• Instagram, Social Media, and the "Like": Exploring Virtual Identity's Role in 21st Century Students' New Socialization Experience

      Code, Mary; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Personal technologies and social media use have changed the socialization experience of our 21st century learners. As learners have a new, embodied, virtual identity that is an omnipresent force within their social interactions, this study sought to examine how virtual identity influences student relationships both within and outside of a school context. This study also explored how personal technologies and social media use have influenced learners’ perceptions of their own 21st century learning. Using a qualitative inquiry, purposeful sampling was employed to recruit 6 participants between the ages of 15 to 19 to examine their social networking site use and education experience. Data were collected from single, one-on-one semi-structured interviews in which participants discussed their experiences using social media. Data were also collected from the teens’ personal Instagram accounts, and a personal reflexive researcher’s journal was kept for triangulation of data. Open and axial coding strategies alongside constant comparative methods were used to analyze data. Participants shared how they and their peers use social media, the pressures and expectations from other users, social media’s influence on peer relationships, and how social media influences their choices in the physical realm. All 6 participants explained that their teachers do not talk to them about their social media use, and even offered critiques of the school system itself and its inability to prepare students for the new realities of a digital world. This study concludes that while social media is very influential on students’ socialization, educators should be more concerned about the lack of guidance and support that students receive in school in terms of appropriate social media use and the navigation of virtual identity.
    • Instructor support for self-directed learning in higher education

      Wilcox, Susan M. P.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      This study addressed the problem of instructor support for self-directed learning, specifically, learner-directed program planning, within a classroom setting in higher education. A combination of survey, interview, document analysis, and observation was used to assess and evaluate the attitudes and practices of a sample of full-time faculty at an Ontario university. Eighty-seven percent of the study sample reported instructional beliefs, values, and expectations that were not supportive of self-directed learning, especially in terms of student participation in program planning. Planning was seen as the responsibility of the instructor. Instructors were least open to student participation in the planning of the evaluation of learning. However, there was considerable stated support for other of the basic principles of adult education. The remaining 13% of the study sample reported instructional beliefs, values, and expectations that were fully supportive of self-directed learning. Instructional practices were analyzed in relation to the instructors' stated beliefs. Although practices reflected, in many instances, instructors' statements of support, there were some significant discrepancies between apparent support for the concept of self-directed learning and actual classroom practice. Both beliefs and practice were compared to a research model of self-directed learning. Most instructors did not have a concept of self-directed learning as comprehensive as that described in the research model. Instructor support for self-directed learning was profoundly influenced by the university setting. It was concluded that more strenuous attempts to research, enhance, and promote instructional and institutional support for self-directed learning in higher education are warranted.
    • Integrating Artful Practices as a Sustainable and Innovative Approach to French Language Learning

      Taylor, Holly E; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This study investigated the successes and barriers that surround the implementation of artful practices into French elementary classrooms within Ontario. The literature demonstrates that integrating the arts has many benefits, allowing students to become more engaged and kinaesthetically involved in their language learning. By examining the narratives of educators who use music and the arts as a teaching tool, this narrative inquiry explored the experiences of teachers integrating the arts into their teaching practices, and also identified the supports needed to implement more elements of the arts into the French programs of teachers who may not be implementing arts-based strategies. Along with my own personal narrative as a co-participant, the remaining 2 participants were engaged in their storied landscapes through qualitative interviews, focusing specifically on what Dewey (1938) refers to as the nature of experience. Particularly, the relationships between teachers and the arts, and teachers and French were examined to uncover how these relationships have affected their teaching experiences with this integration.
    • Introducing e-learning in a large multisite academic health sciences centre: a case study of e-curriculum planning and educator support /

