• Values and the classroom teacher

      Jones, Donald Murray.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      This is a descriptive study of elementary school teachers' perceptions of values transmitted in classrooms. Through circulation of a survey to teachers in Public and Separate Schools in the "Golden I-Iorseshoe" distt-ict of SOLtthern Ontario (e}{clLtding Toronto), it was found that teachers do see themselves as promoting values which tend to be conceptual or knowledge-based and receptive and pertain to self-perception and personal growth. They also show a tendency t.o Lise nlore conceptL\al teachi ng strategies SLieri as discussiona The respondents had no clear opinion regarding student disposition toward values but did feel very influential in developing that disposition. Demographic factors of gender, age, teaching division and teaching experience affected the responses to the surveYa The study was undertaken to describe a very sensitive area in education in the hope of moving closer toward a more effective school system II.
    • Valuing and encouraging critical reflection in pre-service teacher education

      Van Halen-Faber, Christine.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      This qualitative study was designed to investigate aspects related to valuing and encouraging critical reflection in pre-service teacher education. An examination of the place and function of practicum logbooks as used at Covenant Canadian Reformed Teachers' College, a small private college which offers pre-service teacher education formed the core of the research. An analysis of the practicum logbooks written by five student teachers during three different practicum placements was performed at two levels. First, a content analysis served to identify general and specific categories within the practice teaching contextas a learning experience. Secondly, in-depth intuitive and thematic analyses of the entries which related specifically to reflection as a learning experience gave rise to critical questions. Throughout the process, the five participants formed an active and involved group of co-researchers, adding their voices to the narrative of the learning experience. Variables such as personality type, learning style and self-directedness added a dimension which deepened and emiched the study. The result of the study suggests that practicum logbooks form a valuable base for valuing and encouraging critical reflection in pre-service teacher education. The results also suggest that not all students appear to be equally capable of critical reflection. Recognizing that teacher education exists as a continuum appears to support the findings that in their journey along this continuum, student teachers not only move from reflection-on-action to reflection-in-action, but also from content to process to premise reflection. An awareness of contributing factors such as personality type, degree of risk-taking, preferred learning style and self-directedness on the part of teacher-educators will serve to create a climate of trust in which student teachers can safely develop critical reflection, using practicum logbooks as one possible medium.
    • Verbal ability, previous practice and load on short-term memory as determiners of differences in a complex learning task: an experimental study

      Gorham, R. G.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      Traditional psychometric theory and practice classify people according to broad ability dimensions but do not examine how these mental processes occur. Hunt and Lansman (1975) proposed a 'distributed memory' model of cognitive processes with emphasis on how to describe individual differences based on the assumption that each individual possesses the same components. It is in the quality of these components ~hat individual differences arise. Carroll (1974) expands Hunt's model to include a production system (after Newell and Simon, 1973) and a response system. He developed a framework of factor analytic (FA) factors for : the purpose of describing how individual differences may arise from them. This scheme is to be used in the analysis of psychometric tes ts . Recent advances in the field of information processing are examined and include. 1) Hunt's development of differences between subjects designated as high or low verbal , 2) Miller's pursuit of the magic number seven, plus or minus two, 3) Ferguson's examination of transfer and abilities and, 4) Brown's discoveries concerning strategy teaching and retardates . In order to examine possible sources of individual differences arising from cognitive tasks, traditional psychometric tests were searched for a suitable perceptual task which could be varied slightly and administered to gauge learning effects produced by controlling independent variables. It also had to be suitable for analysis using Carroll's f ramework . The Coding Task (a symbol substitution test) found i n the Performance Scale of the WISe was chosen. Two experiments were devised to test the following hypotheses. 1) High verbals should be able to complete significantly more items on the Symbol Substitution Task than low verbals (Hunt, Lansman, 1975). 2) Having previous practice on a task, where strategies involved in the task may be identified, increases the amount of output on a similar task (Carroll, 1974). J) There should be a sUbstantial decrease in the amount of output as the load on STM is increased (Miller, 1956) . 4) Repeated measures should produce an increase in output over trials and where individual differences in previously acquired abilities are involved, these should differentiate individuals over trials (Ferguson, 1956). S) Teaching slow learners a rehearsal strategy would improve their learning such that their learning would resemble that of normals on the ,:same task. (Brown, 1974). In the first experiment 60 subjects were d.ivided·into high and low verbal, further divided randomly into a practice group and nonpractice group. Five subjects in each group were assigned randomly to work on a five, seven and nine digit code throughout the experiment. The practice group was given three trials of two minutes each on the practice code (designed to eliminate transfer effects due to symbol similarity) and then three trials of two minutes each on the actual SST task . The nonpractice group was given three trials of two minutes each on the same actual SST task . Results were analyzed using a four-way analysis of variance . In the second experiment 18 slow learners were divided randomly into two groups. one group receiving a planned strategy practioe, the other receiving random practice. Both groups worked on the actual code to be used later in the actual task. Within each group subjects were randomly assigned to work on a five, seven or nine digit code throughout. Both practice and actual tests consisted on three trials of two minutes each. Results were analyzed using a three-way analysis of variance . It was found in t he first experiment that 1) high or low verbal ability by itself did not produce significantly different results. However, when in interaction with the other independent variables, a difference in performance was noted . 2) The previous practice variable was significant over all segments of the experiment. Those who received previo.us practice were able to score significantly higher than those without it. J) Increasing the size of the load on STM severely restricts performance. 4) The effect of repeated trials proved to be beneficial. Generally, gains were made on each successive trial within each group. S) In the second experiment, slow learners who were allowed to practice randomly performed better on the actual task than subjeots who were taught the code by means of a planned strategy. Upon analysis using the Carroll scheme, individual differences were noted in the ability to develop strategies of storing, searching and retrieving items from STM, and in adopting necessary rehearsals for retention in STM. While these strategies may benef it some it was found that for others they may be harmful . Temporal aspects and perceptual speed were also found to be sources of variance within individuals . Generally it was found that the largest single factor i nfluencing learning on this task was the repeated measures . What e~ables gains to be made, varies with individuals . There are environmental factors, specific abilities, strategy development, previous learning, amount of load on STM , perceptual and temporal parameters which influence learning and these have serious implications for educational programs .
    • Visual word learning in good and poor readers

