• Inclusive education: exploring teachers' perspectives /

      Van der Boom, Edith H.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2005-06-04)
      This study explores 5 teachers' perspectives on inclusive education. The literature reviewed gives a historical background of special education as well as discusses a number of current methods and techniques that have been implemented as a means to include exceptional students in regular classroom settings. This is a qualitative study that collected and interpreted data in narrative form. Common themes emerged from the accounts that were shared by the participants. This study found that the understanding of mUltiple intelligences and differentiated instruction might assist a teacher to better meet the needs of exceptional students within inclusive classrooms. Based on this study, it is determined that a range of considerations needs to be weighed when choosing an educational placement for a student with an exceptionality. Each decision needs to be based on the individual student and the options open to himlher. When a decision about class placement is to be made, not only are the student's strengths and needs to be considered, but also the school and community, the teacher, and the parents' desire for their child must be taken into account. More work still needs to be done around inclusive education that is at the practical level, so that the needs of both the student and the teacher can be met. Inclusive education did not mean the same thing to each person. It was individualized, just as each student is an individual and what works best for himlher is individual. In learning about inclusive education, settings and strategies need to be considered to allow for each individual student to achieve hislher personal best.
    • Inclusive teaching practice in the Jewish day school: general studies teachers' experiences /

      Starkman, Mary-Martha R.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-07-14)
      Little research has been done on inclusive education in the context of the Jewish day school general studies classroom. This qualitative case study research examines the inclusive teaching experiences of 2 general studies teachers in their respective grade 4 classrooms in 2 traditionally structured dual curriculum Jewish day schools. Data analysis of qualitative open-ended interviews, classroom observations, postobservation discxissions, and school and formal curriculum documents yielded understandings about the participants' inclusive practice and the challenges of the traditional Jewish day school structure. Eight themes that emerged related to understandings and questions about time limitations, an emphasis on efficiency, the day school structure, inclusion models, the need for increased teacher collaboration, and tension between curriculum-as-plan and curriculum-as-lived. Discussion of the findings suggests the need for further research in inclusion and integrated curriculimi in order to better understand possible restructuring of the traditional Jewish day school fi-om the time efficiency constrained dual curriculiun structure to a more flexible structure conducive of a meaningful and dynamic lived curriculum.
    • The influence of familial smoking behaviours on adolescent smoking behaviours

      Partington, Betsy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1995-07-09)
      The ability to identify adolescents who are at risk for becoming smokers may prove useful in developing effective smoking prevention programs. The purpose of this stUdy was to assess the importance of familial smoking behaviours on adolescent smoking patterns. The results were based on responses to The Grade 7 Lincoln County Smoking Survey designed by Chudzik and Partington (1994), and are a part of the "Peer Assisted Learning Program· (PAL) presented by the Niagara Regional Health Services Department, with the cooperation of a local Board of Education (Region of Niagara). The results indicate that 12% of the total group of 450 Grade 7 student respondents were current smokers at the time the data were collected (13% males and 11% females), while more than 37% of individuals indicated that they had tried smoking previously. Of the individuals who were classified as smokers, 11% reported that they smoked because their parents smoked, but only 6% reported that they smoked because their siblings smoked. More concerning, however, is the finding that 4% of smokers reported that they felt pressured to smoke by their relatives. In a society that is becoming increasingly concerned about health, it is also alarming to observe that only 50% of the respondents within this sample reported that there were no smokers (parents/siblings) in their homes. The results also indicate that 33% percent of respondents had grandparents who continued to smoke, and 53% of respondents indentified other relatives who continued to smoke.
    • The influence on children of the purpose of experiencing reading vocabulary: encoding-retrieval interactions in word perception

