• The impact of meaningfulness of and responsibility for work on the relationships among work values, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction for part- time faculty in a community college

      Smithson, Dianne M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      One hundred and thirty four subjects participated in this survey. Quantitative data were obtained and correlational analyses were used to test a model to study the relationships among the achievement of work values and organizational commitment and job satisfaction and to identify the moderating effects of the meaningfulness of work and responsibility for work on these relationships. Part-time faculty in the Faculty of Continuing Education of a community college were mailed a questionnaire on all the variables of the model. Several reliable, valid instruments were used to test the variables. Data analysis through Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that the achievement of the work values of recognition and satisfaction with promotions did predict organizational commitment and job satisfaction, although the moderating effects of the meaningfulness of work and responsibility for work was not supported in this study. This study suggests that the revised model may be used for determining the relationships between the achievement of work values and organizational commitment and job satisfaction in a community college setting.
    • The impact of scheduling on the implementation of the new Ontario curriculum: teachers' perceptions /

      Lingard, Lynn.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-06-04)
      This qualitative study explored secondary teachers' perceptions of scheduling in relation to pedagogy, curriculum, and observation of student learning. Its objective was to determine the best way to organize the scheduling for the delivery of Ontario's new 4-year curriculum. Six participants were chosen. Two were teaching in a semestered timetable, 1 in a traditional timetable, and 3 had experience in both schedules. Participants related a pressure cooker "lived experience" with weaker students in the semester system experiencing a particularly harsh environment. The inadequate amount of time for review in content-heavy courses, gap scheduling problems, catch-up difficulties for students missing classes, and the fast pace of semestering are identified as factors negatively impacting on these students. Government testing adds to the pressure by shifting teachers' time and attention in the classroom from deeper learning to a superficial coverage of material, from curriculum as lived to curriculum as text to be covered. Scheduling choice should be available in public education to accommodate the needs of all students. Curriculum guidelines need to be revamped to reflect the content that teachers believe is necessary for a successful course delivery. Applied level courses need to be developed for students who are not academically inferior but learn differently.
    • Impact of social constructs on administrator understanding of social justice

      Oyugi, Perez; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2010-10-27)
      Educational administrators are expected to relate social justice considerations to their actions and to the theoretical foundations of their practice. At the same time, social constructs-including those related to administrative practice, social justice, and societal norms-are important in helping administrators understand, frame, and describe administrative issues. Furthermore, as part of socially constructed language, these constructs represent discursive practices and accepted ways of knowing, valuing, and experiencing the world. Drawing on the multidimensional methods of critical discourse analysis as articulated in the writings of Michel Foucault, Norman Fairclough, and Allan Luke, and using deconstruction as a strategic device for reading and interpreting texts, this exploratory qualitative study examined how administrator knowledge, values, and experiences impact their understanding of social justice within the context of delivering social justice for students who experience bullying. Study findings reveal that school administrators interpreted social justice as equitable distribution, action, and results; fairness; and equity. Constructs embedded in these interpretations assumed common things such as universal acceptance of norms of social relations and conveyed administrator intent to secure the kind of social relations that enabled individuals to enjoy greater equality within existing social arrangements.
    • The impact of the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness and of health counselling on health attitudes and behaviour

      Monks, Carrie.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      The purpose of this research study was to determine whether or not the use of a single day of Personal Wellness Evaluations would be meaningful enough to change the attitudes of participants toward adopting a healthier lifestyle, or if it was necessary to include regular planned health counselling alon-g with the Personal Wellness Evaluations in order to'observe changes in beliefs, attitudes and behaviours toward active living and the adoption of a healthier lifestyle. Attitudes and behaviours toward physical fitness and healthy lifestyle choices were assessed through a questionnaire composed of the following instruments: Fishbein and Ajzen Attitude and Behaviour Questionnaire, Leisure Behaviour Questionnaire, Ten Centimeter Bipolar Health Continuum, Neugarten Life Satisfaction Assessment, Job Description Index, Selected questions from the Ontario Health Survey, and the Symptom Reporting Questionnaire. Physical fitness evaluation consisted of the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness, measures of blood pressure, and total cholesterol. The participants were divided into three groups: Group 1- CSTF & health counselling, Group 2- CSTF only, and Group 3- a control group. All three groups received the questionnaire both at the beginning and at the end of the study. Group 1 and Group 2 also participated in fitness testing at these same times, with a three-month time interval between test times. Group 1 also received weekly one-hour health education sessions during the three months between fitness testing. While there were some differences found between the three groups in this study, the results of this study suggested that this three-month workplace wellness program had no impact on the participants' attitudes and behaviours toward health and physical activity. There were no significant differences in the physical fitness measures between Group 1 and Group 2 , nor in the participants' questionnaire responses. These results may be due to the participants' lack of compliance to this wellness program. Employees who 11 participate in a workplace weIlness program must be self-motivated to comply with the program in order to receive the full benefits the program has to offer. Some participants in this study did not have the internal motivation necessary to remain in the study for the three-month period. Future research may consider implementing a workplace wellness program for a longer duration as well as incorporating a specific physical fitness program for the participants to follow. An exercise program could improve the participants' physical fitness, while the health counselling would give the individuals the health education necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle.
    • Implementation of hospital-wide computer information system :a case study of this change process

