• The Impact of a Text-Reader Support Program on Intermediate Students' Reading Comprehension

      McGee, Tieha; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-03-05)
      This study examined the efficacy of providing four Grade 7 and 8 students with reading difficulties with explicit instruction in the use of reading comprehension strategies while using text-reader software. Specifically, the study explored participants' combined use of a text-reader and question-answering comprehension strategy during a 6-week instructional program. Using a qualitative case study methodology approach, participants' experiences using text-reader software, with the presence of explicit instruction in evidence-based reading comprehension strategies, were examined. The study involved three phases: (a) the first phase consisted of individual interviews with the participants and their parents; (b) the second phase consisted of a nine session course; and (c) the third phase consisted of individual exit interviews and a focus group discussion. After the data collection phases were completed, data were analyzed and coded for emerging themes, with-quantitativ,e measures of participants' reading performance used as descriptive data. The data suggested that assistive technology can serve as an instructional "hook", motivating students to engage actively in the reading processes, especially when accompanied by explicit strategy instruction. Participants' experiences also reflected development of strategy use and use of text-reader software and the importance of social interactions in developing reading comprehension skills. The findings of this study support the view that the integration of instruction using evidence-based practices are important and vital components in the inclusion oftext-reader software as part of students' educational programming. Also, the findings from this study can be extended to develop in-class programming for students using text-reader software.
    • The impact of a training program in phonological awareness on children's early writing

      Graham, Christina.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1992-07-09)
      This study examined the effects that a training program in phonological awareness had on the early writing skills of children in a Grade One class in the Lincoln County Separate school system. The intent of the training program was to provide consistent and systematic practice in the manipulation of the phonological structure of language. The games and activities of the training program were related to a framework of developmental phonological skills and practised in a group setting during an unstructured period of the regular classroom schedule. The training program operated three days in a six-day cycle for approximately twenty minutes a day, from November until mid-March. All children were tested at the outset and conclusion of the study to determine level of functioning in letter identification, word recognition, verbal intelligence, phonological awareness and spelling. Results of the pre-tests and post-tests were compared to determine differences between the experimental and control groups over time. In addition, a systematic analysis of the children's writing looked at the development of the spelling of regular and irregular words. The results of this study provided strong support for the hypothesis that the treatment group would progress through the stages of early writing development more quickly than children without such training. On the basis of differences between the groups over time, it was evident that training in phonological awareness had a direct positive effect on the spelling of regular words for children during the early stages of writing. The training program did not have a significant effect on the spelling of irregular words. Test results evaluating phonological awareness indicated a significant difference within each group over time but no significance between the groups during the experimental period. It would appear that the results of these tests reflect maturational changes in the child rather than causal effects of the training program. Nor did the effects of the training program transfer significantly to other aspects of language. Although some of the hypotheses considered were not supported by the study, the results do indicate that children during the early stages of writing development can benefit from a training program in phonological awareness. The theoretical direction for effective programming as a result of this study is discussed. The educational implications of training phonological awareness concurrent to beginning efforts in writing are considered.
    • Impact of a Youth Development Camp on Participants’ Skills, Attitudes, and Views Towards Science and Scientific Inquiry

      Digweed, Bradley E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This mixed-methods research study sought to determine the impact of an informal science camp—the Youth Science Inquiry Development Camp (YSIDC)—on participants’ science inquiry skills, through self-assessment, as well as their views and attitudes towards science and scientific inquiry. Pre and post data were collected using quantitative surveys (SPSI, CARS), a qualitative survey (VOSI-E), interviews, and researcher’s observations. Paired sample t-tests from the quantitative surveys revealed that the YSIDC positively impacted participants’ science inquiry skills and attitudes towards science. Interviews supported these findings and provided contextual reasons for these impacts. Implications from this research would suggest that informal and formal educational institutions can increase science inquiry skills and promote positive views and attitudes towards science and scientific inquiry by using non-competitive cooperative learning strategies with a mixture of guided and open inquiry. Suggested directions for further research include measuring science inquiry skills directly and conducting longitudinal studies to determine the lasting effects of informal and formal science programs.
    • The impact of education on the use of breat self- examination among Canadian women