      Fisher, Alison J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      This research looked at conditions which result in the development of integrated letter code information in the acquisition of reading vocabulary. Thirty grade three children of normal reading ability acquired new reading words in a Meaning Assigned task and a Letter Comparison task, and worked to increase skill for known reading words in a Copy task. The children were then assessed on their ability to identify the letters in these words. During the test each stimulus word for each child was exposed for 100 msec., after which each child reported as many of his or her letters as he or she could. Familiar words, new words, and a single letter identification task served as within subject controls. Following this, subjects were assessed for word meaning recall of the Meaning Assigned words and word reading times for words in all condi tions • The resul ts supported an episodic model of word recognition in which the overlap between the processing operations employed in encoding a word and those required when decoding it affected decoding performance. In particular, the Meaning Assigned and Copy tasks. appeared to facilitate letter code accessibility and integration in new and familiar words respectively. Performance in the Letter Comparison task, on the other hand, suggested that subjects can process the elements of a new word without integrating them into its lexical structure. It was concluded that these results favour an episodic model of word recognition.
    • An inquiry into the barriers to participation within the fitness industry for people living with mobility challenges

      Wilson, Kirk; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      This qualitative study was designed to inquire about the barriers to participation within the fitness industry for people living with mobility challenges. i\n examination of the insights, stolies~ and experiences with barriers through interviews gi ven by 4 people living with mobility challenges (PMC) formed the core of the research. An analysis of the interviews from the 4 PMC informants was performed at t\\/O levels. First, a content analysis served to identify general and specific categories related to barrier issues within various fitness environments. Secondly, in-depth thematic analyses of the entries related to the insights and stories from the 4 informants which emerged from the content analysis of the data gave rise to fi ve thematic statements. From the thematic statements a fitness industry awareness protocol was created in the fonn of a statement response questionnaire. The protocol, which was given to 4 fitness assessors/trainers, \vas used to provide a snapshot of the fitness industry's readiness to work vvith disability. Throughout the process, the four PNIC informants formed a collaborati vely involved group of coresearchers, adding their voices to the narrative of the fitness-barrier experience. The result of the study suggests that barriers to participation within the fitness industry for PMC exist in various forms and levels of severity. The results also suggest that the fitness industry needs to better prepare their people and environment for working with people with physical disabilities, such as PMC, and provide a more open and positi ve environment for participation. Within the context of any fitness-related environment, recognizing that barriers to participation do exist, and acknowledging and accepting people with disabilities for who they are as indi viduals, will serve to develop a relationship where fitness practitioners and people with disabilities can work towards creating an inviting, inclusive, accessible, and barrier-free fitness environment for all.
    • Insights Into the Remembered Educational Experiences of Male Caribbean Immigrants to Canada: Literacy and Identity in the Canadian Classroom

      Medford-Williams, Cynthia; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-09-05)
      Abstract Past research has addressed the issue of male underachievement in literacy as an issue of global concern. This qualitative study focused on one subgroup of males which the literature highlighted as most at risk of educational underachievement in the Canadian educational landscape: male Caribbean immigrants to Canada. The research questions that framed the study sought to gain insight into the educational experiences of this group of learners so that ways through which their literacy achievement as measured by academic performance and classroom engagement could be projected. New literacy studies view literacy as socioculturally bound in social, institutional, and cultural relationships (Gee 1996). Literacy can therefore be thought of as an extension of self that Lankshear and Knobel (2006) assert is always connected to social identities. Central to the research questions as a result of this perspective was the discovery of the ideologies of reading held by the participants and their connections to literacy practice. Supplementary questions delved into socially valued literacy practices and ways in which learners saw themselves as Black males reflected in the Canadian educational framework. In this qualitative study with an interview design, data were collected through individual semistructured interviews with the 4 participants and through a focus group session with all the participants. The findings depicted that identity, interests, and ideologies of reading all influenced the literacy practices and engagement of Caribbean males. The findings documented are valuable as they provide a fresh perspective surrounding the educational experiences of the male Caribbean learner and can present insights which can lead to enhanced academic engagement and improved student achievement for this group of learners.
    • Instagram, Social Media, and the "Like": Exploring Virtual Identity's Role in 21st Century Students' New Socialization Experience