      Wingfield, Debra.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2007-06-09)
      This qualitative study investigated how a team of 7 hospital educators collaborated to develop e-curriculum units to pilot for a newly acquired learning -r management system at a large, multisite academic health sciences centre. A case study approach was used to examine how the e-Curriculum Team was structured, how the educators worked together to develop strategies to better utilize e-leaming in their ovwi practice, what e-curriculum they chose to develop, and how they determined their priorities for e-curriculum development. It also inquired into how they planned to involve other educators in using e-leaming. One set of semistructured interviews with the 6 hospital educators involved in the project, as well as minutes of team meetings and the researcher's journal, were analyzed (the researcher was also a hospital educator on the team). Project management structure, educator support, and organizational pressures on the implementation project feature prominently in the case study. This study suggests that implementation of e-leaming will be more successful if (a) educators involved in the development of e-leaming curriculum are supported in their role as change agents, (b) the pain of vmleaming current educational practice is considered, (c) the limitations of the software being implemented are recognized, (d) time is spent leaming about best practice, and (e) the project is protected as much as possible from organizational pressures and distractions.
    • Introduction to engineering : a case study of an interdisciplinary course in Mathematics, Science and Technology

      White, Paul L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2012-03-30)
      This thesis research was a qualitative case study of a single class of Interdisciplinary Studies: Introduction to Engineering taught in a secondary school. The study endeavoured to explore students' experiences in and perceptions of the course, and to investigate the viability of engineering as an interdisciplinary theme at the secondary school level. Data were collected in the form of student questionnaires, the researcher's observations and reflections, and artefacts representative of students' work. Data analysis was performed by coding textual data and classifying text segments into common themes. The themes that emerged from the data were aligned with facets of interdisciplinary study, including making connections, project-based learning, and student engagement and affective outcomes. The findings of the study showed that students were positive about their experiences in the course, and enjoyed its project-driven nature. Content from mathematics, physics, and technological design was easily integrated under the umbrella of engineering. Students felt that the opportunity to develop problem solving and teamwork skills were two of the most important aspects of the course and could be relevant not only for engineering, but for other disciplines or their day-to-day lives after secondary school. The study concluded that engineering education in secondary school can be a worthwhile experience for a variety of students and not just those intending postsecondary study in engineering. This has implications for the inclusion of engineering in the secondary school curriculum and can inform the practice of curriculum planners at the school, school board, and provincial levels. Suggested directions for further research include classroom-based action research in the areas of technological education, engineering education in secondary school, and interdisciplinary education.
    • Investigating Formative Assessment: Exploring the Impact on the Self-Efficacy and Motivation of Mathematics Students

      Del Gobbo, Assuntina; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This is a study of the implementation and impact of formative assessment strategies on the motivation and self-efficacy of secondary school mathematics students. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was implemented where quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed sequentially in 2 different phases. The first phase involved quantitative data from student questionnaires and the second phase involved qualitative data from individual student and teacher interviews. The findings of the study suggest that formative assessment is implemented in practice in diverse ways and is a process where the strategies are interconnected. Teachers experience difficulty in incorporating peer and self-assessment and perceive a need for exemplars. Key factors described as influencing implementation include teaching philosophies, interpretation of ministry documents, teachers’ experiences, leadership in administration and department, teacher collaboration, misconceptions of teachers, and student understanding of formative assessment. Findings suggest that overall, formative assessment positively impacts student motivation and self-efficacy, because feedback is provided which offers encouragement and recognition by highlighting the progress that has been made and what steps need to be taken to improve. However, students are impacted differently with some considerations including how students perceive mistakes and if they fear judgement. Additionally, the impact of formative assessment is influenced by the connection between self-efficacy and motivation, namely how well a student is doing is a source of both concepts.
    • Investigating Kurdish Women’s Experiences With Education in Kurdistan With Respect to Oppression

