• An assessment of the needs of people with muscular dystrophy and related neuromuscular disorders

      Cuthbertson, Lena Neubieser.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
    • Associate-Candidate Relationships: A Study of Teacher Education Field Experiences

      Holden, Mike; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Past research has identified the importance of the relationship between teacher candidates and their associate teachers during field experiences. Through the research questions that framed the study, I sought to contribute to a growing understanding of how the associate teacher-teacher candidate relationship develops from the perspective of teacher candidates. Using an interpretive lens, I explored the associate teacher-teacher candidate relationships of 5 teacher candidates at a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario. In this instrumental multicase study, the 5 participants described 13 pairs of relationships with associate teachers who modeled varying practices. The qualitative data surrounding these case relationships were collected through a focus group and semistructured interviews. Participants’ responses were analyzed using axial coding and constant comparative analysis. Participants identified feedback, guidance, support, genuine interactions, and relationship dynamics as central to successful field experiences. Participants also suggested that associate teachers might be better supported in their role if they were offered increased professional development from the faculties of education that organize the field experiences. The findings documented offer a fresh perspective of the role of the associate teacher in successful teacher education programs, particularly as experienced by the 5 participants.
    • The association of faculty's teaching philosophy and teaching behaviour, and critical thinking and self- direction in learning

      Kreber, Carolin.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      The intent in this study was to investigate in what ways teachers· beliefs about education and teaching are expressed in the specific teaching behaviours they employ, and whether teaching behaviours, as perceived by their students, are correlated with students· critical thinking and self-directed learning. To this end the relationships studied were: among faCUlty members· philosophy of teaching, locus of control orientation, psychological type, and observed teaching behaviour; and among students· psychological type, perceptions of teaching behaviour, self-directed learning readiness, and critical thinking. The overall purpose of the study was to investigate whether the implicit goals of higher education, critical thinking and self-direction, were actually accounted for in the university classroom. The research was set within the context of path-goal theory, adapted from the leadership literature. Within this framework, Mezirow·s work on transformative learning, including the influences of Habermas· writings, was integrated to develop a theoretical perspective upon which to base the research methodology. Both qualitative and quantitative methodologies were incorporated. Four faCUlty and a total of 142 students participated in the study. Philosophy of teaching was described through faCUlty interviews and completion of a repertory grid. Faculty completed a descriptive locus of control scale, and a psychological type test. Observations of their teaching behaviour were conducted. Students completed a Teaching Behaviour Assessment Scale, the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale, a psychological type test, and the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. A small sample of students were interviewed. Follow-up discussions with faculty were used to validate the interview, observation, teaching behaviour, and repertory grid data. Results indicated that some discrepancies existed between faculty's espoused philosophy of teaching and their observed teaching behaviour. Instructors' teaching behaviour, however, was a function of their personal theory of practice. Relationships were found between perceived teaching behaviour and students· self-directed learning and critical thinking, but these varied across situations, as would be predicted from path-goal theory. Psychological type of students and instructor also accounted for some of the variability in the relationships studied. Student psychological type could be shown as a partial predictor of self-directed learning readiness. The results were discussed in terms of theory development and implications for further research and practice.
    • Athletic injury care training in high school coaches

      Kenny, Joseph P.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1985-07-09)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the client and occupational therapist experiences of a mental health group. A secondary aim was to explore the extent to which this group seemed to have reflected a client-centred approach. The topic emerged from personal and professional issues related to the therapist as teacher and to inconsistencies in practice with the profession's client-centred philosophy. This philosophy, the study's frame of reference, was established in terms of themes related to the client-therapist relationship and to client values. Typical practice was illustrated through an extensive literature review. Structured didacticexperiential methods aiming toward skill development were predominant. The interpretive sciences and, to a lesser extent, the critical sciences directed the methodology. An ongoing support group at a community mental health clinic was selected as the focus of the study; the occupational therapist leader and three members became the key participants. A series of conversational interviews, the . core method of data collection, was supplemented by observation, document review, further interviews, and fieldnotes. Transcriptions of conversations were returned to participants for verification and for further reflection Analysis primarily consisted of coding and organizing data according to emerging themes. The participants' experiences of group, presented as narrative stories within a group session vignette, were also returned to participants. There was a common understanding of the group's structure and the importance of having "air time" within the group; however, differences in perceptions of such things as the importance of the group in members' lives were noted. All members valued the therapeutic aspects of group, the role of group as weekly activity and, to a lesser extent, the learning that came from group. The researcher's perspective provided a critique of the group experience from a client-centred perspective. Some areas of consistency with client-centred practice were noted (e.g., therapist attitudes); however the group seemed to function far from a client-centred ideal. Members held little authority in a -relationship dominated by the leaders, and leader agendas rather than member values controlled the session. Possible reasons for this discrepancy ranging from past health care encounters through to co-leader discord emerged. The actual and potential significance of this study was discussed according to many areas of implications: to OT practice, especially client-centred group practice, to theory development, to further areas of research and methodology considerations, to people involved in the group and to my personal growth and development.
    • Attitudes of second year diploma nurses in three community colleges toward the use of computers in the nursing role /