      Code, Mary; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Personal technologies and social media use have changed the socialization experience of our 21st century learners. As learners have a new, embodied, virtual identity that is an omnipresent force within their social interactions, this study sought to examine how virtual identity influences student relationships both within and outside of a school context. This study also explored how personal technologies and social media use have influenced learners’ perceptions of their own 21st century learning. Using a qualitative inquiry, purposeful sampling was employed to recruit 6 participants between the ages of 15 to 19 to examine their social networking site use and education experience. Data were collected from single, one-on-one semi-structured interviews in which participants discussed their experiences using social media. Data were also collected from the teens’ personal Instagram accounts, and a personal reflexive researcher’s journal was kept for triangulation of data. Open and axial coding strategies alongside constant comparative methods were used to analyze data. Participants shared how they and their peers use social media, the pressures and expectations from other users, social media’s influence on peer relationships, and how social media influences their choices in the physical realm. All 6 participants explained that their teachers do not talk to them about their social media use, and even offered critiques of the school system itself and its inability to prepare students for the new realities of a digital world. This study concludes that while social media is very influential on students’ socialization, educators should be more concerned about the lack of guidance and support that students receive in school in terms of appropriate social media use and the navigation of virtual identity.
    • Instructor support for self-directed learning in higher education

      Wilcox, Susan M. P.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      This study addressed the problem of instructor support for self-directed learning, specifically, learner-directed program planning, within a classroom setting in higher education. A combination of survey, interview, document analysis, and observation was used to assess and evaluate the attitudes and practices of a sample of full-time faculty at an Ontario university. Eighty-seven percent of the study sample reported instructional beliefs, values, and expectations that were not supportive of self-directed learning, especially in terms of student participation in program planning. Planning was seen as the responsibility of the instructor. Instructors were least open to student participation in the planning of the evaluation of learning. However, there was considerable stated support for other of the basic principles of adult education. The remaining 13% of the study sample reported instructional beliefs, values, and expectations that were fully supportive of self-directed learning. Instructional practices were analyzed in relation to the instructors' stated beliefs. Although practices reflected, in many instances, instructors' statements of support, there were some significant discrepancies between apparent support for the concept of self-directed learning and actual classroom practice. Both beliefs and practice were compared to a research model of self-directed learning. Most instructors did not have a concept of self-directed learning as comprehensive as that described in the research model. Instructor support for self-directed learning was profoundly influenced by the university setting. It was concluded that more strenuous attempts to research, enhance, and promote instructional and institutional support for self-directed learning in higher education are warranted.
    • Integrating Artful Practices as a Sustainable and Innovative Approach to French Language Learning

      Taylor, Holly E; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This study investigated the successes and barriers that surround the implementation of artful practices into French elementary classrooms within Ontario. The literature demonstrates that integrating the arts has many benefits, allowing students to become more engaged and kinaesthetically involved in their language learning. By examining the narratives of educators who use music and the arts as a teaching tool, this narrative inquiry explored the experiences of teachers integrating the arts into their teaching practices, and also identified the supports needed to implement more elements of the arts into the French programs of teachers who may not be implementing arts-based strategies. Along with my own personal narrative as a co-participant, the remaining 2 participants were engaged in their storied landscapes through qualitative interviews, focusing specifically on what Dewey (1938) refers to as the nature of experience. Particularly, the relationships between teachers and the arts, and teachers and French were examined to uncover how these relationships have affected their teaching experiences with this integration.
    • Introducing e-learning in a large multisite academic health sciences centre: a case study of e-curriculum planning and educator support /

      Wingfield, Debra.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2007-06-09)
      This qualitative study investigated how a team of 7 hospital educators collaborated to develop e-curriculum units to pilot for a newly acquired learning -r management system at a large, multisite academic health sciences centre. A case study approach was used to examine how the e-Curriculum Team was structured, how the educators worked together to develop strategies to better utilize e-leaming in their ovwi practice, what e-curriculum they chose to develop, and how they determined their priorities for e-curriculum development. It also inquired into how they planned to involve other educators in using e-leaming. One set of semistructured interviews with the 6 hospital educators involved in the project, as well as minutes of team meetings and the researcher's journal, were analyzed (the researcher was also a hospital educator on the team). Project management structure, educator support, and organizational pressures on the implementation project feature prominently in the case study. This study suggests that implementation of e-leaming will be more successful if (a) educators involved in the development of e-leaming curriculum are supported in their role as change agents, (b) the pain of vmleaming current educational practice is considered, (c) the limitations of the software being implemented are recognized, (d) time is spent leaming about best practice, and (e) the project is protected as much as possible from organizational pressures and distractions.
    • Introduction to engineering : a case study of an interdisciplinary course in Mathematics, Science and Technology