      Myers, Nancy E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1986-07-09)
      This case study examines the impact of a computer information system as it was being implemented in one Ontario hospital. The attitudes of a cross section of the hospital staff acted as a barometer to measure their perceptions of the implementation process. With The Mississauga Hospital in the early stages of an extensive computer implementation project, the opportunity existed to identify staff attitudes about the computer system, overall knowledge and compare the findings with the literature. The goal of the study was to develop a greater base about the affective domain in the relationship between people and the computer system. Eight exploratory questions shaped the focus of the investigation. Data were collected from three sources: a survey questionnaire, focused interviews, and internal hospital documents. Both quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed. Instrumentation in the study consisted of a survey distributed at two points in time to randomly selected hospital employees who represented all staff levels.Other sources of data included hospital documents, and twenty-five focused interviews with staff who replied to both surveys. Leavitt's socio-technical system, with its four subsystems: task, structure, technology, and people was used to classify staff responses to the research questions. The study findings revealed that the majority of respondents felt positive about using the computer as part of their jobs. No apparent correlations were found between sex, age, or staff group and feelings about using the computer. Differences in attitudes, and attitude changes were found in potential relationship to the element of time. Another difference was found in staff group and perception of being involved in the decision making process. These findings and other evidence about the role of change agents in this change process help to emphasize that planning change is one thing, managing the transition is another.
    • Implementing a question-generation strategy with bilingual students: exploring the perspectives of a beginning teacher /

      Al-Fartousi, May.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-09)
      This study examined the challenges associated with the explicit delivery of questiongeneration strategy with 8 Arab Canadian students from the perspective of a bilingual beginning teacher. This study took place in a private school and involved 2 stages consisting of 9 instructional sessions, and individual interviews with the students. Data gathered from these interviews and the researcher's field notes from the sessions were used to gain insights about the participants' understanding and use of explicit instruction. The themes that emerged from the data included "teacher attitude," "students' enhanced metacognitive awareness and strategy use," "listening skills," and "instructional challenges." Briefly, teacher's attitude demonstrated how teacher's beliefs and knowledge influenced her willingness and perseverance to teach explicitly. Students' enhanced metacognitive awareness and strategy use included students' understanding and use of the question-generation strategy. The students' listening skills suggested that culture may influence their response to the delivery of explicit instruction. Here, the cultural expectations associated with being a good listener reinforced students' willingness to engage in this strategy. Students' prior knowledge also influenced their interaction with the question-generation strategy. Time for process versus covering content was a dominant instructional challenge. This study provides first hand information for teachers when considering how students' cultural backgrounds may affect their reactions to explicit strategy instruction.
    • Implicit and explicit functions in the acquisition of a phonics rule in the word recognition of learning disabled and non learning disabled students /

      McNamara, John Kennedy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      One group of 12 non learning disabled students and two groups of 12 learning disabled students between the ges of 10 and 12 were measured on implicit and explicit knowledge cquisition. Students in each group implicitly cquired knowledge bout I of 2 vocabulary rules. The vocabulary rules governed the pronunciation of 2 types of pseudowords. After completing the implicit acquisition phase, all groups were administered a test of implicit knowledge. The non learning disabled group and I learning disabled group were then asked to verbalize the knowledge acquired during the initial phase. This was a test of explicit knowledge. All 3 groups were then given a postlest of implicit knowledge. This tcst was a measure of the effectiveness of the employment of the verbalization technique. Results indicate that implicit knowledge capabilities for both the learning disabled and non learning disabled groups were intact. However. there were significant differences between groups on explicit knowledge capabilities. This led to the conclusion that implicit functions show little individual differences, and that explicit functions are affected by ability difference. Furthermore, the employment of the verbalization technique significantly increased POStlest scores for learning disabled students. This suggested that the use of metacognitive techniques was a beneficial learning tool for learning disabled students.
    • The Importance and achievement of work values and locus of control as factors in work motivation