      Abuzeyit, Gulan; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      The following thesis provides a qualitative study that sought to answer the question: What do Kurdish women’s experiences reveal about women’s education in Kurdistan with respect to oppression? The study was framed within a postcolonial feminist framework to investigate Kurdish women’s lived experiences within education in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). The study used feminist research methods to collect and analyze data. Through purposeful sampling, 5 Kurdish women living in the KRI were recruited and interviewed by the researcher through one-on-one, semi-structured interviews. The researcher used an interpretive approach for data analysis to investigate participants’ experiences as women and as members of an ethnic minority. The study was conducted through a postcolonial feminist lens, which highlighted the unique social categories in which Kurdish women find themselves. The study found that the women’s lived experiences were determined by the intersections of gender, ethnicity, religion, location, SES, and age, among other social categories. Such categories affect women’s quality of life, freedom, and education, as identified by the women themselves. Further, the women identified the following factors acting as barriers that impede their equal access to education and opportunities: gender norms, family, culture, distance, disability, language, and conflict. The study also lays out how women make sense of and cope with such barriers and inequality, before concluding with recommendations for changes based on participants’ knowledge and lived experiences.
    • Investigating Multiple-Choice Assessment: Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions and Practices

      Oei, Derek; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-04-18)
      Multiple-choice assessment is used within nearly all levels of education and is often heavily relied upon within both secondary and postsecondary institutions in determining a student’s present and future success. Understanding why it is effective or ineffective, how it is developed, and when it is or is not used by teachers can further inform teachers’ assessment practices, and subsequently, improve opportunities for student success. Twenty-eight teachers from 3 secondary schools in southern Ontario were interviewed about their perceptions and use of multiple-choice assessment and participated in a single-session introductory workshop on this topic. Perceptions and practices were revealed, discussed, and challenged through the use of a qualitative research method and examined alongside existing multiple-choice research. Discussion centered upon participants’ perspectives prior to and following their participation in the workshop. Implications related to future assessment practices and research in this field of assessment were presented. Findings indicated that many teachers utilized the multiple-choice form of assessment having had very little teacher education coursework or inservice professional development in the use of this format. The findings also revealed that teachers were receptive to training in this area but simply had not been exposed to or been given the opportunity to further develop their understanding. Participants generally agreed on its strengths (e.g., objectivity) and weaknesses (e.g., development difficulty). Participants were particularly interested in the potential for this assessment format to assess different levels of cognitive difficulty (i.e., levels beyond remembering of Bloom’s revised taxonomy), in addition to its potential to perhaps provide equitable means for assessing students of varying cultures, disabilities, and academic streams.
    • An investigation into the physical and psychological stress factors that elementary teachers experience : recommendations to boards and personal calming strategies /

      De Angelis, Lisa.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2001-05-21)
      The prlmaiy objective of this study was to Identify and describe the physical and psychological stress factors that elementary school teachers experience and how teachers cope with stress. A secondary objective was to offer boards and teachers potential coping strategies counteracting stress and the effects of stress. The sample consisted of 120 elementaiy teachers from southern Ontario. Ten elementaiy schools were randomly chosen. The Teacher Stress Inventory questionnaire (Flmian, 1989) was used. Data were analyzed using a variety of statistics. Test norms and interpretations were performed based on standard results obtained from the author of the questionnaire (Flmian, 1988). Overall, the results indicated that work-related stressors were the main factor for teacher stress. This Included such factors as caseload/class is too big, too much administrative paperwork, and having little time to prepare lessons. Implications for further research and practical suggestions for further reseairch are discussed. Also a variety of recommendations to boards and for individual use are discussed. Some recommendations are having counselling available for teachers, workshops on how to handle stress, and learning how to breathe and using calm visualization.
    • An investigation of adolescent constructs of stress and academic achievement /

      Burgess, Sherri T.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      The present study was a phenomenological investigation of adolescent constructs of stress and academic achievement. The study utilised a modified version of George Kelly's Repertory Grid Technique to provide direct insight into adolescent stress and academic achievement. The premise of the study was that only students who exhibited extreme cases of stress and academic achievement levels would be examined. The investigation identified and examined the adolescents who exhibited these extremes and explored the underlying constructs that defined these differences. It was expected that if adolescents were able to identify the stressors in their lives, how these stressors affect their lives, and how these stressors affect their academic performance, then suggestions could be made to help students to better cope with stress and to improve their academic achievement level. Further, based on the results of the study, the pedagogical implications for classroom research are provided. Phenomenological inquiries, using modified, and less complex versions of the repertory grid, can be conducted pre-, mid-, and postacademic terms, to determine and to monitor the stressors and the academic performance of the students in a classroom. Specific assessments for individual students will help teachers to better exercise their knowledge and understanding of the realm of teaching and learning strategies (e.g., Gardiner's Multiple Intelligences) that exist.
    • Investigation of motivation strategies used by school teachers for workplace engagement