      White, Paul L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2012-03-30)
      This thesis research was a qualitative case study of a single class of Interdisciplinary Studies: Introduction to Engineering taught in a secondary school. The study endeavoured to explore students' experiences in and perceptions of the course, and to investigate the viability of engineering as an interdisciplinary theme at the secondary school level. Data were collected in the form of student questionnaires, the researcher's observations and reflections, and artefacts representative of students' work. Data analysis was performed by coding textual data and classifying text segments into common themes. The themes that emerged from the data were aligned with facets of interdisciplinary study, including making connections, project-based learning, and student engagement and affective outcomes. The findings of the study showed that students were positive about their experiences in the course, and enjoyed its project-driven nature. Content from mathematics, physics, and technological design was easily integrated under the umbrella of engineering. Students felt that the opportunity to develop problem solving and teamwork skills were two of the most important aspects of the course and could be relevant not only for engineering, but for other disciplines or their day-to-day lives after secondary school. The study concluded that engineering education in secondary school can be a worthwhile experience for a variety of students and not just those intending postsecondary study in engineering. This has implications for the inclusion of engineering in the secondary school curriculum and can inform the practice of curriculum planners at the school, school board, and provincial levels. Suggested directions for further research include classroom-based action research in the areas of technological education, engineering education in secondary school, and interdisciplinary education.
    • Investigating Formative Assessment: Exploring the Impact on the Self-Efficacy and Motivation of Mathematics Students

      Del Gobbo, Assuntina; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This is a study of the implementation and impact of formative assessment strategies on the motivation and self-efficacy of secondary school mathematics students. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was implemented where quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed sequentially in 2 different phases. The first phase involved quantitative data from student questionnaires and the second phase involved qualitative data from individual student and teacher interviews. The findings of the study suggest that formative assessment is implemented in practice in diverse ways and is a process where the strategies are interconnected. Teachers experience difficulty in incorporating peer and self-assessment and perceive a need for exemplars. Key factors described as influencing implementation include teaching philosophies, interpretation of ministry documents, teachers’ experiences, leadership in administration and department, teacher collaboration, misconceptions of teachers, and student understanding of formative assessment. Findings suggest that overall, formative assessment positively impacts student motivation and self-efficacy, because feedback is provided which offers encouragement and recognition by highlighting the progress that has been made and what steps need to be taken to improve. However, students are impacted differently with some considerations including how students perceive mistakes and if they fear judgement. Additionally, the impact of formative assessment is influenced by the connection between self-efficacy and motivation, namely how well a student is doing is a source of both concepts.
    • Investigating Kurdish Women’s Experiences With Education in Kurdistan With Respect to Oppression

      Abuzeyit, Gulan; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      The following thesis provides a qualitative study that sought to answer the question: What do Kurdish women’s experiences reveal about women’s education in Kurdistan with respect to oppression? The study was framed within a postcolonial feminist framework to investigate Kurdish women’s lived experiences within education in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). The study used feminist research methods to collect and analyze data. Through purposeful sampling, 5 Kurdish women living in the KRI were recruited and interviewed by the researcher through one-on-one, semi-structured interviews. The researcher used an interpretive approach for data analysis to investigate participants’ experiences as women and as members of an ethnic minority. The study was conducted through a postcolonial feminist lens, which highlighted the unique social categories in which Kurdish women find themselves. The study found that the women’s lived experiences were determined by the intersections of gender, ethnicity, religion, location, SES, and age, among other social categories. Such categories affect women’s quality of life, freedom, and education, as identified by the women themselves. Further, the women identified the following factors acting as barriers that impede their equal access to education and opportunities: gender norms, family, culture, distance, disability, language, and conflict. The study also lays out how women make sense of and cope with such barriers and inequality, before concluding with recommendations for changes based on participants’ knowledge and lived experiences.
    • Investigating Multiple-Choice Assessment: Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions and Practices