      Montgomery, Susan M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      The present research study examined the relationships in a work motivation context among perceived importance and achievement of work values, locus of control and internal work motivation. The congruence of a work value was considered to be the discrepancy between the importance of a work value and the perceived achievement of that value. The theoretical framework utilized was based on a self-perpetuating cycle of motivation which included the perceived importance and achievement of work values and internal work motivation as separate and distinct, yet interrelated factors. It was hypothesized that individuals who experienced high congruence of work values would experience higher levels of internal work motivation than individuals who had low congruence of work values. It was also hypothesized that individuals who had an internal locus of control would experience more internal work motivation individuals well, the and have higher congruence of work values than who had an external locus of control. As possibility of locus of control as a moderator between importance of work values and internal work motivation was explored. Survey data were collected from 184 managerial level employees of the XYZ company during an ongoing training session. The following instruments were employed to measure the variables: Elizur's (1984) Importance of Work Values, Hunt and Saul's (1985) Achievement of Work Values, Hatfield, Robinson and Huseman's (1975) Job Perception Scale, a modified version of Rotter's (1966) I-E Locus of Control Scale and the Internal Work Motivation Scale (Hackman & Oldham, 1980) which is a part of the Job Diagnostic Survey. The findings indicated that locus of control was not a significant factor in determining congruence between work values or internal work motivation for this sample. Furthermore, locus of control was also found not to be a moderator between the importance of work values and internal work motivation. All individuals in this study had relatively high levels of internal work motivation. However, individuals who had higher congruence of work values did have significantly higher internal work motivation than those who had low congruence of work values for a majority of the 21 values. This was particularly true for the intrinsic values which included responsibility, meaningfulness and use of abilities. In addition, the data were analysed into a hierarchy of needs to indicate possible organizational development or human resource development needs for the XYZ corporation.
    • Improving the oral health status of functionally independent and dependent seniors residing in long-term care facilities through dental hygiene education /

      Ieraci, Sylvia.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-04)
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oral health status of residents residing in 2 long-term care facilities and determine if dental hygiene education was required in order to improve their current oral health. The oral health status of 6 independent and 4 dependent individuals residing in 2 long-term care facilities was evaluated. In addition, the current oral health and disease prevention practices employed by 4 caregivers who were responsible for providing oral care to dependent residents in the long-term care facilities were evaluated. Furthermore, an evaluation of the oral care practices of independent residents who were responsible for providing their own care was conducted. Finally, the challenges that caregivers and independent residents faced when performing oral care were determined, and methodological changes were proposed. Using a generic qualitative research methodology, data collection was comprised of semi structured interviews, field observations, and documentation. The oral health status of the residents was reevaluated 3 months later. The findings of this study demonstrated an increase in plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation, and unhealthy gingival tissue colour changes among the residents over the 3-month period. The study revealed that poor oral health among the residents was a result of inadequate oral hygiene care techniques, difficulties accessing oral health care, financial limitations, insufficient care staff, insufficient time for personal care duties, lack of professional development, minimal interprofessional collaboration of health disciplines, and lack of perseverance on the part of the caregivers and residents. Overall, oral health is essential, and maintaining optimal oral health requires increased collaboration and communication between health care providers.
    • Improving the use of the nursing process: the impact of charting methodology developed from King's conceptual framework on the use of the nursing process

      Vaillancourt, Valine M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of changing a nursing documentation system, developed from King's Conceptual Framework, on the use of the nursing process. The null hypothesis was that there would be no significant increase in the reflection of the use of the nursing process on the nursing care plan or nurses' notes, as a result of using a nursing documentation system developed using King's Conceptual Framework (1981). The design involved the development of a questionnaire that was used to review health records pre and post implementation of a documentation system developed based on King's Conceptual Framework and Theory of Goal Attainment (1981). A Record Completeness Score was obtained from some of the questions. The null hypothesis was rejected. The results of the study have implications for nursing administration and the evaluation of nursing practice. If the use of a documentation system developed from a conceptual framework increases the reflection of the nursing process on the patient's health record, nursing will have the means to measure patient outcomes/goal attainment. All health care organizations and levels of government are focusing on methods to monitor and control the health-care dollar. In order for nursing to clearly determine the costs associated with nursing care, measurement of patient outcomes/goal attainment will need to be possible. In order to measure patient outcomes/goals attainment nurses will need to be able to collect data on their practice. It will be critical that nursing have a documentation system in place which facilitates the reflection of the nursing process within a theoretical framework.
    • Improvisation at the Piano: Exploring the Learning Experiences of Music Readers