      Wilkinson, Judith E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1985-07-09)
      Forty students from regular, grade five classes were divided into two groups of twenty, a good reader group and a' poor reader group, on the basis. of their reading scores on Canadian Achievement Tests. .The subjects took. part in four experimental conditions iM which they .learned lists of pronounceable and unprono~nceable pseudowords, some with semantic referents, and responded to questions designed tci test visual perceptu~l learning and lexical ·and semantic association learning. It' was hypothesized "that the good reade~ group would be able to make use of graphemic and phonemic redundancy patterns in order to improv~·visuSl perceptual learning and lexical and semantic association lea~ningto a greater extent. than would .the poor reader gr6up. The data supported this hypothesis, and also indicated that, although the poor readers were less adept at using familiar sound and letter patterns, they were more dependent on· such pa~terns as an aid to visual recognition memory and semantic recall than were the good readers. It wa.s postulated that poor readers are in a double- ~ . bind situatio~ of having to choose between using weak graphemic-semantic associations or gr~pheme-phoneme associations which are also weak and which have hindered them in developing automaticity in. reading.
    • Web based content and hybrid teaching: student perceptions of the effectiveness of using web based content and hyper-linked teaching units in teaching hybrid business and marketing post secondary classes /

      Richardson, W. Tim G.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2007-06-29)
      This exploratory, descriptive action research study is based on a survey of a sample of convenience consisting of 172 college and university marketing students, and 5 professors who were experienced in teaching in an internet based environment. The students that were surveyed were studying e-commerce and international business in 3^^ and 4*'' year classes at a leading imiversity in Ontario and e-commerce in 5^ semester classes at a leading college. These classes were taught using a hybrid teaching style with the contribution of a large website that contained pertinent text and audio material. Hybrid teaching employs web based course materials (some in the form of Learning Objects) to deliver curriculimi material both during the attended lectures and also for students accessing the course web page outside of class hours. The survey was in the form on an online questionnaire. The research questions explored in this study were: 1. What factors influence the students' ability to access and learn from web based course content? 2. How likely are the students to use selected elements of internet based curriculum for learning academic content? 3. What is the preferred physical environment to facilitate learning in a hybrid environment? 4. How effective are selected teaching/learning strategies in a hybrid environment? The findings of this study suggest that students are very interested in being part of the learning process by contributing to a course web site. Specifically, students are interested in audio content being one of the formats of online course material, and have an interest in being part of the creation of small audio clips to be used in class.
    • Wellness and balance: perceptions amongst female health care professionals negotiating career, family, and continuing education /