      Taylor, Ruth D.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1988-06-09)
      The effectiveness of various kinds of computer programs is of concern to nurse-educators. Using a 3x3 experimental design, ninety second year diploma student nurses were randomly selected from a total population at three community colleges in Ontario. Data were collected via a 20-item valid and reliable Likert-type questionnaire developed by the nursing profession to measure perceptions of nurses about computers in the nursing role. The groups were pretested and posttested at the beginning and end of one semester. Subjects attending College A group received a computer literacy course which comprised word processing with technology awareness. College B students were exposed to computer-aided instruction primarily in nursing simulations intermittently throughout the semester. College C subjects maintained their regular curriculum with no computer involvement. The student's t-test (two-tailed) was employed to assess the attitude scores data and a one-way analysis of variance was performed on the attitude scores. Posttest analysis revealed that there was a significant difference (p<.05) between attitude scores on the use of computers in the nursing role between College A and C. No significant differences (p>.05) were seen between College B and A in posttesting. Suggestions for continued computer education of diploma student nurses are provided.
    • Attitudes toward Konglish of South Korean teachers of English in the Province of Jeollanamdo /

      Hagens, Sheilagh A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2005-06-04)
      This study examined the attitudes of South Korean teachers of English in Jeollanamdo toward Konglish, particularly in relation to English education. The literature search shows that Konglish is a typical local variety, evolved from the borrowing and redefining of English words that became part of everyday South Korean speech. Konglish is not unique in this regard. Japlish in Japan and Chinglish in China developed for similar reasons and display the distinctive characteristics of those languages. However, Konglish is usually defined as poor and incorrect. Teachers in the study expressed embarrassment, shyness, guilt, and anger about Konglish. On the other hand, they also valued it as something uniquely theirs. Teachers believed that students should not be taught that Konglish is bad English. However, students should be taught that it is poor or incorrect. With few exceptions, they correct Konglish in their classes. Teachers exhibited considerable inner conflict. They defined Konglish as valid when used in Korea with Koreans. However, some preferred that their students not use it, even with their friends. This may cause students to judge Konglish as unacceptable or inferior. The teachers believed that students should learn to distinguish between Konglish and "Standard English," and that they should learn about the contexts in which each is appropriate or preferred. The conclusion, therefore, is that South Korean teachers see the value of teaching about varieties of English. The recommendations are that intelligibility, broader communication skills, and information about International English be included in the curriculum in South Korea.
    • Auditing the Illness: Critical Analysis of Emergent Higher Education Mental Health Policy in Major Ontario Universities

      Smith, Kenneth; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Since tragic on-campus suicides like those of Elizabeth Shin, there has been a call from the community for sensible mental health policies to be developed at Canadian universities. Mental health policies in Ontario universities are still in development and what is currently being used in place of dedicated policy documentation is often cold and legalistic, or simply inappropriate for use with mental health issues. The research surrounding mental health policy in higher education is limited, as the issue of mental health in policy appears to have only recently become a point of discussion. In this study, I attempt to create that discussion, addressing legalistic and neo-liberal trends in policy. To this end, I compiled the developing frameworks and existing policies from 13 major universities across Ontario (i.e., the institutions with more than 10,000 students) and examined them for precisely these neo-liberal trends. I conclude by arguing that current procedures for handling mental health issues (including the use of student codes of conduct and no-harm contracts) are not humanistic but, instead, bureaucratic. I also note that some of the currently developing mental health policies show many of the same tendencies. I caution policy makers to consider a more humanistic approach to mental health policies if on-campus tragedies are to be avoided.
    • An Autoethnography on the Liminal Spaces in an Intensive Care Unit

