• Mentorships and co-op placements as a means of heightening the need for a secondary school diploma to the education of at-risk students.--

      Bennett, Michael A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1992-05-21)
      Both educators and politicians appear to be quite concerned about a dropout rate in Ontario's public schools of some 30 percent. With the basic understanding that a high dropout rate is costly both in economic terms and in human terms, something quite obviously needs to be done to reduce the dropout rate in Ontario schools and, in doing so, ensuring Ontario and its graduates an active role in a growing global economy. This study is an exploratory pilot study in that it examined mentoring and the role that mentoring can play in assisting a student in staying in school and graduating from secondary school. Also incorporated in this is co-operative education and the role it can play, through mentoring, in making students aware of lifestyle level of employment, and of the skills necessary to obtain gainful, meaningful employment. In order to gain information on student attitudes, needs and expectations of a mentoring situation, a series of three questionnaires was used. Also, a questionnaire was distributed to the various co-operative education employers. The intent of this questionnaire was to probe the attitudes, needs and expectations of a mentoring situation from the perspective of an employer. The findings of this study indicated that co-operative education and mentoring are a very valuable and useful component in education. There exist certain factors in a co-operative education setting that serve to enhance and to augment the traditional or "theoretical" setting of the classroom. In addition, a mentoring situation tends to add a sense of relevance to education that students seem to require. Also, an opportunity is offered that allows a student to practice and further refine the skills that have been taught over the course of the student's academic life. Results from this study suggested that a mentoring situation, occurring through a co-operative education situation, adds relevance and a sense of "application" to the traditional or classroom schooling situation. The whole idea of mentoring bodes well for the future of education and of the student. Many advantages are identified in a mentoring situation. One of the advantages is that the schools are able to work quite closely with the community and business in order to stay current and informed on the needs and expected needs of the business community. Co-operative education has now gone beyond being an "experimental" mode of education. All students can benefit from being involved in the program. Certainly at-risk students are aided with staying in school. Those students who are said to be not at-risk can also benefit from being enrolled in the program by gaining hands-on work experience and some of the necessary skills to ensure a place in a growing world economy.
    • Metaphilosophy and educating: Stephen C. Pepper's selectivism as a basis for educational excellence

      Webster, Sheila J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      Atheory of educating is always derived from philosophical tenets. In Western society these tenets are concerned primarily with the provision, maintenance and evolution of knowledge for use by future generations. The provision of knowledge for future generations is for the purpose of ensuring cultural and biological survival. Essentially this provision involves two major criteria: first, that only that knowledge which has been judged to be exce11 ent shou1d be passed on and, second, in add it ion to providing knowledge claims, the evidence for knowledge claims must also be extended in order to fully enrich meaning for an individual involved in a learning experience. Embedded in such a theory of educating are a concept of educational excellence and a concept of the provision of evidence for knowledge claims. This thesis applied the contributions of metaphilosophy to the concepts of educational excellence and the provision of evidence. The metaphilosophy of Stephen C. Pepper was examined for its contributions to a theory of educating and a concept of educational excellence. Metaphilosophy is concerned with making knowledge meaningful. It is a subject matter which may be studied in and of itself and it is a method for acquiring meaning by interpreting knowledge. Historically people have interpreted the knowledge of the world from basically four adequate world views which Pepper termed formism, mechanism, contextual ism and organicism. He later proposed a fifth world view which he termed selectivism. In this thesis these world views were shown to contribute in a variety of ways to educational excellence, most particularly as they allow for interpretations and analysis of evidence about knowledge claims. Selecti vismwas examined in depth and was shown to contribute to educational excellence in two major ways; first, as a world hypothesis which offers an interpretation of the evidence for knowledge claims and, second, as a metahypothesis which provides knowledge about the nature of knowledge. Finally the importance of metaphilosophy in contributing to cultural survival was demonstrated in a discussion of the potential impact of selectivism on a theory of educating and educational excellence.
    • A method of evaluating psychomotor tooth preparation skills in preclinical dental programs

