• Exploring the use of effective learning strategies to increase students' reading comprehension and test taking skills /

      Radojevic, Nancy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-01)
      This study examined the effects of providing students with explicit instruction in how to use a repertoire of reading comprehension strategies and test taking skills when reading and responding to three types of questions (direct, inferential, critical). Specifically, the study examined whether providing students with a "model" of how to read and respond to the text and to the comprehension questions improved their reading comprehension relative to providing them with implicit instruction on reading comprehension strategies and test taking skills. Students' reading comprehension and test taking performance scores were compared as a function of instructional condition. Students from 2 grade 8 classes participated in this study. The reading component of the Canadian Achievement Tests, Third Edition (CAT/3) was used to identify students' level of reading comprehension prior to the formal instructional sessions. Students received either explicit instruction, which involved modelling, or implicit instruction, which consisted of review and discussion of the strategies to be used. Comprehension was measured through the administration of formative tests after each instructional session. The formative tests consisted of reading comprehension questions pertaining to a specific form of text (narrative, informational, graphic). In addition, students completed 3 summative tests and a delayed comprehension test which consisted of the alternative version of the CAT/3 standardized reading assessment. These data served as a posttest measure to determine whether students had shown an improvement in their reading comprehension skills as a result of the program delivery. There were significant differences in students' Canadian Achievement Test performance scores prior to the onset of the study. Students in the implicit group attained significantly higher comprehension scores than did students in the explicit group. The results from the program sessions indicated no significant differences in reading comprehension between the implicit and explicit conditions, with the exception of the 6th session involving the reading and interpreting of graphic text. Students in the explicit group performed significantly better when reading and interpreting graphic text than those in the implicit group. No significant differences were evident between the two study conditions across the three summative tests. Upon completion of the study, the results from the Canadian Achievement Test indicated no significant differences in performance between the two study conditions. The findings from this study reveal the effectiveness of providing students with explicit strategy instruction when reading and responding to various forms of text. Modelling the appropriate reading comprehension strategies and test taking skills enabled students to apply the same thought processes to their own independent work. This form of instruction enabled students in the explicit group to improve in their abilities to comprehend and respond to text and therefore should be incorporated as an effective form of classroom teaching.
    • Exploring the use of prediction and summarization to increase students' listening and reading comprehension /

      Forgrave, Karen.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      This study examined the effect of expHcitly instructing students to use a repertoire of reading comprehension strategies. Specifically, this study examined whether providing students with a "predictive story-frame" which combined the use of prediction and summarization strategies improved their reading comprehension relative to providing students with generic instruction on prediction and summarization. Results were examined in terms of instructional condition and reading ability. Students from 2 grade 4 classes participated in this study. The reading component of the Canadian Achievement Tests, Second Edition (CAT/2) was used to identify students as either "average or above average" or "below average" readers. Students received either strategic predication and summarization instruction (story-frame) or generic prediction and summarization instruction (notepad). Students were provided with new but comparable stories for each session. For both groups, the researcher modelled the strategic tools and provided guided practice, independent practice, and independent reading sessions. Comprehension was measured with an immediate and 1-week delayed comprehension test for each of the 4 stories, hi addition, students participated in a 1- week delayed interview, where they were asked to retell the story and to answer questions about the central elements (character, setting, problem, solution, beginning, middle, and ending events) of each story. There were significant differences, with medium to large effect sizes, in comprehension and recall scores as a fimction of both instructional condition and reading ability. Students in the story-frame condition outperformed students in the notepad condition, and average to above average readers performed better than below average readers. Students in the story-frame condition outperformed students in the notepad condition on the comprehension tests and on the oral retellings when teacher modelling and guidance were present. In the cued recall sessions, students in the story-frame instructional condition recalled more correct information and generated fewer errors than students in the notepad condition. Average to above average readers performed better than below average readers across comprehension and retelling measures. The majority of students in both instructional conditions reported that they would use their strategic tool again.
    • Facilitating self-directed learning: the nurse educators' perspective

      Bilsky, Millie.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1991-07-09)
      The concept of self-directed learning was examined from the nurse educators' perspective. One structured interview, lasting between one and one-and-a half hours, was conducted with each of 14 nurse educators in two community college continuing education programs in nursing. One community college program encourages selfdirected learning; the other encourages self-study and active participation in the teaching/learning process. All 14 interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed for themes, patterns, and relationships utilizing analyst-constructed typologies. six prerequisites or necessary conditions for facilitating self-directed learning in a community college continuing education program in nursing were identified. ~he crucial issue in facilitating self-directed learning was found to be the issue of teacher-control.
    • Factors affecting performance proficiency : a case study involving intermediate piano students