      Nezavdal, Aimee; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Liminality is an in-between space that, as for the teenager who is neither fully child nor adult, accompanies new norms, routines, and expectations while simultaneously remaining in flux. This thesis explores the history of liminality, its presence in the literature, and then applies Victor Turner’s notion of liminality to various as-yet unexplored aspects of a hospital, its Intensive Care Unit, and life itself within this context. In this autoethnography, the author, an ICU nurse, identifies and describes such liminal spaces as the Code Blue where a patient is neither dead nor alive, the challenge of caring for patients for whom the nurse believes treatments to be futile, and the ways in which the nurse finds humour within a context of death. Fictional literature is employed throughout to demonstrate how liminality feels to the author, who invites the reader to look behind the hospital room curtain and see what the ICU nurse sees.
    • Becoming a Queer Teacher: Perceptions of Queer Teacher Candidates in Initial Teacher Education Programs

      Fleet, Courtenay; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This study used narrative inquiry to explore the experiences of queer teacher candidates during their Initial Teacher Education Programs (ITEP) in Ontario. The study sought to further investigate: (a) stories teacher candidates tell about being queer in ITEPs; (b) how queer teacher candidates respond to social bias and stereotypes in the learning community; and (c) if and how queer teacher candidates’ narratives can inform teacher education reform. Through interviews and lettered correspondence, the participants and I share stories of being queer in ITEPs. The study examined our stories using Clandinin and Connelly’s (2000) 3 commonplaces of temporality, sociality, and place, as well as, Ciuffetelli Parker’s (2013, 2014) 3-R narrative elements of narrative reveal, narrative revelation, and narrative reformation. Four themes emerged: the complexity of the queer teacher candidates’ experience; the separation of personal and professional identity; silencing; and shame. These poignant narratives contribute to the literature by providing a context for teacher education programs and researchers to reconsider teacher education reform.
    • Books on the border land : a Mennonite woman's memoir of reading and remembering the sacred

      Klassen-Dueck, Pam; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      This arts-based thesis, written from my perspective as a Manitoba Mennonite woman and English Language Arts educator, is a memoir of books and reading. As a voracious reader, I am dismayed by the general perception of literacy in public schools as being a set of measureable tasks, and I have found that reading, in particular, has become divorced from its traditional link to life-giving and sacred things. In this thesis, I used life writing to share some of my reading history to illustrate, in part, the degree to which books may enrich our lives by helping us understand the past, present, and future - but only if we allow them to do so.
    • Breaking the silence : exploring the workplace experiences of six women with learning disabilities

      Augustin, Melissa L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2012-07-04)
      In the current economic climate, employees are expected to upgrade their skills in order to remain productive and competitive in the workplace, and many women with learning disabilities! may feel doubly challenged when dealing with such expectations. Although the number of people with reported learning disabilities who enter the workforce is expected to increase, a dearth of research focuses on work-related experiences of women with learning disabilities; consequently, employers and educators often are unaware ofthe obstacles and demands facing such individuals. This qualitative narrative study sheds light on the work experiences of women with diagnosed or suspected learning disabilities. The study used semistructured interviews to explore their perspectives and reflections on learnlng in order to: (a) raise awareness of the needs of women with learning disabilities, (b) enhance their opportunities to learn in the workplace, and (c) draw attention to the need for improvement of inclusiveness in the workplace, especially for hidden disabilities. Study findings reveal that participants' learning was influenced by work relationships, the learning environments, self-determination, and taking personal responsibility. Moreover, the main accommodation requested was to have supportive and understanding work relationships and environments. Recommendations are made for future research and workplace improvements, most notably that no employees should be left behind through an employee-centered approach.
    • Bullying in the Same-Sex Friendships of Young Adolescent Girls: A Qualitative Study

      Stiller, Sajah; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-03-26)
      This qualitative, narrative study explored the bullying experiences of young adolescent girls within their same-sex dyadic and group friendships. The participants were 5 female students, ages 11 and 12 years old, from 1 private, religious school in southern Ontario. Each girl participated in an audiotaped, 30-minute, personal interview based on an unstructured interview protocol. Interview transcripts were analyzed for bullying behaviors using Marini and Dane's (2008) subtypes of bullying, including the form, function, and involvement in bullying. Interview transcripts were also analyzed for common and emerging themes using aspects of L. M., Brown and Gilligan's (1992) "Listener's Guide." The findings of this study suggested that within their same-sex friendships girls assume the roles of all participants in bullying, including bullies, victims, bystanders, and bully-victims. The findings also suggested that bullying behaviors within young adolescent girls' same-sex friendships are mainly indirect in their mode of attack and that they are both proactive and reactive. The bully behaviors identified in this study were used to inform the major themes or salient features within the dynamics of girls' same-sex friendships also identified. These themes included acceptance, intimacy, negotiation, inclusion/exclusion, moral character judgements, and power. The findings of this study will be used to inform current theory, personal and professional practice, as well as future research.
    • Business leadership in the classroom