      Caron, Michelle V.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2001-07-09)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the level of education that Canadian women have and their use of breast self-examination (BSE). The secondary objective of this study was to do some exploratory research to measure how the demographic characteristics of these women, and the behaviours that they chose to participate in, might be associated to their use of BSE. This exploratory research was done to gain a better understanding of what kinds of lifestyle and behavioural factors are associated with the use of BSE, and how these factors impact on the relationship that education has on women's use of BSE. The data for the women in the sample were taken from the 1990 Population Health Survey, conducted by Statistics Canada. This survey included questions related to both the demographic characteristics of this population, and their behavioural choices in regards to various healthy lifestyle factors. Education was found to be significantly related to the use of BSE. Many of the demographic variables (age, income, marital status and language) were also found to be significantly related to the use of BSE. The behavioural variables (tobacco use, alcohol use) did not reflect such a strong relationship.
    • The Impact of Hospital Downsizing on Registered Nurses Displaced from Full -Time Employment

      Gustafson, Diana L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-03-04)
      This research identified and explored the various responses of ten women Registered Nurses displaced from full-time employment as staff nurses in general hospitals in southern Ontario. These nurses were among the hundreds in Ontario who were displaced between October 1991 and October 1995 as a result of organizational downsizing and other health care reform initiatives. The purpose of this research was to document the responses of nurses to job displacement, and how that experience impacted on a nurse's professional identity and her understanding of the nature and utilization of nursing labour. This study incorporated techniques consistent with the principles of naturalistic inquiry and the narrative tradition. A purposive sample was drawn from the Health Sector Training and Adjustment Program database. Data collection and analysis was a three-step process wherein the data collection in each step was informed by the data analysis in the preceding step. The main technique used for qualitative data collection was semistructured, individual and group interviews. Emerging from the data was a rich and textured story of how job displacement disrupted the meaningful connections nurses had with their work. In making meaning of this change, displaced nurses journeyed along a three-step path toward labour adjustment. Structural analysis was the interpretive lens used to view the historical, sociopolitical and ideological forces which constrained the choices reasonably available to displaced nurses while Kelly's personal construct theory was the lens used to view the process of making choices and reconstruing their professional identity.
    • The impact of hospital downsizing on registered nurses displaced from full-time employment

      Gustafson, Diana L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      This research identified and explored the various responses often women Registered Nurses displaced from full-time elnployment as staff nurses in general hospitals in southern Ontario. These nurses were among the hundreds in Ontario who were displaced between October 1991 and October 1995 as a result of organizational downsizing and other health care reform initiatives. The purpose ofthis research was to document tIle responses of nurses to job displacement, and how that experience impacted on a nurse's professional identity and her understanding of the nature and utilization of nursing labour. This study incorporated techniques consistent with the principles of naturalistic inquiry and the narrative tradition. A purposive sample was drawn from the Health Sector Training and Adjustment Program database. Data collection and analysis was a three-step process wherein the data collection in each step was informed by the data analysis in the preceding step. The main technique used for qualitative data collection was semistructured, individual and group interviews. Emerging from the data was a rich and textured story ofhow job displacement disrupted the meaningful connections nurses had with their work. In making meaning of this change, displaced nurses journeyed along a three-step path toward labour adjustment. Structural analysis was the interpretive lens used to view the historical, sociopolitical and ideological forces which constrained the choices reasonably available to displaced nurses while Kelly's personal construct theory was the lens used to view the process of making choices and reconstruing their professional identity.
    • The impact of integrated programming on student attitude and achievement in grade 9 academic mathematics and science

      Cosentino, Cindy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-11-04)
      This research studioo the effect of integrated instruction in mathematics and~ science on student achievement in and attitude towards both mathematics and science. A group of grade 9 academic students received instruction in both science and mathematics in an integrated program specifically developed for the purposes of the research. This group was compared to a control group that had received science and mathematics instruction in a traditional, nonintegrated program. The findings showed that in all measures of attitude, there was no significant difference between the students who participated in the integrated science and mathematics program and those who participated in a traditional science and mathematics program. The findings also revealed that integration did improve achievement on some of the measures used. The performance on mathematics open-ended problem-solving tasks improved after participation in the integrated program, suggesting that the integrated students were better able to apply their understanding of mathematics in a real-life context. The performance on the final science exam was also improved for the integrated group. Improvement was not noted on the other measures, which included EQAO scores and laboratory practical tasks. These results raise the issue of the suitability of the instruments used to gauge both achievement and attitude. The accuracy and suitability of traditional measures of achievement are considered. It is argued that they should not necessarily be used as the measure of the value of integrated instruction in a science and mathematics classroom.
    • The impact of meaningfulness of and responsibility for work on the relationships among work values, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction for part- time faculty in a community college