      Lammers, Will.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-11-04)
      The goal of this study was to determine the effect of a number of factors on the performance proficiency of three intermediate piano students having different learning styles, all of whom shared the same teacher. Four sets of data were collected in this investigation: the methodology of the teacher; the practice behaviour of the participants; the effect of intrinsic factors, such as participant attitude, motivation, and ownership of learning; and the effect of extrinsic factors that included parental influence, and participants' school- and employment-related responsibilities. Performance proficiency and assessment of practice behaviour were measured by three external, professionallyqualified music examiners. Performance proficiency varied to some extent between participants, but they shared similar practice behaviours. Learning style does not, therefore, affect practice behaviour. Although they planned their practice time, participants did not show much evidence of monitoring the quality of their practice. On the other hand, participants showed positive attitude; they were motivated to learn; and they were observed to plan their practice time, all indicators of, among other things, positive influence of the teacher and parents. Participants showed evidence that these constructive habits were a denominator common to both their schoolwork and piano practice. It was apparent that, except for learning style, all factors examined had an effect on performance proficiency. Performance proficiency is, therefore, influenced by a large web of factors, a finding that is instructive for classroom teachers. Teachers need to avoid the temptation to teach toward performance expectations. Emphasis should be placed instead on teaching and assessing formative learning strategies.
    • Factors affecting treatment decision making for women with breast cancer

      Irwin, Ellen M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      This study examined the factors affecting treatment decision making for young women with early stage breast cancer. Thirty women, aged 35 to 52 years, were presented information about two equally effective chemotherapy treatments following surgery for breast cancer using an educational instrument called a "decision board." Although equally effective, the treatments differ with regards to side effects and treatment schedule. The purpose of this research was to investigate what factors affect the decision-making process. Following administration of the decision board, women were given a take-home version to review and asked to return one to two weeks later with a decision, at which time they completed a questionnaire. theoretical framework for this study was constructed from the literature on self-directed learning and critical thinking. The Overall, the factors rated most important to the treatment decision were related to quality of life, side effects, and length of treatment. Five factors were found to be rated significantly different by the women who chose one treatment versus the other in terms of importance to their decision. These were side effects in general, vomiting, hair loss, family role, and the number of trips to the cancer centre required for treatment.Implications and recommendations for patient education, research, and practice evolved from the findings of this study.
    • Families of the traumatically brian-injured : a case study approach to perceptions of quality of service, degree of satisfaction, and family needs /

      Moyal-Waldman, Annik S.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      The purpose of this qualitative research study was to foster an understanding of the rehabilitation counselling practice offamilies of the brain-injured. Specifically, the study explores the perceptions of stakeholders in regards to the degree of satisfaction with the quality of service received. Questionnaires were administered, and semi-structured, openended interviews were conducted, with six participating families (n=8). Preliminary data were collected via two instruments: (i) the Family Participant Questionnaire, consisting of participants' sample characteristics, information pertaining to the history of the family, details of the injury, and information relating to the type, use, and need offamily services utilized; and (ii) the Community Integration Questionnaire, a measurement of the degree of social displacementllevel of community integration of the injured family member. Utilizing the procedural steps outlined by Colaizzi's (1978) method of protocol analysis, recommendations for a future program based on related and current family needs are discussed in detail. Substantiating and supporting information are offered to rehabilitation practitioners, educational planners, and policymakers alike, concerning the degree of satisfaction with rehabilitative service, and the means of improving upon the overall quality of health care to families of the brain-injured. Implications for clinical practice and research are also raised for discussion.
    • Female administrators and the mentors who give them full support /