      Oei, Derek; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-04-18)
      Multiple-choice assessment is used within nearly all levels of education and is often heavily relied upon within both secondary and postsecondary institutions in determining a student’s present and future success. Understanding why it is effective or ineffective, how it is developed, and when it is or is not used by teachers can further inform teachers’ assessment practices, and subsequently, improve opportunities for student success. Twenty-eight teachers from 3 secondary schools in southern Ontario were interviewed about their perceptions and use of multiple-choice assessment and participated in a single-session introductory workshop on this topic. Perceptions and practices were revealed, discussed, and challenged through the use of a qualitative research method and examined alongside existing multiple-choice research. Discussion centered upon participants’ perspectives prior to and following their participation in the workshop. Implications related to future assessment practices and research in this field of assessment were presented. Findings indicated that many teachers utilized the multiple-choice form of assessment having had very little teacher education coursework or inservice professional development in the use of this format. The findings also revealed that teachers were receptive to training in this area but simply had not been exposed to or been given the opportunity to further develop their understanding. Participants generally agreed on its strengths (e.g., objectivity) and weaknesses (e.g., development difficulty). Participants were particularly interested in the potential for this assessment format to assess different levels of cognitive difficulty (i.e., levels beyond remembering of Bloom’s revised taxonomy), in addition to its potential to perhaps provide equitable means for assessing students of varying cultures, disabilities, and academic streams.
    • An investigation into the physical and psychological stress factors that elementary teachers experience : recommendations to boards and personal calming strategies /

      De Angelis, Lisa.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2001-05-21)
      The prlmaiy objective of this study was to Identify and describe the physical and psychological stress factors that elementary school teachers experience and how teachers cope with stress. A secondary objective was to offer boards and teachers potential coping strategies counteracting stress and the effects of stress. The sample consisted of 120 elementaiy teachers from southern Ontario. Ten elementaiy schools were randomly chosen. The Teacher Stress Inventory questionnaire (Flmian, 1989) was used. Data were analyzed using a variety of statistics. Test norms and interpretations were performed based on standard results obtained from the author of the questionnaire (Flmian, 1988). Overall, the results indicated that work-related stressors were the main factor for teacher stress. This Included such factors as caseload/class is too big, too much administrative paperwork, and having little time to prepare lessons. Implications for further research and practical suggestions for further reseairch are discussed. Also a variety of recommendations to boards and for individual use are discussed. Some recommendations are having counselling available for teachers, workshops on how to handle stress, and learning how to breathe and using calm visualization.
    • An investigation of adolescent constructs of stress and academic achievement /

      Burgess, Sherri T.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      The present study was a phenomenological investigation of adolescent constructs of stress and academic achievement. The study utilised a modified version of George Kelly's Repertory Grid Technique to provide direct insight into adolescent stress and academic achievement. The premise of the study was that only students who exhibited extreme cases of stress and academic achievement levels would be examined. The investigation identified and examined the adolescents who exhibited these extremes and explored the underlying constructs that defined these differences. It was expected that if adolescents were able to identify the stressors in their lives, how these stressors affect their lives, and how these stressors affect their academic performance, then suggestions could be made to help students to better cope with stress and to improve their academic achievement level. Further, based on the results of the study, the pedagogical implications for classroom research are provided. Phenomenological inquiries, using modified, and less complex versions of the repertory grid, can be conducted pre-, mid-, and postacademic terms, to determine and to monitor the stressors and the academic performance of the students in a classroom. Specific assessments for individual students will help teachers to better exercise their knowledge and understanding of the realm of teaching and learning strategies (e.g., Gardiner's Multiple Intelligences) that exist.
    • Investigation of motivation strategies used by school teachers for workplace engagement