      MacRae, John Donald.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      This action research assesses a framework that assists business educators in promoting leadership within a classroom. It is designed to better prepare students to assume leadership and fill the "leadership gap" in business. Two classes of 2nd-year community college business students participated in running and managing their own business community as teams of sales professionals by developing and practicing their own individual leadership for 28 weeks during their sales courses. The intent was to assess the development of leadership resulting from the implementation of the "Business Leadership in the Classroom" framework. This framework balances leadership principles to simulate a business environment with the practical elements of a learning community under the facilitation of an experienced business educator. The action research approach was used to assess and adjust approaches to business leadership on a continuous basis throughout the research. Data were collected from 61 students based on journals, surveys, peer group reviews, and my (facilitator) reflective journal.The findings reveal that both individual and collective business leadership views and practical skills developed over time. A business leadership mind-set evolved that ranged from a general awareness of the importance of leadership, to a conscious and deliberate use of individual leadership. Areas important in building a progression of leadership included: leadership teams, membership roles, weekly leadership teams, peer feedback, and activity-based learning. Emerging themes included leadership, leadership style, teamwork, as well as influence and motivation. The research framework was effective in supporting the development of business leadership but required some adjustments. These included increased structure and feedback mechanisms. Interpretation of the findings demonstrates the importance of real-world practical education in the classroom. Results show how focusing on a single mind-set such as business leadership, can result in enormous individual growth and development. When business students are encouraged to act as real businesspeople, managing their own learning, the results are effective in preparing them for the business world. All participants expressed their leadership in different ways based on personality and individual strengths. There was an overwhelming and, in some cases, passionate interest in leadership. The use of action research with a range of data collection methods provides a way to measure and track individual student learning and to generate adjustments to the research framework design and learning approaches. The findings generate implications and recommendations to continue this research further. Key recommendations center around how to ensure leadership development is sustained, including improved approaches to heighten the real-world feel of the classroom. Specifically, the use of leadership goals and action plans for each individual participant and an active use of outside business resource people as contacts for participants is recommended.
    • Can poor readers visually recognize words they are unable to read? /

      McNeil, Alan M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      The ability to learn new reading vocabulary was assessed in 30 grade 3 poor readers reading approximately one to two years below grade level; the results of the assessment were compared to the performance abilities of 33 normal readers in grade 3 as obtained from an earlier study that employed the same approach and stimuli. The purpose of the study was to examine the strategies employed by poor readers in the acquisition of new reading vocabulary. Students were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (Mixed Phonics Explicit), or to a control group (Phonics Implicit). Subjects in the Mixed Phonics Explicit groups received explicit letter/sound correspondence training. Subjects in the Phonics Implicit group were asked to re-read the presented pseudo-words, receiving corrective feedback when necessary. The stimuli on which the subjects were trained involved a list of six pseudo-words presented in sentences as surnames. The training involved a teaching and test format on each trial for a total of six trials or until criterion had been reached. The results suggested that both normal and poor readers engage in visual learning and verbal coding when acquiring new reading vocabulary. However, poor readers appear to engage in less verbal coding than normal readers. Between group comparisons showed no difference between poor and normal readers in trials and errors to criterion in the visual recognition memory measure. However, normal readers performed significantly better in reading their visual recognition choices.
    • Cardiovascular health risk profiling of Niagara Region grade 9 students : implications for elementary curriculum /

      Canham, Corey H.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if Ontario's health and physical education curriculum contributes sufficiently to ensure the health of our children and young adults. To determine the curriculum effect, the health risk profile of Niagara Region's grade 9 students was compared to Canada's adolescent population. All subjects completed a "Heart Health Lifestyle" survey and were measured for height, weight, percent body fat, blood pressure, and total cholesterol and performed the 20-metre shuttle run test as part of their physical and health education classes. The Niagara Region grade 9 population had a healthy risk profile. Aerobic power was inversely related, and cholesterol levels were positively associated to body mass index and percent body fat in the whole group analysis. These results indicate that physical education can offer unique and essential aspects allowing individuals a means to learn and control body movements and keep physically fit while providing protection against modern disease. Ontario's health and physical education curriculum does contribute to the health of our children and adolescents; however, there is a need to implement a stronger mandate for daily vigorous physical activity.
    • Career paths of educational administrators