      Osadetz, Carl.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1983-07-09)
      Preclinical and clinical tooth important and significant aspect of preparation is an a dental student's education. The associated procedures rely heavily on the development of particular psychomotor skills. The most common format of instruction and evaluation in tooth preparation at many Dental Faculties, emphasizes the product (tooth preparation) and associates performance with characteristics of this product. This integrated study examines which skills should be developed and how a course of instruction can best be structured to develop the necessary skills. The skills which are identified are those necessary for tooth preparation are selected from a psychomotor taxonomy. The purpose of evaluating these skills is identified. Behavioral objectives are set for student performance and the advisability of establishing standards of performance is examined. After reviewing studies related to learning strategy for dental psychomotor the most suitable tasks as well as articles on instructor effectiveness a model is proposed. A pilot project at the University of Toronto, based on this proposed model is described. The paper concludes wi th a discussion of the implications of this proposed model.
    • Minimal Contact Intervention for Tobacco Dependence

      Lynch, Megan; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This study was conducted to measure the degree of adherence by public health care providers to a policy that requires them to implement minimal contact intervention for tobacco cessation with their clients. This study also described what components of the intervention may have contributed to the adherence of the policy and how health care providers felt about adhering to the policy. The intervention consisted of a policy for implementation of minimal contact intervention, changes to documentation, a health care provider mentor trained, a training session for health care providers, and ongoing paper and people supports for implementation. Data for this study were collected through a health care provider questionnaire, focus group interviews, and a compliance protocol including a chart audit. The findings of this study showed a high degree of adherence to the policy, that health care providers thought minimal contact intervention was important to conduct with their clients, and that health care providers felt supported to implement the intervention. No statistically significant difference was found between new and experienced health care providers on 17 of the 18 questions on the health care provider questionnaire. However there was a statistically significant difference between new and experienced health care providers with respect to their perception that “clients often feel like they have to accept tobacco cessation information from me.” Changes could be made to the minimal contact intervention and to documentation of the intervention. Implications for future research include implementation within other programs within Hamilton Public Health Services and implementation of this model within other public health units and other types of health care providers within Ontario.
    • Miss-understand-ing: design education in Ontario secondary schools : an exploration of the issues with stakeholders and recommendations for change /

      Whitton, Heather.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-07-14)
      For most people design is a mystery. The products of design are integrated into our daily lives to the point that design has become invisible to us. However. what is subsumed in design practice is a creative problem-solving process that is applicable as a teaching strategy as well as a method for teaching the subject of design. The purpose of this study was to inquire into the current classroom practice of Ontario Visual Arts and Technological Education teachers, understand the goals of Ontario government curriculum developers, and explore the position held by the professional design community on secondary school design education. Data for this study were collected from: (a) a textual analysis of 4 Ministry curriculum documents; (b) interviews with JO stakeholders; (c) unobtrusive observations and informal conversations conducted at 7 secondary school open house events; and (d) observation of 2 sessions of an AQ course for Design and Technology. The research design modeled the design process and was divided into 2 parts: a discovery or problem-finding phase and a discussion or problem-solving phase. The results showed that design is misunderstood and misused; it has become lost between visual arts and technology where neither program holds responsibility for its delivery; students mistake working on computers for design practice; and while there is a desire within the professional community to have a voice in secondary school design education. there is no forum for participation. The technology-driven paradigm shift taking place in society today calls for a new framework for tellching and practicing dcsign. Further research is required; howcvcr. in the meantime. secondary school educators might benefit from professional development and classroom support from the professional dcsign community.
    • Mitochondrial inheritance in ustilago violacea

      Wilch, Gerhard A. A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      The anther smut fungus U stilago violacea has been developed as an important model organIsm for genetic, morphological and physiological studies. Valuable information on the nuclear genetics on U stilago violacea has been obtained in the last 20-25 years. However, in this organism almost nothing is known about mitochondria which make up an important aspect of the fungal genetic system. One fundamental aspect, mitochondrial inheritance, was addressed by this investigation. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of U. violacea was purified and restriction fragments cloned. MtDNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were identified among different isolates and were used as genetic markers for studying mitochondrial inheritance in crosses between polymorphic isolates. Matings of the yeast-like haploid cells of opposite mating types resulted in dikaryons containing mitochondria from both parents. The dikaryons were induced to form hyphae and then allowed to revert to haploid growth, resulting 1ll a colony that is bisectored for the two nuclear types. Both nuclear-type progeny of each cross were examined for parental mitochondrial type: Either mitochondrial type was observed 1ll the progeny. Thus, mitochondrial inheritance is biparental in this organism. The recovery of both mitochondrial types in the progeny was non-random. In progeny with the nuclear genotype of the al mating type parent mitochondria from both parents were inherited equally well. However, 1ll progeny with the a2 mating type, mitochondria were inherited almost exclusively (94%) from the a2 parent.
    • Moderating effects of gender and general self-efficacy on the relationship between sensation-seeking and adolescent substance use /