      Spong, Cindy; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2011-10-14)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the strategies that elementary school teachers use to be engaged in their work. Participation was solicited from a random sample of schools stratified by location (i.e., urban, inner city, and rural) of a large school board. The study used an anonymous quantitative/qualitative questionnaire. The survey tool was based upon Kahn's (1990) psychological engagement framework, which presents the foundation of availability of self, meaningfulness of work, and safety while at work. Forty-one surveys were analyzed descriptively including a subgroup of self-rated highly engaged teachers. Teachers tended to favour physical and emotional strategies compared to cognitive type strategies, with the exception of the highly engaged subgroup. The theme of preferred strategies reflected a setting outside the school/workplace, that is, a preference for horne based strategies. The study's main contribution highlights the teachers' sense of importance for physical and emotional health in a profession that is heavily focused in the cognitive domain. This may influence administrative and teacher discourse regarding workplace engagement with strategies to help reduce stress and to maintain and increase teacher engagement.
    • An investigation on peer feedback for EFL students ages 10 to 14 /

      Schram, Elizabeth M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-07-14)
      The purpose of this study was to leam more about how EFL (English as Foreign Language) students interacted during peer feedback conferences. Thirty EFL students from Mexico aged 10 to 14 years old participated in this study. The following four main questions were addressed: 1 . What criteria did the students use to evaluate their peers' writing? 2. What revisions were made in relation to peer feedback comments? 3. What was the students' behaviour like during peer feedback conferences? 4. What were the students' perceived attitudes concerning peer feedback conferences? Each of the 30 students wrote a first and a second draft and then took part in a peer feedback conference. All students were interviewed and asked to rate a story and provide a peer feedback comment for the author during interview. The study found that the EFL students were able to provide comments to their peers' writing, but only after their third conference were they actually able to provide higher level comments. The majority of students said that they liked peer feedback sessions. The results also indicated that the students needed more practice with their revisions because they did not make a lot of revisions to make their writing clearer with fewer mistakes. This study concludes that there still needs to be further research. First of all, it would be useful to conduct a similar study with EFL students but one that is conducted over a longer period of time in order to determine if the students continued to develop their peer feedback comments and revision strategies.
    • Invisible disability, visible people: a closer look at the experiences of teachers with learning disabilities /

      Kitchura, Catherine.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-04)
      Throughout their schooling experiences, students with learning disabilities (LD) face numerous academic and socioemotional challenges. Some of these individuals rise above these obstacles to obtain a postsecondary education and become professionals. Recently, there have been a number of individuals with learning disabilities who have chosen a career in teaching. There is a lack of research that documents the experiences of teachers with learning disabilities. The purpose of this qualitative study is to gain an understanding of the challenges that the teachers with learning disabilities strive to overcome and the supports that they receive ^^^ch facilitate their inception into teaching. Four teachers with learning disabilities were the participants in this collective case study research. Data were collected through semistructured interviews. These data were coded, collapsed into themes, and the results were presented in a narrative form. The resultant 9 themes are: (a) Perspectives on School Experiences, (b) Identification and Effective Accommodations, (c) Isolation, Frustration, and Support, (d) Awareness of Learning Disability at Age 18, (e) Disclosure of Learning Disability, (f) Negative Impact of the Learning Disability Label, (g) Desire, Drive, and Obstacles, (h) Empathy, Compassion, and Self-Concept, and (i) Critical Views of Colleagues. The themes reflect the common experiences among participants. The discussion brings forth new information that is not found in other research. The impHcations of this research will interest teacher federations, parents of students with LD, teachers, and educational researchers.
    • Is there a difference in artistic ability between learning -disabled students and "regular-class" students?