      Harrison, A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      Ten superintendents~ 5 male and 5 female~ were randomly selected from a possible 33 males and 9 females in the Niagara and Hamilton regions. The participants were interviewed through a guided interview process coupled with an accounting of their educational and career histories. They were asked to discuss significant aspects of their careers such as the support they had received from families, from mentors and from involvement in networks. The data collected were then analyzed for similarities and differences both within and between the two gender cohorts. Upon analysis, it was found that the female and male administrators possessed differences in their personal backgrounds as well as their career and educational histories. Differences were also found in the perceived role of mentors, and networks. The ways in which the female administrators experienced their careers were found to be quite different from the ways in which the male administrators experienced their careers.
    • A case study of a high functioning autistic female in a games setting

      Perusin, Adriano.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      This study detennined whether or not a high functioning autistic girl can develop game structure strategies that may allow her to become an active participant in a game or sport environment. This qualitative case study involved the in-depth observation and description of one high functioning autistic student whose experience in a game setting would be studied. The type of case study carried out was a combination of descriptive and evaluative. This experience was investigated through structured, individual programming. Through on-site observation, journal entries, and hands on instruction, I was able to describe what progress the autistic student made in tenns of skill development. The results of the study demonstrated that a high-functioning autistic female has the potential to develop the necessary motor skills to participate in the chosen sport of basketball. The observation results and field notes contributed to a movement profile which described her habits of body. Teaching strategies and frameworks utilized during the study were described and listed. Insights and commentary are further provided. A thorough examination of autism and games programming is provided in the literature review.
    • The challenges and successful strategies of secondary school administrators /

      Brochu, Yvan.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      This study presents information gathered during personal interviews in the area of challenges that administrators have faced in their careers, and the strategies they have found to be successful in meeting those challenges. This research is a qualitative study, using an inductive approach. Five participants were chosen, based on convenience sampling, with semi-structured interviews that were audio recorded. The theoretical research found that school violence and stafS'school morale were key challenges facing administrators, with a variety of approaches suggested to foster success in meeting those challenges. Some of these approaches included knowledge, team work, an ethic of care, and having a school vision. From the interviews it became clear that the challenges administrators faced included those posed by students, including disciplinary issues, those posed by adults and those posed by government changes in education. In regards to strategies for success, the interviews revealed three key concepts that were emphasized as vital. These were the assets of craft knowledge (experience), collegiality, and the use of other professional resources and educators.
    • Changes in education and student-centred learning as related to senior secondary school English

      Gounden, Cyril M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      The main purpose of this thesis is to t r ace broadly the educational changes in the past two decades showing a shift of emphasis from a teacher-directed, content-centred philosophy of teaching to a self-directed, student-centred mode of learning. The major justification for an Independent or an Individualized Learning programme with emphasis on "the response to literature approach" is 2 to produce the independent learner. Comprehensive r eading and t he use of t he ERIC system reveal widespread educational thought and practice related t o Individualization and Independent Study as a really democratic way of learning with freedom, independence and responsibility.
    • Changing roles of nurse educators employed in acute and chronic care settings : the impact of professional and statutory mandates in Ontario at four sites of one hospital corporation /

      Phillips, Lori-Ann.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      The role of the hospital-employed nurse educator is evolving. Factors influencing this change include the introduction of standards for nurse educators by the College of Nurses of Ontario (CNO), a change in the way nurses are educated, the emergence of nursing as a profession, and hospital restructuring as a result of budgetary constraints. Two of these influencing factors: the introduction of the updated Standards of Practice for Registered Nurses and Registered Practical Nurses (1996) and hospital restructuring occurred over the last 7 years at several hospitals in southern Ontario. Current literature as well as the Standards of Practice (1996) were utilized to examine the current roles and responsibilities of nurse educators and subsequently develop a questionnaire to study the impact of these influencing factors on the role of the nurse educator. This questionnaire was piloted and revised before its distribution at 4 hospitals in southern Ontario. Twenty-five of the 41 surveys (61%) distributed were returned for analysis. The data reflected that the Standards of Practice had a positive influence on the role of the nurse educator, while hospital restructuring had a negative impact. In addition, many of the roles and responsibilities identified in the literature were indeed part of the current role of nurse educators, as well as several responsibilities not captured in the literature. The predictions for the future of this role in its current state were not positive given the financial status of the health care system as well as the lack of clarity for the role and the current level ofjob satisfaction among practicing nurse educators. However, a list of recommendations were generated which, if implemented, could add clarity to the role and improve job satisfaction. This could enhance the retention of current nurse educators and the possibility of recruiting competent nurse educators to the role in the future.