      Willard, Catherine A; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      The theme of improvisation in music is garnering increased attention amongst musicians who otherwise would identify themselves as music-readers. The 21st-century musician who reads music continues to value these skills, but may show greater interest in creative or unscripted music-making. Piano teachers who work primarily within the notation-based realm and wish to explore improvisation lack a conceptual model of how to approach this type of learning for themselves or their students. This action research study explored learning experiences of 2 student learners and 1 teacher-learner as they delved into the improvisation medium. Though at different stages in their development as musicians, all 3 were first and foremost music readers. This project explored learning experiences through 2 components: (a) the student participants created an improvised accompaniment for a short segment of a Charlie Chaplin film and (b) in my dual role as teacher-learner and teacher-researcher, I embarked upon a 10-month course of lessons with 3 different expert improvisation mentors. Improvisational learning experiences were explored through video recordings of student lessons, field observation notes, transcripts from semi-structured student interviews, and a reflective researcher’s journal. Theories of creativity and the everydayness of art framed the discussion around the role and significance of improvisation for the pianist who wishes to engage in this form of music-making. Findings contribute to the literature by providing a context for teachers to begin exploring practical pedagogical processes for teaching improvisation, and a theoretical rationale for considering the importance of enhancing the traditional approach to teaching the piano.
    • Inclusive education: exploring teachers' perspectives /

      Van der Boom, Edith H.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2005-06-04)
      This study explores 5 teachers' perspectives on inclusive education. The literature reviewed gives a historical background of special education as well as discusses a number of current methods and techniques that have been implemented as a means to include exceptional students in regular classroom settings. This is a qualitative study that collected and interpreted data in narrative form. Common themes emerged from the accounts that were shared by the participants. This study found that the understanding of mUltiple intelligences and differentiated instruction might assist a teacher to better meet the needs of exceptional students within inclusive classrooms. Based on this study, it is determined that a range of considerations needs to be weighed when choosing an educational placement for a student with an exceptionality. Each decision needs to be based on the individual student and the options open to himlher. When a decision about class placement is to be made, not only are the student's strengths and needs to be considered, but also the school and community, the teacher, and the parents' desire for their child must be taken into account. More work still needs to be done around inclusive education that is at the practical level, so that the needs of both the student and the teacher can be met. Inclusive education did not mean the same thing to each person. It was individualized, just as each student is an individual and what works best for himlher is individual. In learning about inclusive education, settings and strategies need to be considered to allow for each individual student to achieve hislher personal best.
    • Inclusive teaching practice in the Jewish day school: general studies teachers' experiences /

      Starkman, Mary-Martha R.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-07-14)
      Little research has been done on inclusive education in the context of the Jewish day school general studies classroom. This qualitative case study research examines the inclusive teaching experiences of 2 general studies teachers in their respective grade 4 classrooms in 2 traditionally structured dual curriculum Jewish day schools. Data analysis of qualitative open-ended interviews, classroom observations, postobservation discxissions, and school and formal curriculum documents yielded understandings about the participants' inclusive practice and the challenges of the traditional Jewish day school structure. Eight themes that emerged related to understandings and questions about time limitations, an emphasis on efficiency, the day school structure, inclusion models, the need for increased teacher collaboration, and tension between curriculum-as-plan and curriculum-as-lived. Discussion of the findings suggests the need for further research in inclusion and integrated curriculimi in order to better understand possible restructuring of the traditional Jewish day school fi-om the time efficiency constrained dual curriculiun structure to a more flexible structure conducive of a meaningful and dynamic lived curriculum.
    • The influence of familial smoking behaviours on adolescent smoking behaviours