      Balogh, Stephany L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-05-21)
      A looming attrition rate, a steady increase in the number of women in administration, and a lack of Canadian research all provided the rationale for this study. The problem in this study was to investigate the needs and challenges of new female administrators and to examine the role that mentors play in addressing these issues. This study also explored the perceived benefits of having a mentor. This study examined the inductive year of 33 female administrators from 3 Ontario school boards. It was a qualitative and quantitative design, using questionnaire and interview data. It was found that the majority felt that they struggled with biases and expectations that were gender specific. The challenges that were perceived to be most prevalent were categorized into 4 thematic areas: Maintaining Balance, Feeling Pressured, The Perceptions of Others, and Being Challenged by Others. Regarding the benefits of mentoring, the participants perceived mentoring to be most beneficial in terms of professional growth, followed by learning how to run a school, and then career advancement. The significance of this study was threefold: it had theoretical implications as well as implications for practice and future research. Suggestions included: facilitating longitudinal relationships, having the board become more actively involved in facilitating the relationship, and implementing an internship program. This study attempted to extend the current literature by theorizing that a mentorship is cyclical in nature. Future research could include program design and implementation, as well as providing consistent and accessible mentoring opportunities for all.
    • Finding the Open Spaces in Closed Systems: An Exploration of Critical Pedagogy with a Social Justice Directive in an Ontario Secondary School Classroom

      Arnold, Lauren; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2012-08-23)
      This study examines the first experience of students, teachers, and an administrator in implementing a teacher-designed Leadership in Social Justice Program at a large urban Ontario secondary school. The program aimed to infuse a Freirean concept of critical pedagogical praxis (Freire, 1970/1993) in a grade 12 integrated educational experience with a social justice directive. Data were collected through two questionnaires and eight in-depth interviews. The data identified three areas of awareness that described ways in which student participants were impacted most profoundly (a) developing self-awareness, (b) understanding a new educational paradigm, and (c) finding a place in the world. The study found that the program was successful in highlighting the possibility for more meaningful education and engaged many students deeply; however, its success was limited by the lead teacher’s failure to fully grasp and implement tenets of Freirean critical pedagogy that involved the role of the teacher in pedagogical processes.
    • For whom the cruiser rolls: a retrospective analysis of factors relating to recidivism in a sample of graduates from a court-ordered alcohol education and awareness program

      Stoveken, Carol Ann.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      This study investigated, retrospectively, whether recidivism in a sample of court-ordered'graduates of an alcohol education and awareness program could be predicted. This alcohol education program was based on adult education principles and was philosophically akin to the thoughts of Drs. Jack Mezirow, Stephen Brookfield, and Patricia Cranton. Data on the sample of 214 Halton IDEA (Impaired Driver Education and Awareness) graduates were entered into a spread sheet. Descriptive statistics were generated. Each of the 214 program graduates had taken several tests during the course of the IDEA program. These tests measured knowledge, attitude about impaired driving, and degree of alcohol involvement. Test scores were analyzed to determine whether those IDEA graduates who recidivated differed in any measurable way from those who had no further criminal convictions after a period of at least three years. Their criminal records were obtained from the Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC). Those program graduates who reoffended were compared to the vast majority who did not reoffend. Results of the study indicated that there was no way to determine who would recidivate from the data that were collected. Further studies could use a qualitative model. Follow-up interviews could be used to determine what impact, if any, attendance at the IDEA program had on the life of the graduates.
    • Foreign trained teachers : the emergence of the right to practise their profession in Ontario

      Medic, Dragana.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2007-11-04)
      The purpose of this thesis is to examine the impact of 2 recent legal events, specifically the Fair Access to Regulated Professions Act (2006) and Siadat v. Ontario College of Teachers (2007) decision, with regards to the opportunity of foreign trained teachers to practice their profession in Ontario. The emphasis is on the case of Fatima Siadat, who was a teacher in Iran but was unable to satisfy all the licensing requirements of the Ontario College of Teachers and consequently was unable to practise her profession in Ontario. When the Ontario College of Teachers Appeals Committee upheld the previous decision of the Ontario College of Teachers Registrar to refuse to issue her a teacher's certificate, Ms. Fatima Siadat decided to initiate a lawsuit. Ms. Fatima Siadat challenged the decision ofthe Ontario College of Teachers Appeals Committee by raising a question of applicability of human rights legislation (i.e., The Ontario Human Rights Code, 1990) on the Ontario College of Teachers' decisions. The Ontario Superior Court of Justice decided in January of2007 in favour of Ms. Fatima Siadat (Siadat v. Ontario College of Teachers , 2007) and ordered that her licensing application be reconsidered by the Ontario College of Teachers Appeals Committee. In this thesis the author argues that the Fatima Siadat decision, together with the Fair Access to Regulated Professions Act, 2006, will likely make a significant contribution to enhancing the access of foreign trained teachers and other professionals to practice their regulated professions in Ontario.
    • The formation of conscience : pedagogy of the sacred