      Scott, Sarah.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-07-14)
      The purpose ofthis study was to explore the perceptions of wellness and bidance amongst female health care professionals negotiating career, family aiul continuing education commitments. Five women who met the criteria of having a family (with children), holding a full-time professional career in health care, and who were presently pursuing continuing education were interviewed. This paper begins with the introduction to the topic of research and the questions to be answered. The review of literature explores the theory and research A^ch precede this study and addresses the surrounding areas of: wellness, balance, multiple roles, stress and continuing education. < This study has assumed a qualitative, phenomenological approach. The data collected through the use of individual interviews were analyzed using a two-part process. Analysis using both (a) methodological interpretation and (b) The Listening Guide method has allowed for the uncovering of major themes, and the portrayal of each participant's unique experience. Some of the major themes which emerged from this research include: wellness as multidimensional and fluctuating, making personal sacrifices, the presence of stress, professional as a vital role, and continuing education as something for me. Perhaps the most significant finding this research has identified is the positive role continuing education can hold in the lives of women already negotiating multiple commitments. The notion that continuing education can act as a means of enhancing perceptions of wellness and balance holds a number of implications in theory, practice, and for future research.
    • Wellspring: an intrinsic case study of community-based education for adults living with cancer /

      McGill, Philomena Kathleen Anne.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      This paper presents education research as vital to addressing the issues faced by adults living with cancer. This qualitative study looked at philosophies of practice for cancer patient education. It was about understanding how values and beliefs shape the way program planners and managers operationalize their knowledge of adult education and how this has significant impact on meeting the needs of those touched by cancer. Improved technology has extended life expectancy, so that Canadians living with cancer, or even dying with cancer now spend less time in direct medical care. The notion of cancer as simply a medical concern is outdated. This study found that informational and support needs of adults living with cancer are often unmet, ignored or unknown. This research investigated a community-based education initiative that is inviting, accessible, and promotes a sense of hope. More specifically, this case study uncovered factors contributing to the success of Wellspring, a grass-roots cancer patient support centre which has been recognized nationally for its ability to effectively meet the diverse non-medical supportive care needs of as many cancer patients and caregivers as possible. Therefore, Wellspring was selected as a case study. Educating people to take charge of their own lives and supporting them in making informed decisions about their lifestyle choices made Wellspring part of a social action movement that focused on improving social attitudes toward people living with cancer. Results of this descriptive inquiry and philosophical inquiry evolved into data that was used to devise an organic model of community-based education that encompasses Adler's (1993) four dimensions of philosophy within a socio-cultural context.
    • What Matters? : the full-time graduate students' perceptions of teacher effectiveness

      Shi, Xiaojun.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2005-11-04)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the full-time graduate students' perceptions of teacher effectiveness at the graduate school level, to identify how graduate students perceive effective and ineffective teachers, and specifically to discover the main dimensions of teacher effectiveness that graduate students perceive as most significant. This topic was investigated because, although the teacher has been deemed as a crucial component in the teaching process, there is no common agreement on the definition and measure of teacher effectiveness. Graduate students' perceptions of teacher effectiveness have not been given much attention. The research design was based on a ground theory approach. It utilized qualitative data through interviews, field notes, andjournals. The findings ofthis study revealed that teacher effectiveness is markedly influential to graduate students. There is no universally consented definition or measure of teacher effectiveness due to the multidimensionality of teaching and learning. Nevertheless, several major dimensions ofteacher effectiveness were discovered and highlighted in this study. Such dimensions include good command of subject matter, presentation skills, challenging and motivating students, rapport with students, learning environment, course demands, as well as assessment and feedback. It was hoped that the study would move towards developing a theory that contributes to the knowledge base of graduate students' perceptions of teacher effectiveness. It was anticipated that the results would provide first-hand information for the instructor to improve teaching; for the administrator to promote the effective educational experiences and student achievements. It was intended that the findings would lay a theoretical and empirical groundwork for future research.
    • What motivates registered nurses to participate in continuing education activities?

      Powell, Beverley.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      The study was undertaken to identify what motivates registered nurses to participate in continuing education activities. The primary questions were whether basic nursing education, employment status, clinical area, and position, as well as readiness for selfdirected learning influenced Canadian nurses' motivational orientations when deciding to participate in continuing education activities. Other individual differences (e.g., age) were also examined. The sample included 142 registered nurses employed at an urban community hospital. Three instruments were used for data collection: the Education Participation Scale, the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale, and a nursing survey consisting of demographic questions. Basic nursing education and employment status did not effect motivational orientation or self-directed learning readiness. Clinical area and level of position significantly influenced nurses' decisions to participate in continuing education activities. Motivational orientation had a significant relationship with selfdirected learning readiness. Implications for practice as a result of this study involves program planning and delivery. The identification of the motivational orientations of participants may assist in the development and delivery of continuing education programs that are beneficial, relevant, and address the identified learning needs of participants. Implications for future research also exist in relation to studying different groups of nurses, for example, registered nursing assistants, and investigating related issues, for example, what are the deterrents to participation in continuing education?
    • What nourishes the spirit of adolescents in the classroom? : a qualitative study into the gateways of adolescents' souls /