      Smithson, Dianne M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      One hundred and thirty four subjects participated in this survey. Quantitative data were obtained and correlational analyses were used to test a model to study the relationships among the achievement of work values and organizational commitment and job satisfaction and to identify the moderating effects of the meaningfulness of work and responsibility for work on these relationships. Part-time faculty in the Faculty of Continuing Education of a community college were mailed a questionnaire on all the variables of the model. Several reliable, valid instruments were used to test the variables. Data analysis through Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that the achievement of the work values of recognition and satisfaction with promotions did predict organizational commitment and job satisfaction, although the moderating effects of the meaningfulness of work and responsibility for work was not supported in this study. This study suggests that the revised model may be used for determining the relationships between the achievement of work values and organizational commitment and job satisfaction in a community college setting.
    • The impact of scheduling on the implementation of the new Ontario curriculum: teachers' perceptions /

      Lingard, Lynn.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-06-04)
      This qualitative study explored secondary teachers' perceptions of scheduling in relation to pedagogy, curriculum, and observation of student learning. Its objective was to determine the best way to organize the scheduling for the delivery of Ontario's new 4-year curriculum. Six participants were chosen. Two were teaching in a semestered timetable, 1 in a traditional timetable, and 3 had experience in both schedules. Participants related a pressure cooker "lived experience" with weaker students in the semester system experiencing a particularly harsh environment. The inadequate amount of time for review in content-heavy courses, gap scheduling problems, catch-up difficulties for students missing classes, and the fast pace of semestering are identified as factors negatively impacting on these students. Government testing adds to the pressure by shifting teachers' time and attention in the classroom from deeper learning to a superficial coverage of material, from curriculum as lived to curriculum as text to be covered. Scheduling choice should be available in public education to accommodate the needs of all students. Curriculum guidelines need to be revamped to reflect the content that teachers believe is necessary for a successful course delivery. Applied level courses need to be developed for students who are not academically inferior but learn differently.
    • Impact of social constructs on administrator understanding of social justice

      Oyugi, Perez; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2010-10-27)
      Educational administrators are expected to relate social justice considerations to their actions and to the theoretical foundations of their practice. At the same time, social constructs-including those related to administrative practice, social justice, and societal norms-are important in helping administrators understand, frame, and describe administrative issues. Furthermore, as part of socially constructed language, these constructs represent discursive practices and accepted ways of knowing, valuing, and experiencing the world. Drawing on the multidimensional methods of critical discourse analysis as articulated in the writings of Michel Foucault, Norman Fairclough, and Allan Luke, and using deconstruction as a strategic device for reading and interpreting texts, this exploratory qualitative study examined how administrator knowledge, values, and experiences impact their understanding of social justice within the context of delivering social justice for students who experience bullying. Study findings reveal that school administrators interpreted social justice as equitable distribution, action, and results; fairness; and equity. Constructs embedded in these interpretations assumed common things such as universal acceptance of norms of social relations and conveyed administrator intent to secure the kind of social relations that enabled individuals to enjoy greater equality within existing social arrangements.
    • The impact of the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness and of health counselling on health attitudes and behaviour

