• The effectiveness of a multisensory writing program in improving cursive writing ability in children with sensorimotor difficulties

      Lockhart, Julia.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1991-07-09)
      It is estimated that five to ten percent of children experience sensory motor difficulties that result in various learnlng disabilitiies , among them. inabllity to output Information on paper in the appropriate manner (Ayres ,1985). The relationship between sensorimotorabillty and handwriting is well documented in the literature (Freeman,1917; Townsend , 1951; Nlkola-Ll sa, 1987). While much of the literature is inconclusive, there are findings to suggest that muitisensory handwriting programmes are an effective approach to improvlng writing abIlity in these chlldren. For a number of years, Occupational Therapists have been involved in the remediation of handwriting utllizing , amongst other approaches . multisensory programmes. While subjective assessments of effectiveness have been extremerly positive. scientIfic evaluation has been minimal . If further intervention in this area is to occur, it Is essential that the profession be able to justify the existence of such programmes . The purpose of this study was to examine what effects a multlsensory writing prog~am would have on the curslve writing ability of chlldren with sensorimotor dlfficulties. A single case with multiple baselines across be havlours design was used , with the behavlours being cursive writing abilIty of fIve distInct letter groups. The fIve groups were taught in random order, one group every two weeks , In a one-hour session. Repeated measurements of writing speed and qualIty for each letter group were made. This design was repeated over three other cases . Results of the study yielded statistical signifi cance in trend changes In specIfic letter groups for all of the chlldren following interventlon. One child achieved statistical significance In the overall change In quality , while none of the children achieved overall statistical significance In speed score changes . Teacher reports and an assessment of written language prior to and following the program suggest that Intervention may have had a positive effect on self-confidence in written output, and on the maturlty of written expression in some of the cases . Further research in this field is needed to validate the continual use of multisensory writing programmes by Occupational Theraplsts worklng with this specific population and to provide some directlon with regards to the Integration of multlsensory writing programmes within the regular academic remedial programme .
    • Effectiveness of computer training on attentional skills

      Henderson, R. Dianne.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1992-07-09)
      This paper presents two studies, both examining the efficacy of a computer programme (Captain's Log) in training attentional skills. The population of interest is the traumatically brain injured. Study #1 is a single-case design that offers recommendations for the second, .larger (N=5) inquiry. Study #2 is an eight-week hierarchical treatment programme with a multi-based testing component. Attention, memory, listening comprehension, locus-of-control, self-esteem, visuo-spatial, and general outcome measures are employed within the testing schedule. Results suggest that any improvement was a result of practice effects. With a few single-case exceptions, the participants showed little improvement in the dependent measures.
    • Effectiveness of instructional strategies based on schema theory on attention deficit disorder children

      Killins, J. J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      A review of the literature reveals that there are a number of children in the educational system who are characterized by Attention Deficit Disorder. Further review of the literature reveals that there are information processing programs which have had some success in increasing the learning of these children. Currently, an information processing program which is based on schema theory is being implemented in Lincoln County. Since schema theory based programs build structural, conditional, factual, and procedural schemata which assist the learner in attending to salient factors, learning should be increased. Thirty-four children were selected from a random sampling of Grade Seven classes in Lincoln County. Seventeen of these children were identified by the researcher and classroom teacher as being characterized by Attention Deficit Disorder. From the remaining population, 17 children who were not characterized by Attention Deficit Disorder were randomly selected. The data collected were compared using independent t-tests, paired t-tests, and correlation analysis. Significant differences were found in all cases. The Non-Attention Deficit Disorder children scored significantly higher on all the tests but the Attention Defici t Disorder children had a significantly higher ratio of gain between the pretests and posttests.
    • The Effectiveness of Learning Portfolios: A Study of Quality Assurance Programs of Selected Health Regulatory Colleges in Ontario