      Spong, Cindy; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2011-10-14)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the strategies that elementary school teachers use to be engaged in their work. Participation was solicited from a random sample of schools stratified by location (i.e., urban, inner city, and rural) of a large school board. The study used an anonymous quantitative/qualitative questionnaire. The survey tool was based upon Kahn's (1990) psychological engagement framework, which presents the foundation of availability of self, meaningfulness of work, and safety while at work. Forty-one surveys were analyzed descriptively including a subgroup of self-rated highly engaged teachers. Teachers tended to favour physical and emotional strategies compared to cognitive type strategies, with the exception of the highly engaged subgroup. The theme of preferred strategies reflected a setting outside the school/workplace, that is, a preference for horne based strategies. The study's main contribution highlights the teachers' sense of importance for physical and emotional health in a profession that is heavily focused in the cognitive domain. This may influence administrative and teacher discourse regarding workplace engagement with strategies to help reduce stress and to maintain and increase teacher engagement.
    • An investigation on peer feedback for EFL students ages 10 to 14 /

      Schram, Elizabeth M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-07-14)
      The purpose of this study was to leam more about how EFL (English as Foreign Language) students interacted during peer feedback conferences. Thirty EFL students from Mexico aged 10 to 14 years old participated in this study. The following four main questions were addressed: 1 . What criteria did the students use to evaluate their peers' writing? 2. What revisions were made in relation to peer feedback comments? 3. What was the students' behaviour like during peer feedback conferences? 4. What were the students' perceived attitudes concerning peer feedback conferences? Each of the 30 students wrote a first and a second draft and then took part in a peer feedback conference. All students were interviewed and asked to rate a story and provide a peer feedback comment for the author during interview. The study found that the EFL students were able to provide comments to their peers' writing, but only after their third conference were they actually able to provide higher level comments. The majority of students said that they liked peer feedback sessions. The results also indicated that the students needed more practice with their revisions because they did not make a lot of revisions to make their writing clearer with fewer mistakes. This study concludes that there still needs to be further research. First of all, it would be useful to conduct a similar study with EFL students but one that is conducted over a longer period of time in order to determine if the students continued to develop their peer feedback comments and revision strategies.
    • Invisible disability, visible people: a closer look at the experiences of teachers with learning disabilities /

      Kitchura, Catherine.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-04)
      Throughout their schooling experiences, students with learning disabilities (LD) face numerous academic and socioemotional challenges. Some of these individuals rise above these obstacles to obtain a postsecondary education and become professionals. Recently, there have been a number of individuals with learning disabilities who have chosen a career in teaching. There is a lack of research that documents the experiences of teachers with learning disabilities. The purpose of this qualitative study is to gain an understanding of the challenges that the teachers with learning disabilities strive to overcome and the supports that they receive ^^^ch facilitate their inception into teaching. Four teachers with learning disabilities were the participants in this collective case study research. Data were collected through semistructured interviews. These data were coded, collapsed into themes, and the results were presented in a narrative form. The resultant 9 themes are: (a) Perspectives on School Experiences, (b) Identification and Effective Accommodations, (c) Isolation, Frustration, and Support, (d) Awareness of Learning Disability at Age 18, (e) Disclosure of Learning Disability, (f) Negative Impact of the Learning Disability Label, (g) Desire, Drive, and Obstacles, (h) Empathy, Compassion, and Self-Concept, and (i) Critical Views of Colleagues. The themes reflect the common experiences among participants. The discussion brings forth new information that is not found in other research. The impHcations of this research will interest teacher federations, parents of students with LD, teachers, and educational researchers.
    • Is there a difference in artistic ability between learning -disabled students and "regular-class" students?

      Cookson, L. Maureen.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1989-07-09)
      Research and practice regarding LO students usually has focussed upon defining and supplementing deficiencies rather than seeking unique talents and capability patterns for learning and expression. This study examined nine dimensions that may constitute artistic or creative talent and compared LDs with "regular-class" students, pair-wise and as groups, for levels and distributions of the dimensions. For 14 LO and 9 "regular-class" elementary-school subjects, both genders, data were taken by direct observation, from a standardized test and assessments by two practicing artists. Assessments by artists were in concord. LOs improved more in "Composition". No other significant class, age or gender-related differences were found.