      Holtam, Beryl; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      This qualitative study explores Thomas Green's (1999) treatise, Voices: The Educational Formation of Conscience; for the purpose of reconstruing the transformative usefulness of conscience in moral education. Conscience is "reflexive judgment about things that matter" (Green, 1999, p. 21). Paul Lehmann (1963) suggested that we must "do the conscience over or do the conscience in" (p. 327). Thomas Green "does the conscience over", arguing that a philosophy of moral education, and not a moral philosophy, provides the only framework from which governance of moral behaviour can be understood. Narratives from four one-to-one interviews and a focus group are analysed and interpreted in search of: (a) awareness and understanding of conscience, (b) voices of conscience, (c) normation, (d) reflexive emotions, and (e) the idea of the sacred. Participants in this study (ages 16-21) demonstrated an active awareness of their conscience and a willingness to engage in a reflective process of their moral behaviour. They understood their conscience to be a process of self-judgment about what is right and wrong, and that its authority comes from within themselves. Narrative accounts from childhood indicated that conscience is there "from the beginning" with evidence of selfcorrecting behaviour. A maturing conscience is accompanied by an increased cognitive capacity, more complicated life experiences, and individualization. Moral motivation was grounded in " a desire to connect with things that are most important." A model for conscience formation is proposed, which visualizes a critical path of reflexive emotions. It is argued that schools, striving to shape good citizens, can promote conscience formation through a "curriculum of moral skills"; a curriculum that embraces complexity, diversity, social criticism, and selfhood.
    • Freirean Radical Love and Transformative Empathy: The Multimodal Literacies of Adolescent Social Media Activism

      Michaels, Natasha Roseline; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      The evolution of social media activism calls for a critique into the commonly accepted trope of adolescent political apathy and naivety. In this study, I explore specific examples of adolescents’ strategic use of social media platforms such as Instagram to disseminate and circulate their political beliefs. I trace a selection of memes used for spreading awareness of current social justice issues such as the #BlackLivesMatter movement in 2013 to the #StudentStandUp movement of 2018. The memes used in these social movements demonstrate how adolescents create and/or circulate memes and multimodal texts with the intention of forging empathetic connections (through words and images) to affect others into political action against social injustices. Drawing upon critical affect literacy and a Freirean model of Radical Love (1970/2005) – or an action-based love for humanity- I apply lenses of critique to examples of memes and discussions that adolescents have on online to demonstrate how critical literacy evolves and reveals their capacity to recognize and repeat patterns as a tool for sophisticated communication. The study reveals that adolescents are satisfying mandates of the Ontario English Curriculum while attesting to their empathetic use of a voluntary, leisurely, space of social media. I draw upon Dawkins (1976/2006) framework of cultural idea-meme evolution and couple it with the Foucauldian (1975/2008) idea of power relations to establish the foundational idea that power is present in the cultural competition of ideas, that creates the inequities adolescents are critiquing in social media. The study concludes that adolescents are competently using, circulating and/or creating memes to inspire revolution while demonstrating critical literacy skills.
    • From absolutes to aesthetics : John Dewey and the art of experience /

      McClelland, Kenneth A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-07-14)
      In this thesis I sought to capture something of the integrity of John Dewey's larger vision. While recognizing this to be a difficult challenge, I needed to clear some of the debris of an overly narrow reading of Dewey's works by students of education. The tendency of reducing Dewey's larger philosophical vision down to neat theoretical snap shots in order to prop up their particular social scientific research, was in my estimation slowly damaging the larger integrity of Dewey's vast body of work. It was, in short, killing off the desire to read big works, because doing so was not necessary to satisfying the specialized interests of social scientific research. In this thesis then I made a plea for returning the Humanities to the center of higher education. It is there that students learn how to read and to think—skills required to take on someone of Dewey's stature. I set out in this thesis to do just that. I took Dewey's notion of experience as the main thread connecting all of his philosophy, and focused on two large areas of inquiry, science and its relation to philosophy, and aesthetic experience. By exploring in depth Dewey's understanding of human experience as it pertains to day-to-day living, my call was for a heightened mode of artful conduct within our living contexts. By calling on the necessity of appreciating the more qualitative dimensions of lived experience, I was hoping that students engaged in the Social Sciences might begin to bolster their research interests with more breadth and depth of reading and critical insight. I expressed this as being important to the survival and intelligent flourishing of democratic conduct.
    • Gaining a better understanding of how Outward Bound Western Canada course outcomes are achieved : a research study /