      Tompkins, Marianne Louise; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-03-26)
      Health regulatory colleges promote quality practice and continued competence through Quality Assurance (QA) programs. For many colleges, a QA program includes the use of portfolios that incorporate self-directed learning. The purpose of this study was to determine some of the issues surrounding the effectiveness of QA portfolio programs. The literature review revealed that portfolios are valuable tools, but gaps in knowledge include a comparative analysis of QA programs and the perspective of regulatory college administrators. Data were collected through interviews with 6 administrators and a review of 14 portfolio models described on college websites. The results from the two data sources were applied to Robert Stake's responsive evaluation framework to identify issues related to the portfolio's effectiveness (Stake, 1967). The learning components of portfolios were analyzed through the humanist and constructivist lenses. All 14 portfolio models were found to have 3 main components: self-diagnosis, learning plan and activities, and self-evaluation. However, differences were uncovered in learners' autonomy in selecting learning activities, methods of portfolio evaluation, and the relationship between the portfolio and other QA components. The results revealed a dual philosophy of learning in portfolio models and an apparent contradiction between the needs of the individual learner and the organization. Paths for future research include the tenuous relationship between competence and learning, and the impact of technical approaches on selfdirected learning initiatives. A key recommendation is to acknowledge the unique identity of each profession so that health regulatory colleges can address legislative demands and learner needs.
    • Effectiveness of life skills training on the total behaviour of six individuals in a job preparation program

      Isber, Annette M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1986-07-09)
      In the first week of a Job preparation Program all twelve female members of the class were invited to be part of a study to determine the effect of Life Skills training on their behaviour over the twelve-week period of the program. Six females volunteered and each was interviewed four times during the Job preparation Program and once after the program ended. The interviews focused on three areas of skill deficiency addressed in Life Skills lessons: their knowledge about themselves and attitude towards themselves; their interpersonal relationships; and their problem-solving ability. The participants' comments over the sixteen-week period of the interviews were used to decide if the total behaviour of the participants, (i.e., what they did, thought, and felt) changed so that each became more effective in satisfying her needs. The study suggested that the total behaviour of three of the six women changed so that they became more effective in satisfying their needs. The fourth female's total behaviour changed in only two of the three areas focused on in the interviews, and the total behaviour of the fifth and sixth females showed no change.
    • The Effectiveness of the precision fluency shaping program controlling stuttering behaviour in adults

      Barnard, Trudy Helga Maria.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1987-07-09)
      This study was done to test the effectiveness of the Precision Fluency Shaping Program in controlling stuttering behaviour in adults. Two sites were chosen, each using the Precision Fluency Shaping Program to treat stuttering. At each clinic, a Speech Patbologist made a random selection of the subjects' pre- and post-therapy video-taped interviews, totalling 20 in all. During the interviews, the clients were asked questions and re~d a short passage to determine the frequency of stuttering in natural conversation and in reading. Perceptions of Stuttering Inventory questionnaires vvere also filled in before and after therapy. Two judges were trained to identify stuttering behaviour, and were given an inter-rater reliability test at selected intervals throughout the study. Protocols",:m.a;d;6 of each interview tape, were scored for (a) stuttering behaviour and (b) words spoken or read. An Analysis of Variance Repeated Measures Test was used to compare before and after scores of conversations, readings, and Perceptions of Stuttering Inventory to determine whether the Precision Fluency Shaping Program controlled stuttering behaviour significantly. A Pearson R Correlation Test was also administered to determine if a relationship existed bet\veen Perceptions of Stuttering Inventory and (i) conversation and (ii) reading scores.
    • The effects of a language intervention program on the phonological and word awareness skills of language-delayed kindergarten children

      Weir, Donna.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1992-07-09)
      Over the past decade, research has suggested that phonological and word awareness skills (i.e., the ability to reflect on and manipulate the components of language) are important for early reading acquisition. This study examined the phonological and word awareness skills of language-delayed kindergarten children at the beginning and end of a language intervention program using five tasks. The results were compared to the performances of average kindergarten children who did not participate in the language intervention program. There were significant performance differences for all tasks, favouring the average children, at the beginning of the intervention program. However, at the end of the training interval, the languagedelayed children performed as well as the average children.
    • Effects of a preschool parent enrichment programme on children and their parents /