      Cookson, L. Maureen.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1989-07-09)
      Research and practice regarding LO students usually has focussed upon defining and supplementing deficiencies rather than seeking unique talents and capability patterns for learning and expression. This study examined nine dimensions that may constitute artistic or creative talent and compared LDs with "regular-class" students, pair-wise and as groups, for levels and distributions of the dimensions. For 14 LO and 9 "regular-class" elementary-school subjects, both genders, data were taken by direct observation, from a standardized test and assessments by two practicing artists. Assessments by artists were in concord. LOs improved more in "Composition". No other significant class, age or gender-related differences were found.
    • Job satisfaction among nurses and its relationship to reflective practice /

      Crawford, Patricia A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2001-07-14)
      This study was undertaken to explore job satisfaction among nurses and its relationship to reflective practice. It is a qualitative study that listens to the perspectives of 7 mental health nurses who work In a conmiunity hospital in southern Ontario. A pilot survey was conducted prior to the face-to -face interviews in order to develop meaningful questions to utilize in the interviews. Nurses participating in the study were ensured anonjnnlty and an opportunity to have their own personal perspectives heard. A convenient sample was obtained from the hospital in which the researcher worked as an educator and professional practice consultant. The concept of job satisfaction was found to be driven by the desire to do important work and to make a difference in patients' lives. The nurses articulated that it is directly related to other factors, such as the opportunity to work in one's area, of preference, involvement in decisionmaking processes, better patient/ staff ratios, and affordable, accessible continuing educational opportunities. Those nurses who have embraced reflective practice for many years seem to be able to sort out that which drives them to stay in nursing and that which will influence them to leave. The constraints of the study cO-e that it is a small qualitative study; therefore, the results are not generallzable. Reflection is integral to the practice of mental heallth nursing find a tool that is used extensively in therapy with patients. Future research could involve studing a different group of nurses who may be more task focused than mental health nurses.
    • Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction : comparison of behavioural and regular classroom teachers

      Milne, Sharon W.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1985-07-09)
      Each of the forty Toronto Board of Education behavioural teachers was matched as closely as possible .with a regular cIassroom teacher from the same schooI, 0f the same sex, and teaching approxiately the same age group of chiIdren. A II of these teachers were sent a questionnaire (based on Herzberg's model) whose content reflected various aspects of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Demographic data was also gathered to be used in the study for examining correlations between satisfaction and various factors . T 10 additional questions were asked regarding factors that IOU Id influence the i r staying or Ieaving and one question was asked about lIerit pay . Chi Square tests and t-tests were conducted on the results. The majority of each group of teachers was very satisfied with their job while the behavioural teachers were significantly more satisfied than the regular teachers. Intrinsic factors played a more signi ficant role than did extrinsic ones. The demographic factors couId be found to be predictors of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
    • A journey into narrative inquiry : one teacher's lived experience with eating disorders /

      Armstrong, Tracy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2001-07-14)
      In "A Journey Into Narrative Inquiry: One Teacher's Lived Experience With Eating Disorders," an elementary teacher searches for answers regarding how education can help prevent eating disorders by journeying into her own experience of having had such a disorder. This qualitative study is a personal narrative based on an individual's experience, a method appropriate to the sharing of personal voices and stories told in education research. It is an attempt to address the gap found in the research on this topic by offering a subjective and unique perspective of what it is like to live within the nightmare of an eating disorder and by sharing the wisdom gained from having survived such an experience. This narrative inquiry explains how a teacher found herself at a stage where she was willing and ready to share her experience for the sake of research. The story of having had an eating disorder, consisting of both anorexia and bulimia, for over a decade is shared in a genuine, reflective manner. The researcher then shares the analysis of her own story, unpacking the themes of journeying toward voice, self-esteem, self-acceptance, and self and the completion of an M.Ed. degree. Bridges are made which connect these themes to the personal and professional life of the researcher, to the schools in terms of both curriculum and climate, to research directions, and to the larger culture. Suggestions are made for possible changes in educational settings that may help teachers in providing students with some tools and strategies to prevent turning to eating disorders as coping mechanisms. A literature review of eating disorders is included as well, as a guide for others to use when undertaking such qualitative studies.
    • The Kids Need Hip-Hop: Reengaging Students through Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