      Brown, Hilary.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-05-21)
      This thesis investigated the question, "What nourishes the adolescent spirit in the classroom?" Action research was conducted by the teacher of 16 grade 8 participants. By undergoing Kessler's (2000) "Passages Program," the students participated in 6 sessions which exposed them to a holistic intrapersonal curriculum. Student journal responses were documented after each session. The action researcher also kept journal reflections after each session. Upon completion of the 6 sessions, a postinterview was conducted which posed the research question. The research found that the adolescent spirit gets nourished through encouragement by the teacher, peers, and parents. This increases their competency, which increases their confidence, and ultimately their self-esteem goes up, which affects their selfconcept. In addition, the role of the teacher permeates every aspect of what nourishes the adolescent spirit in the classroom. In addition to the encouragement of the student, how a teacher teaches plays a vital role. A holistic approach to teaching provided the best atmosphere for the adolescent. It promoted creativity and choice, which stimulated the spirit of the adolescent. By working from a holistic philosophy, the teacher/action researcher created an environment conducive to teaching the whole person, which ultimately nourished the participants' spirit. The research highlighted that in order for this type of environment to exist the teacher needs to make a conscious and deliberate effort to look within and develop their inner self before they can begin to promote this type of classroom for the adolescents they teach. When teachers and students develop an inner life together, they can begin to work in harmony to achieve an atmosphere where the teaching and learning environment becomes one seamless transaction. Only then can one's whole potential be realized.
    • "Where is the value in education for me?": experiences and perspectives of Ontario secondary students at risk of non-completion of their Ontario Secondary School Diploma /

      MacDonald-Hunter, Tracy-Anne.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-04)
      This study examined students considered at risk of non-completion of their Ontario Secondary School Diploma and aimed to offer insight into the questions, "What factors currently lead to school disconnect" and "How can these factors be addressed?" Eight students currently enrolled in an alternative learning environment participated in the study. Each was asked to take part in two, digitally recorded interviews that were subsequently transcribed by the researcher. The data were then coded and analysed according to specific themes: obstacles, empowerment, goals, views about success, opinions of school, and power of the teacher. From these themes, three broad focus areas emerged that were used to keep the data analysis focused: worldview, school effects, and self-image. Variances between the data collected and ideas presented in the current literature were highlighted as a reminder that when dealing with a human population, we cannot rely on textbook definitions and theory alone.
    • Who expects what from whom? : a gender based study on expectations and secondary school administration

      Dempsey, Sharon D.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      This study is about expectations and aspirations of secondary school teachers. It is an investigation of why some teachers aspire to become administrators and why some teachers do not. My research compares expectations and existing attltudes regarding aspirations toward administration which are held by three distinct groups within the secondary school system: 1) principals/vice-principals, 2) aspiring teachers, and 3) non-aspiring teachers. This study questions why, in the late 60's, secondary school administration is still predominated by men. The conclusions and recommendations were based on interviews with thirty men and women in the Hamilton Secondary School System. In addltion, Mr. Keith Rielly, Superintendent of Operations, made valuable contributions to my work. The interviews revealed experiences and percept ions of men and women in di scourse about f amil y re lat i onshi ps, educational choices and perceived internal and external barriers which inhiblted or enhanced their decision to aspire to secondary school administration. Candidates spoke about their personal and professional Hves wlth respect to encouragement, perceived images of an administrator, netWOrking and the effect of marriage and children on their careers. Historically, women have not accepted the challenge of administration and It would appear as if this is still the case today. My research suggests that women are under-represented in secondary school administration because of internal and external barriers which discourage many women from aspiring. I conclude that many of women's internal barrlers are reinforced by external roadblocks which prevent women from aspiring to secondory school administration. Thus. many women who do not envision a future in educational administration establish priorities outside the general realm of education. I recommend that males and females recognize that women make valuable contributions to educational theory and design based on their experiences which may be "differene from mole experiences. but just as significant. Mole and female representation in secondary school administration represents a balance between attitudes and behaviours which can not be accomplished when an administrative offlce is dominated by on all ma1e or all female staff.
    • Why do some adults change their minds about what is important in the visual arts? : a case study