      Battye, Rosamund C.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1991-07-14)
      This study evaluated a preschool parent enrichment programme to assess if child and parent involvement in the programme facilitated the children's subsequent school adjustment. Also examined were the programme's effects on parent-child relationships. Participants were 56 Junior-Senior Kindergarten and Grade One students from one elementary school. Parent participants were 12 parents from the preschool parent enrichment programme, 6 parents whose children had attended other preschool programmes, and 6 parents whose children had remained at home prior to school. Five elementary teachers and both nursery school teachers from the parent enrichment programme also participated. Measures used included the Florida Key to assess children's inferred self-concept as learner and four subscales (relating, asserting, coping and investing), and interviews to assess parent and teacher perceptions. Findings indicated that there was little difference between parent and teacher perceptions about children who had attended a preschool programme. Both groups showed improved social, emotional, and behavioural skill development, together with increased self-esteem, and the ability to cope with separation from their parents. This enabled children to make the transition from preschool to primary school more successful. Children from the parent enrichment programme were not readily identifiable in terms of the profile promulgated for disadvantaged children. The Florida Key showed a main effect for the coping subscale, indicating that children from the parent enrichment programme may show more confidence in their abilities, and seek assistance from teachers than children who had no preschool experience. The parent enrichment programme appeared to have the biggest impact on the parents. Parents reported improved relationships with their children, increased confidence and self-esteem, as well as improved parenting and general life skills. The implications for short-term gains for children from this type of programme are better readiness for school, more positive self-esteem, improved social behaviour, and a higher achievement motivation. The long-term gains for children are predicted to be fewer special education placements, less grade retention, and a lower dropout rate from school. The short-term gains for parents are better social support networks," greater self-confidence, better interactions with children, and improved parenting skills. The long-term benefits may be an increased motivation to continue education, gain employment, and less family breakdown and abuse.
    • The effects of computer assisted interactive fiction on the development of reading comprehension in grade five students

      Whitelock, Robert F.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      This study was undertaken in order to determine the effects of playing computer based text adventure games on the reading comprehension gains of students. Forty-five grade five students from one elementary school were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, and were tested with regard to ability, achievement and reading skills. An experimental treatment, consisting of playing computer based interactive fiction games of the student's choice for fifteen minutes each day over an eight-week period, was administered. A comparison treatment engaged the control group in sustained silent reading of materials of the student's choice for an equal period of time. Following the experimental period all students were post-tested with an alternate form of the pre-test in reading skills, and gain scores were analysed. It was found that there were no significant differences in the gain scores of the experimental and control groups for overall reading comprehenSion, but the experimental group showed greater gains than the control group in the structural analysis reading sub-skill. Extreme variance in the data made generalization very difficult, but the findings indicated a potential for computer based interactive fiction as a useful tool for developing reading sl<ills. The great need for further research in the same vein was highlighted in the conclusions.
    • Effects of computer-mediated communication and face-to-face communication on the quantity and quality of discourse produced by English as a second language students /

      Epp, Katherine E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-05-21)
      The effects oftwo types of small-group communication, synchronous computer-mediated and face-to-face, on the quantity and quality of verbal output were con^ared. Quantity was deiSned as the number of turns taken per minute, the number of Analysis-of-Speech units (AS-units) produced per minute, and the number ofwords produced per minute. Quality was defined as the number of words produced per AS-unit. In addition, the interaction of gender and type of communication was explored for any differences that existed in the output produced. Questionnaires were also given to participants to determine attitudes toward computer-mediated and face-to-face communication. Thirty intermediate-level students fi-om the Intensive English Language Program (lELP) at Brock University participated in the study, including 15 females and 15 males. Nonparametric tests, including the Wilcoxon matched-pairs test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Friedman test were used to test for significance at the p < .05 level. No significant differences were found in the effects of computer-mediated and face-to-face communication on the output produced during follow-up speaking sessions. However, the quantity and quality of interaction was significantly higher during face-to-face sessions than computer-mediated sessions. No significant differences were found in the output produced by males and females in these 2 conditions. While participants felt that the use of computer-mediated communication may aid in the development of certain language skills, they generally preferred face-to-face communication. These results differed fi-om previous studies that found a greater quantity and quality of output in addition to a greater equality of interaction produced during computer-mediated sessions in comparison to face-to-face sessions (Kern, 1995; Warschauer, 1996).
    • The effects of day care at the kindergarten level : day care centre versus in-home care