      Natt, Harjot; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-01-27)
      My thesis advocates for critically-conscious hip-hop in classrooms to promote student engagement and culturally relevant pedagogical practices. This proposed approach to educating youth offsets the harmful effects of a normalized curriculum that limits students’ creativity and discounts their experiences as lifelong learners. My thesis gathers data from research literature on hip-hop and education, critically-conscious hip-hop lyrics, and also includes my own hip-hop muse to illustrate the positive tenets of critically-conscious hip-hop. The research literature in my thesis is gathered from multiple studies within North American high schools. My hip-hop muse interrelates with critically-conscious hip-hop lyrics because they both address contemporary issues through social commentary and critical awareness. The element of social commentary in my hip-hop muse is displayed through short poems and verses that outline my experiences in a normalized schooling environment. Throughout my thesis, I uncover the causes of student disengagement in classrooms, the ways in which critically-conscious hip-hop music serves as a tool for reengaging youth, and the approaches that must be taken in order to adequately integrate hip-hop into today’s classrooms. My thesis is important within the context of Canadian classrooms because it acts as an agent for social change and cultural relevance through a critical lens. The purpose of this approach, then, is to demonstrate an understanding of the complexity of our society and schooling system through social critique and proposals for change. More importantly, my thesis is grounded in equity; in which critically-conscious hip-hop serves as a bridge for students’ experiences, interests, and independent identities.
    • Kindergartners' perceptions of bullying /

      Gillies-Rezo, Susan.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-05-19)
      Currently, few studies address what kindergarten children think about bullying behaviour and explore whether or not they perceive bullying as a prevalent concern in their day-to-day school activities. This study described 15 Canadian kindergarten students' graphic and narrative representations (drawings and stories) of their bullying experiences. The content of students' drawings and stories were analyzed to explore how kindergarten children perceived bullying within the context of their lives. Coding categories were developed to analyze the kindergartners' perceptions, and emerging themes were also explored. In general, findings showed that kindergartners perceive bullying situations as occurring during one-to-one peer interaction and not within social group situations. Results are discussed in relation to educational implications.
    • Knowledge and attitudes of Registered Nurses toward pain /

      Lumley-Leger, Kelly.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      This research provided relevant data to support pain research literature that finds nurses do not have the knowledge base that they require to sufficiently provide effective pain management. The data demonstrated that nurses have mixed attitudes toward pain. These two findings have been observed in the literature for more than 20 years, but were important results for the hospitals and the nurses involved in the study. The purposes of this study were to identify the level of knowledge and attitudes in a sample of nurses fi-om the surgical and medical units in three hospitals, and determine whether a difference between these two groups existed. The institutional resources to support pain relief practices provided by each hospital were also documented. Data were collected using a convenience sample from the medical and surgical units of three hospitals. Ofthe 1 13 nurses who volunteered to participate, 78 worked in surgical units and 35 worked in medical units. Demographic data were collected about the participants. The established instruments used to obtain data about knowledge and attitude included: (a) Nurses Knowledge of Pain Issues Survey, (b)Attitude to Pain Control Scale, and (c) Andrew and Robert Vignette. Data collected were quantitative along with two open-ended questions for a rich, qualitative section. Inadequate knowledge and outdated attitudes were very evident in the responses. Data from the open-ended questions described how nurses assessed pain and the most conmion problems caring for patients in pain. Nursing practice implications for these hospitals involve initiating a process to develop an educational pain program for nurses throughout the hospital. Utilizing findings from other studies, the program should have an interdisciplinary approach to the planning, implementation, evaluation, and ongoing support. This study supports the belief that inadequate pain management has been attributed to many factors, most importantly to a lack of knowledge. Pain is a costly, unnecessary complication for the patient as well as the hospital. It follows then, that it is in the best interest of all involved to implement an educational pain program in order to influence practice.