      Monks, Carrie.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      The purpose of this research study was to determine whether or not the use of a single day of Personal Wellness Evaluations would be meaningful enough to change the attitudes of participants toward adopting a healthier lifestyle, or if it was necessary to include regular planned health counselling alon-g with the Personal Wellness Evaluations in order to'observe changes in beliefs, attitudes and behaviours toward active living and the adoption of a healthier lifestyle. Attitudes and behaviours toward physical fitness and healthy lifestyle choices were assessed through a questionnaire composed of the following instruments: Fishbein and Ajzen Attitude and Behaviour Questionnaire, Leisure Behaviour Questionnaire, Ten Centimeter Bipolar Health Continuum, Neugarten Life Satisfaction Assessment, Job Description Index, Selected questions from the Ontario Health Survey, and the Symptom Reporting Questionnaire. Physical fitness evaluation consisted of the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness, measures of blood pressure, and total cholesterol. The participants were divided into three groups: Group 1- CSTF & health counselling, Group 2- CSTF only, and Group 3- a control group. All three groups received the questionnaire both at the beginning and at the end of the study. Group 1 and Group 2 also participated in fitness testing at these same times, with a three-month time interval between test times. Group 1 also received weekly one-hour health education sessions during the three months between fitness testing. While there were some differences found between the three groups in this study, the results of this study suggested that this three-month workplace wellness program had no impact on the participants' attitudes and behaviours toward health and physical activity. There were no significant differences in the physical fitness measures between Group 1 and Group 2 , nor in the participants' questionnaire responses. These results may be due to the participants' lack of compliance to this wellness program. Employees who 11 participate in a workplace weIlness program must be self-motivated to comply with the program in order to receive the full benefits the program has to offer. Some participants in this study did not have the internal motivation necessary to remain in the study for the three-month period. Future research may consider implementing a workplace wellness program for a longer duration as well as incorporating a specific physical fitness program for the participants to follow. An exercise program could improve the participants' physical fitness, while the health counselling would give the individuals the health education necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle.
    • Implementation of hospital-wide computer information system :a case study of this change process

      Myers, Nancy E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1986-07-09)
      This case study examines the impact of a computer information system as it was being implemented in one Ontario hospital. The attitudes of a cross section of the hospital staff acted as a barometer to measure their perceptions of the implementation process. With The Mississauga Hospital in the early stages of an extensive computer implementation project, the opportunity existed to identify staff attitudes about the computer system, overall knowledge and compare the findings with the literature. The goal of the study was to develop a greater base about the affective domain in the relationship between people and the computer system. Eight exploratory questions shaped the focus of the investigation. Data were collected from three sources: a survey questionnaire, focused interviews, and internal hospital documents. Both quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed. Instrumentation in the study consisted of a survey distributed at two points in time to randomly selected hospital employees who represented all staff levels.Other sources of data included hospital documents, and twenty-five focused interviews with staff who replied to both surveys. Leavitt's socio-technical system, with its four subsystems: task, structure, technology, and people was used to classify staff responses to the research questions. The study findings revealed that the majority of respondents felt positive about using the computer as part of their jobs. No apparent correlations were found between sex, age, or staff group and feelings about using the computer. Differences in attitudes, and attitude changes were found in potential relationship to the element of time. Another difference was found in staff group and perception of being involved in the decision making process. These findings and other evidence about the role of change agents in this change process help to emphasize that planning change is one thing, managing the transition is another.
    • Implementing a question-generation strategy with bilingual students: exploring the perspectives of a beginning teacher /

      Al-Fartousi, May.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-09)
      This study examined the challenges associated with the explicit delivery of questiongeneration strategy with 8 Arab Canadian students from the perspective of a bilingual beginning teacher. This study took place in a private school and involved 2 stages consisting of 9 instructional sessions, and individual interviews with the students. Data gathered from these interviews and the researcher's field notes from the sessions were used to gain insights about the participants' understanding and use of explicit instruction. The themes that emerged from the data included "teacher attitude," "students' enhanced metacognitive awareness and strategy use," "listening skills," and "instructional challenges." Briefly, teacher's attitude demonstrated how teacher's beliefs and knowledge influenced her willingness and perseverance to teach explicitly. Students' enhanced metacognitive awareness and strategy use included students' understanding and use of the question-generation strategy. The students' listening skills suggested that culture may influence their response to the delivery of explicit instruction. Here, the cultural expectations associated with being a good listener reinforced students' willingness to engage in this strategy. Students' prior knowledge also influenced their interaction with the question-generation strategy. Time for process versus covering content was a dominant instructional challenge. This study provides first hand information for teachers when considering how students' cultural backgrounds may affect their reactions to explicit strategy instruction.
    • Implicit and explicit functions in the acquisition of a phonics rule in the word recognition of learning disabled and non learning disabled students /