      Butcher, B. M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1995-07-09)
      Two groups of nonmaternal day care providers, one made up of in-horne caregivers, and the other of providers of day care in centres, were asked to focus on their goals for the children in their care. A group of kindergarten teachers was asked to consider any differences they noticed in children in· the two types of day care mentioned above. It was found that in-horne caregivers, through flexibility, meet the developmental goals of the children in their care. Providers of tlay care in centres used a more structured and social program in order to meet the overall developmental goals for the children in their care. It was found that the kindergarten teachers noticed differences in the children in their classes in terms of their attitude and social behaviour. The type and quality of care were seen as possible influences on this outlook of young children in kindergarten. The one common element that each group highlighted with respect to the effects of day care at the kindergarten level was the important role of the family in the child's development not only in day care, but also in kindergarten class. There is still a strong need to determine the effects of various types of day care at all levels, and specifically at the kindergarten level. The more the kindergarten teacher is able to understand about the child's day care experience, and his or her own life,the better off these children in day care will be. This study confirmed both the importance of quality in child care, and the important role of the family in the child care decision.
    • The effects of teaching a mathematics problem solving strategy on the problem solving ability of grade nine students

      Smith, J. E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      Forty grade 9 students were selected from a small rural board in southern Ontario. The students were in two classes and were treated as two groups. The treatment group received instruction in the Logical Numerical Problem Solving Strategy every day for 37 minutes over a 6 week period. The control group received instruction in problem solving without this strategy over the same time period. Then the control group received the treat~ent and the treatment group received the instruction without the strategy. Quite a large variance was found in the problem solving ability of students in grade 9. It was also found that the growth of the problem solving ability achievement of students could be measured using growth strands based upon the results of the pilot study. The analysis of the results of the study using t-tests and a MANOVA demonstrated that the teaching of the strategy did not significaritly (at p s 0.05) increase the problem solving achievement of the students. However, there was an encouraging trend seen in the data.
    • The efficacy of cognitive retraining of attentional deficits for a client who has schizophrenia

      Tryssenaar, Joyce.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Process Specific Approach to cognitive rehabilitation for a client with schizophrenia who has attentional deficits. The study was a single case experimental design which followed a variation of the multiple baseline approach. Prior to training of the attentional deficit, multiple baseline assessments were completed. These included an ov:erview of the sUbject's information processing ability, random measures of attention and a genera.l level of functioning in living, learning and working environments. During the re-training, attention tests were administered at the completion of each attention component. A general functional evaluation through interviews and a measure of information processing ability were. completed after the re-training was concluded. The results of the study demonstrate a significant i'mprovement in attention and memory measures. Qualitative data indicate si·gni.ficant others observed improvements in performance in r livi'ng, learning and working environments. The results suggest this approach to cognitive rehabilitation was effective with this subject and further research to establish generalizability is recommended.
    • Elaborative interrogation as a learning technique for students with learning disabilities

      Stockley, Denise.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1995-07-09)
      This study examined whether or not students with learning disabilities could effectively use a question and answer strategy known as elaborative interrogation. This technique involved students answering why they thought facts based on familiar animal stories were true. Thirty students from a provincial demonstration high school (for students with learning disabilities) were assigned to one of two study conditions, (a) elaborative interrogation or (b) reading for understanding. Three students, one from the experimental condition and two from the control did not complete the study. Both conditions required that the students learn 36 facts concerning six familiar animals. Immediately following the study session the students completed a free-recall test, a matched association test and a questionnaire regarding their perceived difficulty of the animal stories. After 30 days a matched association test was completed. The oneway ANOVA, 2 x 2 split plot ANOVA and Tukey's Honestly Significant Test were used to determine significance. There was no significant difference in the two conditions for free recall retention. There were significant differences in the elaborative interrogation condition for the immediate matched association test and for the 30-day matched association test. The probability of the students' responses in the elaborative interrogation were measured to determine the effects of adequate responses on long-term retention. It was found that the adequate responses were more likely to promote retention than inadequate responses. In conclusion, long-term retention of factual information was significantly better in the elaborative interrogation condition in comparison to the reading for understanding control. For future research, the dependent measure, free recall should be given both verbally and in written format. In addition, extra time should be allowed for processing of the new information to occur.
    • The elderly : reminiscing, coping with loss, accepting death