      Wale, George E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      This-~-case study used ethnographic-methodo-logy. --The research project was an introductory study of one adult's present and past experiences with the visual arts, exploring, in particular, the causes and processes that were related to the individual's changes of mind in order to develop an understanding of why that individual had changed her mind about what was significant in the visual arts. The individual who provided the data was a solid supporter of art galleries: female, middle-aged, graduate of university and college, married with two children, and living in an urban community. The data were collected from two informal conversational interviews and from a written description of one change experience selected by the participant. The individual had positive experiences with art during early childhood, in elementary and secondary school, during university, in avocational drawing and painting studio courses, and in aesthetic experiences. All of these experiences have had individual effects and, together, they have had a cumulative effect on the development of the participant's opinions and ideas about the visual arts. The experiences which had the most effect on the development of the individual's perspectives on the visual arts were handson studio, educational, and aesthetic experiences. Further research is suggested to investigate why some adults change their minds about the visual arts.
    • Why I am not a teacher: a self-study examining why I made the decision to exit the teaching profession /

      Gambrell, Sarah.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      A good teacher was once described as being like a candle; consuming itself to light the way for others (Author unknown). But as Knox (2005) says, far too many yoimg flames flicker out before they ever get the opportvmity to bum their brightest. This self-study explores the phenomenon of teacher attrition through the stories and lived experiences of one elementary teacher. I strive throughout this self-study to delve deeper into the significance of my story and lived experiences in order to enhance our understanding of why teachers exit the profession. As a result, the guiding question throughout the study is, "Why do teachers, particularly those who have only taught for a few years, leave the classrooms they worked so hard to enter?" Through the writing of a narrative entitled Sarah 's Story, I was able to identify and give voice to a story openly sharing the feelings of despair; disappointment, frustration and disillusionment. This study has identified areas of tension that lead to dissatisfaction, discontent, and teacher disillusionment. It confronts the issues of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict that are experienced in teaching. It discusses the puzzling, powerfiil and upsetting experiences, highlighting the importance of talk between all members of the education system.
    • Women over thirty choosing education as a solution to a problem

      MacLean, Marilyn T.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1998-07-09)
      This study explored motivations of mid-life women over 30 years old who had returned to school. It sought to fmd whether these women returned to solve a problem arising from life events, whether viewing a problem was related to internal or external motivation, whether this perception was related to having greater coping skills, and whether having greater coping was related to seeking support from internal or external sources. This study examined which emotions were most related to viewing a life event as a problem. Finally, it explored the results of previous research of mid-life women in their role as a student. Women (N==83) from three types of institutions volunteered for this study: a university (N==34), a college (N==28), and an adult education centre (N==21). Participants took home a questionnaire package - a I3-page questionnaire and consent form - that were completed and mailed back to the researcher in pre-paid envelopes. Results showed that women over 30 seek education as a solution to a life event problem. External motivation was related to a life event being a problem (p<.005). There was a significant difference in coping scores between institutions. Moods that were related to viewing a life event as problematic were: anger and depressive moods (p<. 001), fatigue and vigor (p<.O 1), and tension/anxiety (p<.05). Mid-life women students' satisfaction in this role was related to being externally motivated. These women sought support from both internal and external sources, rarely had social interactions with peers, and viewed this role as important, yet, temporary in that it will help them change their lives. Implications ofthe results suggest further exploration ofthe roles of anger and depression in motivating women over 30 to learn and finding ways of directing women to use their emotional intelligence to seek out learning.
    • Words on wisdom: perspective transformation in a "learning in retirement institute" /

      Farquhar, Lynn.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-01)
      In this study, 7 men and women with an average age of 77 were interviewed regarding their experience of attending courses at a Learning in Retirement Institute (LRI) in southern Ontario. The purpose was to explore the role of wisdom in the learning of these retirees. Explicit theories of wisdom developed by selected philosophers, psychologists, and religious thinkers were compared to the implicit theories of wisdom that respondents expressed. Further comparisons were drawn between these implicit theories of wisdom and the act of perspective transformation in transformative learning. Some evidence was found that the development of wisdom compares favourably to perspective transformation, especially with regards to the behavioural changes associated with critical self-reflection. Among all the respondents, those 3 LRI stude.its who had also moderated courses indicated that they had experienced the most opportunities for critical self-reflection. These 3 also expressed deep satisfaction in having been able to put their learnings to use as teachers. A recommendation of this study is that opportunities for sharing and acting upon the results of discourse within Learning in Retirement Institutes should be implemented. In the absence of evaluation, opportunities for praxis (such as coop placements) must be developed so that students can measure their success against objective criteria and hence attach meaning to their studies.
    • Work values and the job characteristics - job outcome relationship