      McNamara, John Kennedy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      One group of 12 non learning disabled students and two groups of 12 learning disabled students between the ges of 10 and 12 were measured on implicit and explicit knowledge cquisition. Students in each group implicitly cquired knowledge bout I of 2 vocabulary rules. The vocabulary rules governed the pronunciation of 2 types of pseudowords. After completing the implicit acquisition phase, all groups were administered a test of implicit knowledge. The non learning disabled group and I learning disabled group were then asked to verbalize the knowledge acquired during the initial phase. This was a test of explicit knowledge. All 3 groups were then given a postlest of implicit knowledge. This tcst was a measure of the effectiveness of the employment of the verbalization technique. Results indicate that implicit knowledge capabilities for both the learning disabled and non learning disabled groups were intact. However. there were significant differences between groups on explicit knowledge capabilities. This led to the conclusion that implicit functions show little individual differences, and that explicit functions are affected by ability difference. Furthermore, the employment of the verbalization technique significantly increased POStlest scores for learning disabled students. This suggested that the use of metacognitive techniques was a beneficial learning tool for learning disabled students.
    • The Importance and achievement of work values and locus of control as factors in work motivation

      Montgomery, Susan M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      The present research study examined the relationships in a work motivation context among perceived importance and achievement of work values, locus of control and internal work motivation. The congruence of a work value was considered to be the discrepancy between the importance of a work value and the perceived achievement of that value. The theoretical framework utilized was based on a self-perpetuating cycle of motivation which included the perceived importance and achievement of work values and internal work motivation as separate and distinct, yet interrelated factors. It was hypothesized that individuals who experienced high congruence of work values would experience higher levels of internal work motivation than individuals who had low congruence of work values. It was also hypothesized that individuals who had an internal locus of control would experience more internal work motivation individuals well, the and have higher congruence of work values than who had an external locus of control. As possibility of locus of control as a moderator between importance of work values and internal work motivation was explored. Survey data were collected from 184 managerial level employees of the XYZ company during an ongoing training session. The following instruments were employed to measure the variables: Elizur's (1984) Importance of Work Values, Hunt and Saul's (1985) Achievement of Work Values, Hatfield, Robinson and Huseman's (1975) Job Perception Scale, a modified version of Rotter's (1966) I-E Locus of Control Scale and the Internal Work Motivation Scale (Hackman & Oldham, 1980) which is a part of the Job Diagnostic Survey. The findings indicated that locus of control was not a significant factor in determining congruence between work values or internal work motivation for this sample. Furthermore, locus of control was also found not to be a moderator between the importance of work values and internal work motivation. All individuals in this study had relatively high levels of internal work motivation. However, individuals who had higher congruence of work values did have significantly higher internal work motivation than those who had low congruence of work values for a majority of the 21 values. This was particularly true for the intrinsic values which included responsibility, meaningfulness and use of abilities. In addition, the data were analysed into a hierarchy of needs to indicate possible organizational development or human resource development needs for the XYZ corporation.
    • Improving the oral health status of functionally independent and dependent seniors residing in long-term care facilities through dental hygiene education /

      Ieraci, Sylvia.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-04)
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oral health status of residents residing in 2 long-term care facilities and determine if dental hygiene education was required in order to improve their current oral health. The oral health status of 6 independent and 4 dependent individuals residing in 2 long-term care facilities was evaluated. In addition, the current oral health and disease prevention practices employed by 4 caregivers who were responsible for providing oral care to dependent residents in the long-term care facilities were evaluated. Furthermore, an evaluation of the oral care practices of independent residents who were responsible for providing their own care was conducted. Finally, the challenges that caregivers and independent residents faced when performing oral care were determined, and methodological changes were proposed. Using a generic qualitative research methodology, data collection was comprised of semi structured interviews, field observations, and documentation. The oral health status of the residents was reevaluated 3 months later. The findings of this study demonstrated an increase in plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation, and unhealthy gingival tissue colour changes among the residents over the 3-month period. The study revealed that poor oral health among the residents was a result of inadequate oral hygiene care techniques, difficulties accessing oral health care, financial limitations, insufficient care staff, insufficient time for personal care duties, lack of professional development, minimal interprofessional collaboration of health disciplines, and lack of perseverance on the part of the caregivers and residents. Overall, oral health is essential, and maintaining optimal oral health requires increased collaboration and communication between health care providers.
    • Improving the use of the nursing process: the impact of charting methodology developed from King's conceptual framework on the use of the nursing process