      Neff, Shirley.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1995-07-09)
      This study investigated loss, death and dying, reminiscing, coping and the process of adaptation from the sUbjective perspective. A number of theories and models of death and dying were reviewed in the background literature search with the focus on reminiscing as a coping phenomenon. The format of the study was audio-taped interviews with ten sUbjects and the recording of their memories and reminiscing of life stories. The sUbjects were required to complete an initial questionnaire in a demographic data collection process. Two separate interviews consisted of a primary data collecting interview and a verification interview four to eight weeks later. An independent chart review completed the data collecting process. Data analysis was by the examination of the emerging themes in the subjects' personal narratives which revealed the sUb-categories of reminiscing, loss (including death and dying), acceptance, hope, love, despair and belief. Belief was shown to be the foundation and the base for living and reminiscing. Reminiscing was found to be a coping phenomenon, within the foundation of a belief system. Both living and reminiscing revealed the existence of a central belief or value with a great deal of importance attached to it. Whether the belief was of a spiritual nature, a value of marriage, tradition, a work ethic or belief in an abstract value such as fate,it gave support and control to the individuals' living and reminiscing process. That which caused despair or allowed acceptance indicated the sUbjects' basic belief and was identified in the story narrations. The findings were significant to health care in terms of education, increased dignity for the elderly and better understanding by society. The profiles represented an average age of 86.3 years with age showing no bearing on the life experiences associated with the emerging themes. Overwhelmingly, belief was shown to be the foundation in reminiscing. A Judeo-Christian cultural value base supported the belief in 90% of the sUbjects; however, different beliefs were clearly shown indicating that belief is central to all thinking beings, in everyday life and in reminiscing. Belief was not necessarily spiritual or a practised or verbalized religion. It was shown to be a way of understanding, a fundamental and single thread tying the individual's life and stories together. The benefits were the outcomes, in that knowledge of an individual's belief can optimize care planning for any age group, and/or setting. The strength of the study was the open question format and the feedback process of data verification. The unrestricted outcomes and non-specificity were significant in a world where dying is everybody's business.
    • Elementary computer-mediated online distance education : identification of criteria for successful implementation and practice

      McCaughey, W. Greg.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-07-09)
      This study had three purposes related to the effective implem,entation and practice of computer-mediated online distance education (C-MODE) at the elementary level: (a) To identify a preliminary framework of criteria 'or guidelines for effective implementation and practice, (b) to identify areas ofC-MODE for which criteria or guidelines of effectiveness have not yet been developed, and (c) to develop an implementation and practice criteria questionnaire based on a review of the distance education literature, and to use the questionnaire in an exploratory survey of elementary C-MODE practitioners. Using the survey instrument, the beliefs and attitudes of 16 elementary C'- MODE practitioners about what constitutes effective implementation and practice principles were investigated. Respondents, who included both administrators and instructors, provided information about themselves and the program in which they worked. They rated 101 individual criteria statenlents on a 5 point Likert scale with a \. point range that included the values: 1 (Strongly Disagree), 2 (Disagree), 3 (Neutral or Undecided), 4 (Agree), 5 (Strongly Agree). Respondents also provided qualitative data by commenting on the individual statements, or suggesting other statements they considered important. Eighty-two different statements or guidelines related to the successful implementation and practice of computer-mediated online education at the elementary level were endorsed. Response to a small number of statements differed significantly by gender and years of experience. A new area for investigation, namely, the role ofparents, which has received little attention in the online distance education literature, emerged from the findings. The study also identified a number of other areas within an elementary context where additional research is necessary. These included: (a) differences in the factors that determine learning in a distance education setting and traditional settings, (b) elementary students' ability to function in an online setting, (c) the role and workload of instructors, (d) the importance of effective, timely communication with students and parents, and (e) the use of a variety of media.
    • Elementary School Principals as Leaders of Inclusion for Students With Exceptionalities