      McKenzie, Marcia D.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      This study examined how Outward Bound Western Canada (OBWC) course outcomes are achieved by exploring the relationships among course components, students' characteristics, and course outcomes. OBWC is a wilderness-based adventure education organization that helps students achieve outcomes such as increased self-awareness, self-confidence, motivation, interpersonal skills, concern for others, and concern for the environment. This study explored the ways in which the various components of courses and the characteristics of students contribute to determining the outcomes students experience as a result of their courses. The purpose of the study was to gain a better understanding of how OBWC course outcomes are achieved in order to strengthen adventure education theory, enhance practice at OBWC and other adventure education organizations, and provide a foundation for further research on this topic. As an interpretive case study, this study sought to describe how OBWC course outcomes are achieved and to provide interpretations of the research findings. Data was gathered from OBWC students and instructors using the quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques of questionnaire, interview, and observation. Data collected from 98 participants ensured a considerable breadth to the study, while interviews with a number of participants also enabled the collection of in-depth data. Analysis and triangulation of the data from the various sources allowed discernment of the research findings. A comprehensive and detailed picture of how course outcomes are achieved emerged from the findings. Twenty-nine course components were found to influence course outcomes, including various aspects of course activities, the physical environment, instructors, and the group. The findings indicated that certain course components were most influential in determining increases to students' self-awareness, self-confidence, self-reliance, self-esteem, self-concept, motivation, self-responsibility, interpersonal skills, concern for others, and concern for the environment. A number of course components were found to indirectly contribute to positive course outcomes by helping maximize the effectiveness of other components, by increasing students' motivation while on course, or by facilitating the processing and transference of new information. The findings also suggested that several course components either directly or indirectly affected course outcomes in negative ways. In addition, the gender, age, population, and expectations of students were found to play a role in determining the course outcomes they experienced and in determining which course components caused those outcomes. Interpretation of the findings resulted in the generation of research-based theory. The main theoretical argument derived from the results of the study was that course outcomes are influenced by a combination of course components and characteristics of students. More specifically, the theory generated by the study indicated that five groupings of factors contribute to course outcomes, including course activities, the physical environment, instructors, the group, and students' characteristics. The study was considered in relation to existing adventure education literature and larger theoretical issues. The generated theory and research findings were then used to develop suggestions for improving practice at OBWC and other adventure education organizations, as well as for enhancing future research studies.
    • Gender bias in the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study 2003 (TIMMS) for Canadian students /

      Faber, Renata.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-01)
      This study is a secondary data analysis of the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study 2003 (TIMSS) to determine if there is a gender bias, unbalanced number of items suited to the cognitive skill of one gender, and to compare performance by location. Results of the Grade 8, math portion of the test were examined. Items were coded as verbal, spatial, verbal /spatial or neither and as conventional or unconventional. A Kruskal- Wallis was completed for each category, comparing performance of students from Ontario, Quebec, and Singapore. A Factor Analysis was completed to determine if there were item categories with similar characteristics. Gender differences favouring males were found in the verbal conventional category for Canadian students and in the spatial conventional category for students in Quebec. The greatest differences were by location, as students in Singapore outperformed students from Canada in all areas except for the spatial unconventional category. Finally, whether an item is conventional or unconventional is more important than whether the item is verbal or spatial. Results show the importance of fair assessment for the genders in both the classroom and on standardized tests.
    • The generation effect and word learning: a test of the effect of the language experience approach versus the text approach in the acquisition of new reading vocabulary

      Czaplicki, Christine.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      A class of twenty-two grade one children was tested to determine their reading levels using the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Achievement Test. Based on these results and teacher input the students were paired according to reading ability. The students ages ranged from six years four months to seven years four months at the commencement of the study. Eleven children were assigned to the language experience group and their partners became the text group. Each member of the language experience group generated a list of eight to be learned words. The treatment consisted of exposing the student to a given word three times per session for ten sessions, over a period of five days. The dependent variables consisted of word identification speed, word identification accuracy, and word recognition accuracy. Each member of the text group followed the same procedure using his/her partner's list of words. Upon completion of this training, the entire process was repeated with members of the text group from the first part becoming members of the language experience group and vice versa. The results suggest that generally speaking language experience words are identified faster than text words but that there is no difference in the rate at which these words are learned. Language experience words may be identified faster because the auditory-semantic information is more readily available in them than in text words. The rate of learning in both types of words, however, may be dictated by the orthography of the to be learned word.
    • Giving voice to lifelong learning in professional nursing practice