      Partington, Betsy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1995-07-09)
      The ability to identify adolescents who are at risk for becoming smokers may prove useful in developing effective smoking prevention programs. The purpose of this stUdy was to assess the importance of familial smoking behaviours on adolescent smoking patterns. The results were based on responses to The Grade 7 Lincoln County Smoking Survey designed by Chudzik and Partington (1994), and are a part of the "Peer Assisted Learning Program· (PAL) presented by the Niagara Regional Health Services Department, with the cooperation of a local Board of Education (Region of Niagara). The results indicate that 12% of the total group of 450 Grade 7 student respondents were current smokers at the time the data were collected (13% males and 11% females), while more than 37% of individuals indicated that they had tried smoking previously. Of the individuals who were classified as smokers, 11% reported that they smoked because their parents smoked, but only 6% reported that they smoked because their siblings smoked. More concerning, however, is the finding that 4% of smokers reported that they felt pressured to smoke by their relatives. In a society that is becoming increasingly concerned about health, it is also alarming to observe that only 50% of the respondents within this sample reported that there were no smokers (parents/siblings) in their homes. The results also indicate that 33% percent of respondents had grandparents who continued to smoke, and 53% of respondents indentified other relatives who continued to smoke.
    • The influence on children of the purpose of experiencing reading vocabulary: encoding-retrieval interactions in word perception

      Fisher, Alison J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      This research looked at conditions which result in the development of integrated letter code information in the acquisition of reading vocabulary. Thirty grade three children of normal reading ability acquired new reading words in a Meaning Assigned task and a Letter Comparison task, and worked to increase skill for known reading words in a Copy task. The children were then assessed on their ability to identify the letters in these words. During the test each stimulus word for each child was exposed for 100 msec., after which each child reported as many of his or her letters as he or she could. Familiar words, new words, and a single letter identification task served as within subject controls. Following this, subjects were assessed for word meaning recall of the Meaning Assigned words and word reading times for words in all condi tions • The resul ts supported an episodic model of word recognition in which the overlap between the processing operations employed in encoding a word and those required when decoding it affected decoding performance. In particular, the Meaning Assigned and Copy tasks. appeared to facilitate letter code accessibility and integration in new and familiar words respectively. Performance in the Letter Comparison task, on the other hand, suggested that subjects can process the elements of a new word without integrating them into its lexical structure. It was concluded that these results favour an episodic model of word recognition.
    • An inquiry into the barriers to participation within the fitness industry for people living with mobility challenges

      Wilson, Kirk; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      This qualitative study was designed to inquire about the barriers to participation within the fitness industry for people living with mobility challenges. i\n examination of the insights, stolies~ and experiences with barriers through interviews gi ven by 4 people living with mobility challenges (PMC) formed the core of the research. An analysis of the interviews from the 4 PMC informants was performed at t\\/O levels. First, a content analysis served to identify general and specific categories related to barrier issues within various fitness environments. Secondly, in-depth thematic analyses of the entries related to the insights and stories from the 4 informants which emerged from the content analysis of the data gave rise to fi ve thematic statements. From the thematic statements a fitness industry awareness protocol was created in the fonn of a statement response questionnaire. The protocol, which was given to 4 fitness assessors/trainers, \vas used to provide a snapshot of the fitness industry's readiness to work vvith disability. Throughout the process, the four PNIC informants formed a collaborati vely involved group of coresearchers, adding their voices to the narrative of the fitness-barrier experience. The result of the study suggests that barriers to participation within the fitness industry for PMC exist in various forms and levels of severity. The results also suggest that the fitness industry needs to better prepare their people and environment for working with people with physical disabilities, such as PMC, and provide a more open and positi ve environment for participation. Within the context of any fitness-related environment, recognizing that barriers to participation do exist, and acknowledging and accepting people with disabilities for who they are as indi viduals, will serve to develop a relationship where fitness practitioners and people with disabilities can work towards creating an inviting, inclusive, accessible, and barrier-free fitness environment for all.
    • Insights Into the Remembered Educational Experiences of Male Caribbean Immigrants to Canada: Literacy and Identity in the Canadian Classroom

