in the Canadian seniors population

      Kilfeather, Karen.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      This research identified and examined the responses of 19 physically active seniors to determine why they were physically active. The participants were physically active seniors, from the Niagara region who participated in physical activity 2, or more times per week. The purpose to this research was to determine what specific experiences or characteristics those seniors' possessed which motivated them to follow an exercise regime in later life. Three focus group interviews were conducted and participants responded to a set of predetermined questions. Responses to the interview questions were transcribed and analysed by comparing words and participant responses. This method of analysis is known as ethnographic summary. Themes, concepts, and experiences that emerged from the focus group interviews were also recorded according to systematic coding by way of content analysis. From this study, factors that predispose, enable, reinforce and prevent seniors from participating in exercise have been identified. Nine recommendations for improving seniors quality of life have also emerged from the study. Additionally, the findings from the study illustrate that those responsible for planning programs for seniors need to consider senior's wants and needs. Finally, the study also has educational implications. All participants in the study experienced a positive introduction to daily phyiscal activity through their school setting. Participants of the study believed, that their positive experiences at school, directly influenced their lifelong involvement in exercise.
    • Our future in geriatrics : an examination of the knowledge, attitudes and career choices of physical therapy students in Ontario : a pretest-posttest study /

      Shilton, Michelle.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      There continues to be a shortage of health professionals interested in providing care for the older adult. Part of the problem seems to stem from the negative perceptions of geriatrics as a clinical speciality. This study examines the knowledge, attitudes and career decisions of physical therapy students in Ontario before and after an educational intervention. Surveys were conducted with 144 physical therapy students from five universities before and after their geriatrics course in order to measure their knowledge, attitudes and interest in working with older adults. The incoming class of physical therapy students (n = 1 86) acted as control subjects for the study. The Revised Palmore Facts On Aging Quiz measured the students' knowledge of aging (Miller & Dodder, 1980). The Revised Tuckman-Lorge (Axelrod & Eisdorfer, 1961) and the Kogan Old People Scales (Kogan, 1961) were used to examine attitude. An environmental scale was developed based on the work of Snape (1986) to measure the impact of the working conditions on the students' career choices. A 10-point Likert-type scale based on the work of Michlelutte & Diseker (1985) was modified and used to measure career interest in working with the elderly. On independent sample t-tests, positive attitudes were related to the demographic characteristic of gender; ethnicity was negatively related; and marital status was found to be unrelated to attitude (fi<.05). Having a relationship with an older adult and taking courses in gerontology were also found to be positively related to attitude (fi<.05). Results on a betweensubjects design which compared students before and after the course found that knowledge scores improved from pretest to posttest (fi<.05). In general, attitude scores improved from T1 to T2 on both measurement tools (b<.05). The environmental and vocational interest scales yielded statistically significant differences between the control and experimental groups during the intervention period (p<.05). The results of this research indicated that knowledge and attitudes improve after an educational intervention; however, there was little impact on the students' overall career decisions. Further research is indicated to examine the complex relationship between attitude and behaviour and its impact on students' career choices. In addition, the impact of geriatric clinical environment on students' attitudes and career decisions needs to be further explored.
    • Overcoming victim behaviour through physical education

      Hobin, Christopher L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2009-05-21)
      This study presents infonnation gathered during personal interviews in which participants were asked how they, as physical educators, might possibly assist the victim of bullying through their programs. The research is a qualitative study, using an inductive approach. Five participants were chosen, based on convenience sampling, with semi-structured interviews which were audio recorded. The theoretical research found that the most stable characteristics of victimized boys were lack of strength and lack of physical fitness. This suggested that Physical Education class might be the best place in which to empower victimized students to reduce their own victimization by addressing these areas of strength and fitness. From the interviews it became clear that, while these educators showed a willingness to help bullying victims through their programs, their adherence to a Physical Education model based primarily on elitism, as opposed to individual fitness, would make it difficult for them to do so effectively.