      Baker, Joseph R.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      This study performed a aecondvy dau analysis of information collected during the Youth Leisure Study (YLS). The purpose of this study was to examine the potential moderating influences of gender and general self-efTicacy on the relationships aoKXig sensation-seeking and various forms of substance use in adolescents. Specifically, the predictive ability of sensation seeking on five adolescents substance use outcomes (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use; binge drinking; and number of times drunk) was examined. Moderated hierarchical multiple regression (MHMR) analyses were used to examine the relationships among study variables. The results for this study indicate that the relationships among sensation-seeking and forms of adolescent substance use are more complex than literature suggests. Main effect relationships were found consistently for sensation-seeking and general self-efficacy with each of the outcome variables. Results for gender were not consistent across the substance use outcomes. Gender was a significant predictor for marijuana use only. The moderating effects of general self-efficacy (GSE) on the sensation-seekingsubstance use relationship were inconsistent. While no significant interactions were found for tobacco or alcohol use outcomes, GSE was found to moderate the relationship between sensation-seeking and marijuana use indicating that feelings of high general selfefficacy act as a buffer or guard against marijuana use. A consistent pattern was found among the alcohol use variables (alcohol use. binge drinking, and number of times drunk). Gender was found to moderate each of these variables indicating that higher levels of sensation seeking are more predictive of higher levels of adolescent alcohol use in males only. Implications of this study on the field of education, are discussed further, and suggestions for future research are presented.
    • Moderating effects of gender on the relationships among substance use and school outcomes /

      McFadden, Christy L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      The following study was a secondary analysis of data drawn from adolescents in South Western Ontario. The purpose of the study was to: examine the relationships among substance use and school outcomes, explore the relationships between gender and school outcomes, examine the moderating potential of gender on the substance useschool outcomes relationship, and to provide researchers and educators further knowledge of adolescent substance use behaviours. Many previous studies have failed to include the three most common substances used by adolescents (i.e., alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana). Furthermore, many studies have included only one school outcome instead of comparing several outcome variables. Moderated hierarchical regression was used to determine if gender moderated the substance use-school outcomes relationships. The dependent variables consisted of alcohol use, binge drinking, tobacco use, and marijuana use. Five measure of school outcomes were used as independent variables, including Grade Point Average, Positive School-role Behaviour, Negative School Behaviour, School Withdrawal, and School Misbehaviour. The results for this study indicated that substance use and gender were both predictors of all school outcome variables. Furthermore, gender was found to moderate 5 of the 25 substance use-school outcome relationships.
    • Moral reasoning and ethics in educational leadership /

      O'Rourke, Paul.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      School leaders face difficult decisions regarding discipline matters. Often, such decisions play an important role in determining the moral tone of the school and the health of the school community. Many stakeholders are affected by the outcome of such decisions. Codes of conduct, board and school policies, and discipline meetings are often shrouded under secrecy, making the discipline process mysterious. .; In this study I examined the process of moral reasoning. I sought to determine the extent to which school leaders were aware that they were involved in a process of moral reasoning, and ftirthermore, what kind of moral reasoning they practiced. As well, I investigated the ethical grounds and foundations underlying moral reasoning. Thus, in this study I probed the awareness of the process of moral reasoning and sought to find the ethical grounding of decision making. This qualitative study featured short field research. The process involved individual interviews with three different participants: school leaders of a public. Catholic, and an independent school. It found that each school leader practiced moral reasoning to varying degrees through the discipline process. It also explored the possible democratization of moral reasoning by linking to concepts such as fairness, due process, public accountability, and greater participation in the administering of discipline. This study has implications for practice, theory, and future research. The examination of school leaders as the primary focus for discipline matters opens the door to future research that could explore differences between the school systems and possibly other parties affected by moral reasoning in discipline cases.
    • Mothers' experiences in the elementary school education of their children of mixed heritage /