      Bell, Susan M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-07-09)
      The purpose of this phenomenological study was to uncover the meaning of lifelong learning to nurses in an Academic Health Care setting. Six female pediatric nurses were interviewed and audiotaped in response to 2 main questions of interpretation and engagement in lifelong learning with respect to their nursing practice. Four additional probing questions elicited responses of further qualities and characteristics of the meaning of lifelong learning. The emergent themes uncovered the characteristics and nature of the journey of lifelong learning. The themes evolved into parallel characteristics developing into the concepts of personal empowerment and occupational authorship. The personal empowerment concept involved processes whereby the participants overcame or removed barriers to engage in personal lifelong learning. Participants utilized personal power and internal motivators to sustain their engagement in lifelong learning. The occupational authorship concept involved participants controlling their exploration into lifelong learning through collaboration and recognition of occupational demands to be met as a professional. The remaining themes revealed a seasoning journey. This journey entailed a process of mastery through the themes of engagement discord, discovery pilgrimage, transforming, and maturation. The engagement in this journey resulted in their lifelong learning to becoming more intuitive and a part oftheir being. The overall theme uncovered from the journeys was one of a vocation described as a call to thinking critically of nursing practice. The participants responded to lifelong learning as a call to be a good nurse by using critical thinking through reflection, transformative and constructionist learning processes. This study gave voice to the meaning of lifelong learning in their nursing practice as interpreted by -ao the nurse participants.
    • Grade 9 students' perceptions of the impact of a Drop Everything and Read (D.E.A.R.) program /

      Corbin, Anthony.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2007-06-29)
      Educators continually look for strategies to enhance and improve the reading practices of their students. This is an especially challenging task for secondary level teachers as high school students often lack intrinsic motivation to read for pleasure (Bucher & Manning, 2004; Horton, 2005; Wooicott, Research Pty. Ltd. 2001). The purpose of this study was to detennine the effects of the Drop Everything and Read (D.E.A.R.) program on writing, on reading, and on grades, from the perspective of eight Grade 9 students. Of particular interest were the students' perceptions of the effect that participation in the program had on their grades, their writing, their motivation to reading, and their concept of themselves as readers. The eight participants were tracked over the course of a semester. Using qualitative research techniques, data were collected from four sources: two student surveys, researcher's daily field observations, students' weekly reading logs, and three open-ended one-on-one interviews. In order to gain an understanding of the impact of the D.E.A.R program, the data were corroborated, and analyzed with NVivo: N7 (2006). From the data analysis, five themes emerged as a function of the Grade 9 students' experiences in the D.E.A.R. program: Reading Preferences, Time Spent Reading, Making Associations with Reading for Pleasure, Perceptions of Self-as-Reader, and Evaluations of the D.E.A.R Program. In the interest of supporting students' positive reading habits and for the future implementation, these five themes are presented as a series of findings together with recommendations for practice.
    • Grade nine teachers' perception of how teachers, parents, peers, administrators, and community members affect the development of the grade nine student /

      Hofer, Diane Elizabeth.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to examine grade nine teachers' perception of how teachers, parents, peers, administrators, and community members influence the overall development of grade nine students. Ten grade nine teachers (four male and six female) participated in the study which consisted of the completion of a one hour, tape-recorded interview. The central findings were as follows: 1) the grade nine student has evolved; 2) peers have an important impact on the four developmental areas (physical, emotional, social, and academic) of the grade nine student; and 3) the role of the grade nine teacher appears to have dramatically changed over the last seventeen years. Suggestions and recommendations for future research in this field are based on findings related to the enhancement of the secondary school experience for the grade nine adolescent.
    • Guerrillas in the mi(d)st: a study of discreet dissension among administrators in academe /

      Plavinskis, Sandra.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-29)
      This qualitative study examines the phenomenon of discreet dissension in the administration of academe through literature review and the focused reflections of retired, senior administrators of postsecondary institutions in Ontario. Discretionary decision making is a large component of senior administrative positions. At times, senior administrators use their discretion to engage in institutionally endorsed behaviour to fulfill institutionally sanctioned objectives. At other times, senior administrators use their discretion to engage in dissenting courses of action, contrary to the prescribed and codified policies, procedures, and norms of the institution in order to achieve institutionally endorsed objectives and/or to achieve objectives congruent with individual values. Discreet dissension emerges as an administrative activity for further investigation, enhancing the understanding of the art of administration.