      McInnis, James R.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-08-30)
      Inclusion promotes equality, provides opportunities, breaks down barriers, and ensures accessibility for all members of a community. Consequently, elementary-school administrators should become inclusion leaders who introduce and maintain inclusive learning environments. This qualitative study profiled and discussed practices and beliefs of 4 elementary school principals in southern Ontario who are recognized leaders of inclusion for students with exceptionalities. The researcher used multiple instruments for triangulation, thematic qualitative data analysis (constant comparative method) of interview responses and reflective field notes, and data from the Principal and Inclusion Survey to interpret qualitative findings. Findings revealed distinct leadership profiles reflective of empathy and compassion among participants who all regard accommodation of students with exceptionalities as a moral obligation and view inclusion as a socially just pedagogical framework. The researcher recommends that senior school board administrators screen and secure principals who value inclusion to create and maintain school cultures that ensure students’ access to inclusive education.
    • Elements that contribute to staff nurses' commitment to lifelong professional development

      Gillies, Leslie.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1998-07-09)
      This research explored the elements that contribute to staff nurses' commitment to lifelong professional development. This exploration has been undertaken to provide insights into those factors that motivate individuals to continue their education for professional development and for clinical practice improvement. This study was conducted in an acute care hospital in Southern Ontario, and investigated the thoughts and experiences ofhealth care staffworking within that setting. A qualitative case study was undertaken which involved the collection of interview, document, and class observation data. Two exemplary clinical nurse educators and two motivated, professionally committed staffnurses were interviewed during the study. Teaching document review and observation ofclasses involving the clinical nurse educators were conducted to facilitate triangulation of fmdingswith data sources and strategies. These participants provided rich data that were captured in field notes and coded for conceptual meaning. Emerging from the data were the identification ofthree major elements of influence that contribute to staffnurses' commitment to lifelong professional development. Identified within the three intersecting spheres of influence upon staff nurses' lifelong commitment to professionalleaming were the environment, the clinical nurse educator, and the staff nurse. This research explored the intersecting spheres of influence and the elements within the partnership model ofprofessional education for staff nurses.
    • Emancipatory pedagogies in a grade 11 social studies classroom

      Munroe, Devonna; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2011-10-14)
      This study aimed to uncover the incorporation of transformative pedagogies into the social studies curriculum. This educational approach aims to educate students about a variety of forms of oppression based on race, gender, sexuality, class, ethnicity, and culture, through the use of dialogue to uncover the students' understanding and personal experience with these concepts. This study examined the impact of discussing these topics in a grade 11 class of 22 White students (of various cultural, ethnic, and religious backgrounds). The teacher, Kelvin, and two of his students were interviewed and his class was observed on four occasions over a 2-week period. Based on the data I collected, I argue that a range of emancipatory teaching approaches should be used in critical classroom discourse. These different approaches emphasize the importance of critical thinking, the ability to recognize and combat oppression, the understanding and respect of different cultures, and the ability to recognize the impact of gender and sexuality on the past and present. These are life skills that extend beyond the curriculum (Freire, 1970; Giroux, 1988; hooks, 1994). This study fills a theory to practice gap in the research literature on transformative practice within Canadian contexts. The findings are important for several reasons. Firstly, they illustrated how the teacher's ideology and personal history affect hislher teaching and learning philosophies and approach to teaching. This has implications for the overall classroom environment, what students learn, and how teachers are trained. Secondly, this study provided a glimpse of what transformative pedagogy could look like from a pragmatic standpoint and demonstrated the complexity of using these multiple approaches in the classroom.
    • An empirical study of in-school and out-of-school day care

      Gough, Karen E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1986-07-09)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences between in-school and out-of-school day care centres. Five centres housed in public schools and five housed in other locations were selected for the research. Aquality assessment was administered in each centre which examined the following components - physical environment, adult social structure and socia-emotional environment, children's socia-emotional environment, cognitive stimulation program and toys and equipment. Quantitative analysis using simple t-tests showed a significant difference between in-school and out-of-school day cares for the physical environment variable. Differences approached significance for the children's socia-emotional environment variable as well as overall quality. Qualitative analysis using a triangulated methodology revealed noticeable differences for every variable. The researcher concluded that both the quality of the physical environment and the capabilities of the administrators strongly influence the quality of the day care environment. This study also included an assessment of children's attitude toward learning. No significant difference was found between in-school and out-of-school centres.