      Gormley, Louise.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-07-14)
      This study explores the perceptions and experiences of middle-class women, mostly mothers, regarding the elementary school education of their children of mixed heritage. Because it endeavours to provide a forum in which the voices of women are considered a source of valuable information for educators, this study contributes to the fields of feminist and mothering research. Participants assign meanings to their lived experiences (Schon, 1983; van Manen 1997) and contemplate the various ways in which a mixed heritage mayor may not affect a child's schooling. Four main participants were interviewed who are mothers whose children of mixed heritage presently attend public elementary schools in Ontario, Canada. The study had an emergent design, thus allowing the researcher to make decisions as the study progressed. Three additional participants were included in the study to provide a wider perspective on the topic. These 3 additional women were the researcher herself as she explored her self-conceptual baggage (Kirby & McKenna. 1989); the researcher's mother in an attempt to consider the motherline (Lowinsky, 1992); and a volunteer non-mother of mixed ethnicity. The study involved a total of 12 individual interviews of approximately 2 hours in length. The 4 main participants and the researcher were each interviewed twice; the researcher's mother and the volunteer non-mother were each interviewed once. The researcher also attempted a focus group and kept a journal throughout the research process. Much of the analysis centers on women's interpretations of the mixed heritage experience and on their suggestions for elementary school educators. It concludes pondering on the invisibility (Chiong, 1998) of such children within the school system and calling for increased teacher education as a way to bring the mixed heritage experience out of the shadows.
    • The motivation of vocational students in a college setting /

      Broyden, Lewis W.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-01)
      This qualitative study explores the motivation of College Vocational Program (CVP) students at one campus of a large College of Applied Arts and Technology (CAAT a) in urban southern Ontario. The study is in response to my close involvement with the CVP students as an instructor for five years, and my observation that a greater understanding of the motivational influences affecting the students' involvement in the program would strengthen teaching and learning, and enhance the CVP educational experience for students and instructors. This study was limited to one CVP program, and a small sample of convenience of 9 CVP male and female students and 6 instructors selected from two classes. The students were chosen based on their verbal abilities to communicate their thoughts, feelings, and experiences in regard to answering the research questions posed. Through interviews with students, instructors, and ajob coach, this study addressed four main questions relevant to college vocational students and motivation: defining student success, encouragement, discouragement, and perceptions about academic and vocationalleaming. The interview questions for both students and instructors were designed by me and were based on themes derived from the literature and from my experience in the program. The findings identify that the students and instructors see success in the program in a slightly different way, the importance of relationships and structure, the hindering effect of disabilities and the importance of accommodation, and the strong aspiration of the students wanting to learn in a supportive accepting environment. The study concludes with implications for further research and theory development.
    • Motivational differences in science course enrolment shown by males and females in grades 9 through OAC

      Leone, Domenica M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1991-11-04)
      A sample of 1,345 students enrolled in advanced-level science courses from Grades 9 through OAe was surveyed in order to gain perspective into the existence of motivational differences attributing to science course enrolment by gender. Records of enrolment were examined in order to detect patterns and trends. A questionnaire was devised and piloted. It measured five motivational variables - demographics, science and science-related experiences, science ability and attitudes, impressions about women in science, and importance of science and science-related skills. The students also provided some impressions about the image of scientists. Results of the questionnaire were analyzed for frequency of responses and for significant gender differences using the chi-square. Differences were found to exist in the areas of science anxiety as it relates to testing and oral participation; in motivation generated by the performance of extra-curricular science and science-related activities, and by the classroom environment; in impressions of women in science; in the importance of science skills, and in the area of teacher influence. The study also showed a differential enrolment of females, with an emphasis on biology and chemistry. The males were enrolled in courses of physics and chemistry. The findings lead to numerous suggested strategies and programs for encouraging the participation of females in science education and careers.
    • Myths of Modern Education

      Mike, Countryman; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2015-02-23)
      My focus is on assessment criteria of language proficiency in community college education. To demand clear writing is an application of scientism; it seeks to keep separate the fact/value distinction of positivism. This dangerously undermines the democratizing possibilities of education, since clear writing, taken to its extreme, is ultimately anonymous and dehumanizing. The active student-as-citizen is, therefore, subsumed under the neoliberal dictate of the passive student-as-consumer. The process of language acquisition is reduced to a fictitious act of knowledge transmission and regurgitation, and, therefore, those subversive aspects of language learning, such as creativity and critical inquiry, are undermined. An initial overview of the tenets of modernity will provide a conceptual framework for this examination.
    • A narrative journey of teacher reflexivity and authenticity in technological environments /