      Medford-Williams, Cynthia; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-09-05)
      Abstract Past research has addressed the issue of male underachievement in literacy as an issue of global concern. This qualitative study focused on one subgroup of males which the literature highlighted as most at risk of educational underachievement in the Canadian educational landscape: male Caribbean immigrants to Canada. The research questions that framed the study sought to gain insight into the educational experiences of this group of learners so that ways through which their literacy achievement as measured by academic performance and classroom engagement could be projected. New literacy studies view literacy as socioculturally bound in social, institutional, and cultural relationships (Gee 1996). Literacy can therefore be thought of as an extension of self that Lankshear and Knobel (2006) assert is always connected to social identities. Central to the research questions as a result of this perspective was the discovery of the ideologies of reading held by the participants and their connections to literacy practice. Supplementary questions delved into socially valued literacy practices and ways in which learners saw themselves as Black males reflected in the Canadian educational framework. In this qualitative study with an interview design, data were collected through individual semistructured interviews with the 4 participants and through a focus group session with all the participants. The findings depicted that identity, interests, and ideologies of reading all influenced the literacy practices and engagement of Caribbean males. The findings documented are valuable as they provide a fresh perspective surrounding the educational experiences of the male Caribbean learner and can present insights which can lead to enhanced academic engagement and improved student achievement for this group of learners.
    • Instagram, Social Media, and the "Like": Exploring Virtual Identity's Role in 21st Century Students' New Socialization Experience

      Code, Mary; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Personal technologies and social media use have changed the socialization experience of our 21st century learners. As learners have a new, embodied, virtual identity that is an omnipresent force within their social interactions, this study sought to examine how virtual identity influences student relationships both within and outside of a school context. This study also explored how personal technologies and social media use have influenced learners’ perceptions of their own 21st century learning. Using a qualitative inquiry, purposeful sampling was employed to recruit 6 participants between the ages of 15 to 19 to examine their social networking site use and education experience. Data were collected from single, one-on-one semi-structured interviews in which participants discussed their experiences using social media. Data were also collected from the teens’ personal Instagram accounts, and a personal reflexive researcher’s journal was kept for triangulation of data. Open and axial coding strategies alongside constant comparative methods were used to analyze data. Participants shared how they and their peers use social media, the pressures and expectations from other users, social media’s influence on peer relationships, and how social media influences their choices in the physical realm. All 6 participants explained that their teachers do not talk to them about their social media use, and even offered critiques of the school system itself and its inability to prepare students for the new realities of a digital world. This study concludes that while social media is very influential on students’ socialization, educators should be more concerned about the lack of guidance and support that students receive in school in terms of appropriate social media use and the navigation of virtual identity.
    • Instructor support for self-directed learning in higher education

      Wilcox, Susan M. P.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      This study addressed the problem of instructor support for self-directed learning, specifically, learner-directed program planning, within a classroom setting in higher education. A combination of survey, interview, document analysis, and observation was used to assess and evaluate the attitudes and practices of a sample of full-time faculty at an Ontario university. Eighty-seven percent of the study sample reported instructional beliefs, values, and expectations that were not supportive of self-directed learning, especially in terms of student participation in program planning. Planning was seen as the responsibility of the instructor. Instructors were least open to student participation in the planning of the evaluation of learning. However, there was considerable stated support for other of the basic principles of adult education. The remaining 13% of the study sample reported instructional beliefs, values, and expectations that were fully supportive of self-directed learning. Instructional practices were analyzed in relation to the instructors' stated beliefs. Although practices reflected, in many instances, instructors' statements of support, there were some significant discrepancies between apparent support for the concept of self-directed learning and actual classroom practice. Both beliefs and practice were compared to a research model of self-directed learning. Most instructors did not have a concept of self-directed learning as comprehensive as that described in the research model. Instructor support for self-directed learning was profoundly influenced by the university setting. It was concluded that more strenuous attempts to research, enhance, and promote instructional and institutional support for self-directed learning in higher education are warranted.
    • Integrating Artful Practices as a Sustainable and Innovative Approach to French Language Learning

      Taylor, Holly E; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This study investigated the successes and barriers that surround the implementation of artful practices into French elementary classrooms within Ontario. The literature demonstrates that integrating the arts has many benefits, allowing students to become more engaged and kinaesthetically involved in their language learning. By examining the narratives of educators who use music and the arts as a teaching tool, this narrative inquiry explored the experiences of teachers integrating the arts into their teaching practices, and also identified the supports needed to implement more elements of the arts into the French programs of teachers who may not be implementing arts-based strategies. Along with my own personal narrative as a co-participant, the remaining 2 participants were engaged in their storied landscapes through qualitative interviews, focusing specifically on what Dewey (1938) refers to as the nature of experience. Particularly, the relationships between teachers and the arts, and teachers and French were examined to uncover how these relationships have affected their teaching experiences with this integration.