      Tettmar, M. Kathryn.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      The importance and achievement of work values were found to be significant variables in the job characteristics-job outcome relationship when investigated with a sample of 117 correctional nurses. Data collected via mailed questionnaires were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression. The results indicated that the achievement of intrinsic work values was found to mediate the relationship between job characteristics and internal work motivation and satisfaction, adding considerable explained variance to each of the job outcomes. In addition, the importance of the same intrinsic work values moderated the overall relationship as well as the relationship between job characteristics and achievement of work values. The importance of work values did not, however, moderate the achievement of work values-job outcome relationship as predicted. The practical implications for correctional administrators and nurses, as well as implications for further research were discussed.
    • Worldview awareness and adult education /

      Maukonen, Bret.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2001-07-14)
      This research derived data from two sets of interviews with 18 participants who were involved in adult education in either a community college or a university. The purpose was to explore their worldview awareness. Through the interviews, the participants shared their understanding of worldview as a term and concept and as something that might be seen to apply in their practice of teaching. The responses indicated that there are three kinds of awareness (noetic, experiential, and integrative) which appeared to develop upon a landscape of constraints and opportunities. Constraints were seen to fall into the 5 broad categories of institutional, circumstantial, self-imposed, other-imposed, and discipline-related constraints. Opportunities for developing awareness were linked to individual experiences and could occur to different extents in many directions, on different occasions, and in different phases of life. Through this research, and in spite of the prevalence of worldview in the human experience, it was foimd that the term and concept have remained on the margins of educational discourse. Consequently, theory, research, and practice have been deprived of a useful and usable concept.
    • Wrap around analysis of the affordances and constraints for girls with physical disabilities participating in physical activities /

      Duncanson, Michelle.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-09)
      This is a qualitative study exploring the physical activity patterns of a group of women with physical disabilities through their lifespan. In-depth interviews were done with a group of 6 women aged 1 9 to 3 1 . The data were analyzed via content and demographic strategies. Participants in this study reported that their physical activity patterns and their experiences related to their physical activity participation changed over their lives. They were most physically active in their youth (under 14 years of age) and as they reached high school age (over 14 years of age) and to the present time, they have become less physically active. They also reported both affordances and constraints to their physical activity participation through their lifespan. In their youth, they reported affordances such as their parents' assistance, an abundance of available physical activity opportunities, and independent unassisted mobility, as all playing an important factor in their increased youth physical activity. In adulthood, the participants' reported less time, fewer opportunities for physical activity, and reliance on power mobility as significant constraints to their physical activity. The participants reported fewer constraints to being physically active in their youth when compared to adulthood. Their reasons for participation in physical activity changed from fun and socialization in their youth instead of for maintenance of health, weight, and function in adulthood. These affordances, constraints and reasons for physical activity participation were supported in the literature.
    • Writing and science connections : integrated instruction and assessment

      Morawek, Alison; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2012-03-30)
      Learning to write is a daunting task for many young children. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a combined approach to writing instruction and assessment on the writing performance of students in two grade 3 classes. Five forms and traits of writing were purposefully connected during writing lessons while exhibiting links to the four strands of the grade 3 Ontario science curriculum. Students then had opportunities to engage in the writing process and to self-assess their compositions using either student-developed (experimental group/teacher-researcher's class) or teachercreated (control group/teacher-participant's class) rubrics. Paired samples t-tests revealed that both the experimental and control groups exhibited statistically significant growth from pretest to posttest on all five integrated writing units. Independent samples t-tests showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group on the persuasive + sentence fluency and procedure + word choice writing tasks. Pearson product-moment correlation r tests revealed significant correlations between the experimental group and the teacher-researcher on the recount + ideas and report + organization tasks, while students in the control group showed significant correlations with the teacher-researcher on the narrative + voice and procedure + word choice tasks. Significant correlations between the control group and the teacher-participant were evident on the persuasive + sentence fluency and procedure + word choice tasks. Qualitative analyses revealed five themes that highlighted how students' self-assessments and reflections can be used to guide teachers in their instructional decision making. These findings suggest that educators should adopt an integrated writing program in their classrooms, while working with students to create and utilize purposeful writing assessment tools.