      Jupp, Louise.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2007-06-29)
      This qualitative narrative inquiry was driven by my desire to further explore my personal discovery that my utilization of educational technologies in teaching and learning environments seemed to heighten a sense of creativity, which in turn increased reflective practice and authenticity in my teaching. A narrative inquiry approach was used as it offered the opportunity to uncover the deeper meanings of authenticity and reflection as participants' personal experiences were coconstructed and reconstructed in relationship with me and in relationship to a social milieu. To gain further insight into this potential phenomenon, I engaged in 2 conversational interviews with 2 other teachers from an Ontario College in a large urban centre who have utilized educational technologies in their teaching and learning communities and I maintained a research journal, constructed during the interview process, to record my own emerging narrative accounts, reflections, insights and further questions. The field texts consisted of transcriptions of the interviews and my reflective journal. Research texts were developed as field texts were listened to multiple times and texts were examined for meanings and themes. The educational technologies that both women focused on in the interview were digital video of children as they play, learn and develop and the use of an audible teacher voice in online courses. The invitation given to students to explore and discover meaning in videos of children as they watched them with the teacher seemed to be a catalyst for authenticity and a sense of synergy in the classroom. The power of the audible teacher voice came through as an essential component in online learning environments to offer students a sense of humanness and connection with the teacher. Relationships in both online and face to face classrooms emerged as a necessary and central component to all teaching and learning communities. The theme of paradox also emerged as participants recognized that educational technologies can be used in ways that enhance creativity, authenticity, reflection and relationships or in ways that hinder these qualities in the teaching and learning community. Knowledge of the common experiences of college educators who utilize educational technologies, specifically digital video of children to educate early childhood educators, might give meaning and insight to inform the practice of other teachers who seek authentic, reflexive practice in the classroom and in on line environments.
    • Narratives of Experience in Education: Living and Working Through Poverty in a Rural Community

      Grenville, Heather; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-04-02)
      In this study, I use my own experiences in education as a former elementary student, research assistant, and as a current secondary school teacher, to examine how living in a marginalised rural community challenged by poverty affected my formal education. The purpose of this study was to use stories to: (a) explore my formative elementary education growing up in a community that was experiencing poverty, and; (b) to examine the impact and implications of these experiences for me as a teacher and researcher considering the topic of poverty and education. This study used narrative inquiry to explore stories of education, focusing on experiences living and working in a rural community. My role in the study was both as participant and researcher as I investigate, through story, how I was raised in a marginalised, rural community faced with challenges of poverty and how I relate to my current role as a teacher working in a similar, rural high school. My own experiences and reflections form the basis of the study, but I used the contributions of secondary participants to offer alternative perspective of my interpretation of events. Participants in this study were asked to write about and/or retell their lived stories of working in areas affected by challenging circumstances. From my stories and those of secondary participants, three themes were explored: student authorship, teaching practice, and community involvement. An examination of these themes through commonplaces of place, sociality and time (Connelly and Clandinin, 2006) provide a context for other educators and researchers to consider or reconsider teaching practices in school communities affected by poverty.
    • The nature of bullying among secondary school students /

      Kartasinski, Linda M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence and effect of bullying in a secondary school. Six hundred and fifty-nine student volunteers completed a survey which included a quantitative component of 40 questions and 3 questions which required a written response. The results suggest that approximately 1 student in 10 was involved in a bullying situation either as a bully or a victim. As age increased, physical bullying decreased whereas psychological remained high in the senior years of high school. Boys were involved more in bullying than girls, especially in the junior years. The effects of bullying could be devastating to the point of school avoidance or early school leaving. The results also indicate that much of the bullying was not being reported. The implication for the education system is that more needs to be done to prevent bullying, to encourage the reporting of bullying, and to deal with the aftermath of a bullying situation.
    • The nature of the highly artistic student in visual arts at secondary school /