      Vaillancourt, Valine M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of changing a nursing documentation system, developed from King's Conceptual Framework, on the use of the nursing process. The null hypothesis was that there would be no significant increase in the reflection of the use of the nursing process on the nursing care plan or nurses' notes, as a result of using a nursing documentation system developed using King's Conceptual Framework (1981). The design involved the development of a questionnaire that was used to review health records pre and post implementation of a documentation system developed based on King's Conceptual Framework and Theory of Goal Attainment (1981). A Record Completeness Score was obtained from some of the questions. The null hypothesis was rejected. The results of the study have implications for nursing administration and the evaluation of nursing practice. If the use of a documentation system developed from a conceptual framework increases the reflection of the nursing process on the patient's health record, nursing will have the means to measure patient outcomes/goal attainment. All health care organizations and levels of government are focusing on methods to monitor and control the health-care dollar. In order for nursing to clearly determine the costs associated with nursing care, measurement of patient outcomes/goal attainment will need to be possible. In order to measure patient outcomes/goals attainment nurses will need to be able to collect data on their practice. It will be critical that nursing have a documentation system in place which facilitates the reflection of the nursing process within a theoretical framework.
    • Improvisation at the Piano: Exploring the Learning Experiences of Music Readers

      Willard, Catherine A; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      The theme of improvisation in music is garnering increased attention amongst musicians who otherwise would identify themselves as music-readers. The 21st-century musician who reads music continues to value these skills, but may show greater interest in creative or unscripted music-making. Piano teachers who work primarily within the notation-based realm and wish to explore improvisation lack a conceptual model of how to approach this type of learning for themselves or their students. This action research study explored learning experiences of 2 student learners and 1 teacher-learner as they delved into the improvisation medium. Though at different stages in their development as musicians, all 3 were first and foremost music readers. This project explored learning experiences through 2 components: (a) the student participants created an improvised accompaniment for a short segment of a Charlie Chaplin film and (b) in my dual role as teacher-learner and teacher-researcher, I embarked upon a 10-month course of lessons with 3 different expert improvisation mentors. Improvisational learning experiences were explored through video recordings of student lessons, field observation notes, transcripts from semi-structured student interviews, and a reflective researcher’s journal. Theories of creativity and the everydayness of art framed the discussion around the role and significance of improvisation for the pianist who wishes to engage in this form of music-making. Findings contribute to the literature by providing a context for teachers to begin exploring practical pedagogical processes for teaching improvisation, and a theoretical rationale for considering the importance of enhancing the traditional approach to teaching the piano.
    • Inclusive education: exploring teachers' perspectives /

      Van der Boom, Edith H.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2005-06-04)
      This study explores 5 teachers' perspectives on inclusive education. The literature reviewed gives a historical background of special education as well as discusses a number of current methods and techniques that have been implemented as a means to include exceptional students in regular classroom settings. This is a qualitative study that collected and interpreted data in narrative form. Common themes emerged from the accounts that were shared by the participants. This study found that the understanding of mUltiple intelligences and differentiated instruction might assist a teacher to better meet the needs of exceptional students within inclusive classrooms. Based on this study, it is determined that a range of considerations needs to be weighed when choosing an educational placement for a student with an exceptionality. Each decision needs to be based on the individual student and the options open to himlher. When a decision about class placement is to be made, not only are the student's strengths and needs to be considered, but also the school and community, the teacher, and the parents' desire for their child must be taken into account. More work still needs to be done around inclusive education that is at the practical level, so that the needs of both the student and the teacher can be met. Inclusive education did not mean the same thing to each person. It was individualized, just as each student is an individual and what works best for himlher is individual. In learning about inclusive education, settings and strategies need to be considered to allow for each individual student to achieve hislher personal best.
    • Inclusive teaching practice in the Jewish day school: general studies teachers' experiences /

      Starkman, Mary-Martha R.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-07-14)
      Little research has been done on inclusive education in the context of the Jewish day school general studies classroom. This qualitative case study research examines the inclusive teaching experiences of 2 general studies teachers in their respective grade 4 classrooms in 2 traditionally structured dual curriculum Jewish day schools. Data analysis of qualitative open-ended interviews, classroom observations, postobservation discxissions, and school and formal curriculum documents yielded understandings about the participants' inclusive practice and the challenges of the traditional Jewish day school structure. Eight themes that emerged related to understandings and questions about time limitations, an emphasis on efficiency, the day school structure, inclusion models, the need for increased teacher collaboration, and tension between curriculum-as-plan and curriculum-as-lived. Discussion of the findings suggests the need for further research in inclusion and integrated curriculimi in order to better understand possible restructuring of the traditional Jewish day school fi-om the time efficiency constrained dual curriculiun structure to a more flexible structure conducive of a meaningful and dynamic lived curriculum.