      Visconti, Victoria Marie.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-09)
      This qualitative investigation examined the nature of 7 highly artistic visual arts students at 2 secondary schools in southcentral Ontario. Through interviews, questionnaires, observations, and artwork documents, this study attempted to understand these highly artistic students in terms of creativity, motivation, social and emotional perspectives, and cognitive processes. Data collection occuned over a 3-monlh period. and the data analysis program NVivo 7 was used for coding to develop themes and categories for organizing data. The findings of this study illustrate the significant place that \ isual arts can lake in the growth and development for the youth of today. Participants idcniificd dcxclopnig critical thinking and problem-solving skills, taking risks, and meeting challenges ilirouuh their engagement in the creative process. The transferability of these skills \\ as referenced to numerous aspects of their lives. By enhancing individual perspectives through the study of visual arts, their local and world connections were extended, and environmental and societal concerns evolved. In addition, the communicative opportunities that visual arts provided for these students in terms of personal expression provided emotional health and paths of personal discovery. Through the participants' production of artwork with the many stages this involves, combined with insight into their needs, the participants relayed miportant suggestions for programming enhancements and educational settmgs lor \ isiial arts classrooms. These suggestions are meaningful for educators and curriculum developers of the future.
    • New Teacher Perceptions of Inclusive Pedagogies: Designing New Future for the Changing Classroom

      Soleas, Eleftherios; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Our perceptions of knowledge attainment have changed (Bezemer & Kress, 2010). The type of students our teachers once were is vastly different from the students they currently teach. We need our next generation to thrive in a dynamically, interactive world saturated with opportunities for meaning making (Kress & Selander, 2012). Our current students are responsible for continuing our society, but that does not mean we need them to become us (Gee, 2009). Rather desperately, we need them to be thinkers and expressive in a variety of modes. The world will be different when they take their rightful place as the next generation of leaders, and so too must their thinking be different (Cope & Kalantzis, 2000). This explanatory mixed-method study (Creswell, 2013; Mertens, 2014) involved an investigation into perceptions of new teachers regarding inclusive pedagogies like Universal Design for Learning (CAST, 2011). It specifically discusses the contemporary thinking of 44 new Ontario teachers regarding inclusive pedagogies in their teacher education as well as their relative intent to utilize them in their practice. This study reveals a distinct tone of skepticism and provides suggestions for the continued improvement of teacher education programs in this province.
    • Novice teachers' perceptions of the extent to which the Brock University teacher education program focused on methods of promoting responsibility in students

      Flockhart, Katie M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      The purpose of this study was to determine novice t~ache~s' perceptions of th~ extent to which the Brock University teacher education program focused on strategies for promoting responsibility in students. Individual interviews were conducted with ten randomly selected teachers who were graduates of this teacher education program between the years of 1989 and 1992, and a follow-up group discussion activity, with the same teachers, was also held. Findings revealed that the topic of personal responsibility was discussed within various components of the program, including counselling group sessions, but that these discussions were often brief, indirect and inconsistent. Some of the strategies which the teachers used in their own classrooms to promote responsibility in students were ones which they had acquired from those counselling group °sessions or from associate teachers. Various strategies included: setting ~lear expectations of students with positive and negative consequences for behaviour (e.g., material rewards and detentions, respectively), cemmunic?ting'with other teachers an~ parents, and -. suspending students from school. A teacher's choice of any particular strategy seemed to be affected by his or her personality, teaching sUbject and region of employment, as well as certain aspects of the teacher education program. It was concluded that many of the teachers appeared to be controlling rude and vio~ent- behaviour, as opposed to promoting responsible behaviour. Recommendations were made for the pre-service program, as well as induction and inservice programs, to increase teacher preparedness for promoting responsible student behaviour. One of these recommendations addressed the need to help teachers learn how to effectively communicate with their students.
    • Nurses' attitudes toward computers before and two months after training

      Noble, E. J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-07-09)
      This study examined nurses' attitudes toward computers before training and 2 months after training. A quantitative approach and a nonexperimental survey design were used in this study. Stronge and Brodt's (1985) instrument, Nurses' Attitudes Toward Computerization Questionnaire, was used to assess 27 nurses' attitudes prior to and 2 months after computer training. Demographic variables also were collected on the questionnaires. The results of this study showed that, overall, nurses had positive attitudes towards computers in both questionnaires. The results of the first questionnaire were consistent with other studies. There were no studies that involved a follow-up questionnaire using Stronge and Brodt's (1985) instrument. Attitude scores of Questionnaire 2 were higher than attitude scores of Questionnaire 1. More time for nursing tasks, less time for quality patient care, and threat to job security questions were found to be statistically significant. This study found no statistical significance between attitudes and demographic variables. Younger nurses a~d nurses with fewer years of computer experience were most likely to exhibit positive attitudes. Implications for practice and future research were discussed. Some limitations were identified and discussed.