• Teacher attitudes and the emotionally-behaviourally disordered middle school student

      Martin, John Micheal.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      Inclusionary practlces prescrlbe that children, regardless of exceptlonal1ty shall benefit from recelving educatlonal servlce 1n the context of the regular class setting. The resulting el1mlnatlon of separate speclal classes could be v1ewed as aneconom1c advantage. In po1nt of fact, many school boards and d1strlcts 1n both Canada and the Unlted States are movlng towards 1mplementatlon of lncluslonary practice, posslbly for the above stated reason. Regardless, 1ncluslon as It relates to the emot1onal1y/behav1ourally disordered youth in our school systems may not be successful. Regular education teachers may not be prepared professlonal1y or personally to deal wlth this very spec1al student populat1on. Th1s study focused on teacher attitude 1n thls regard. As welll poss1ble factors that may lead to successful 1nclusion of these students are examined. Of these, teacher exper1ence, educat10n spec1f1c to the d1sab111ty of emot1onal/behavloural dlsordered comb1ned w1th teacher self-percept1on of success appear to hold the greatest promise. In v1ew of these flndlngs, recommendations are made for professlonal pract1ce and future research d1rect1ons.
    • Teacher attitudes and the emotionally-behaviourally disordered middle school student

      Martin, Janice M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-11-04)
      Inclusionary practices prescribe that chl1dren, regardless of exceptional1ty shall benef1t from receiv1ng educational serv1ce 1n the context of the regular class sett1ng. The result1ng el1minat1on of separate spec1al classes could be v1ewed as an econom1c advantage. In point of fact, many school boards and d1str1cts 1n both Canada and the United States are mov1ng towards 1mplementat1on of inclusionary practice, possibly for the above stated reason. Regardless, 1nclusion as 1t relates to the emot1onally/behav1ourally disordered youth in our school systems may not be successful. Regular educat ion teachers may not be prepared profess1onally or personally to deal w1th this very special student population. Th1s study focused on teacher attitude 1n this regard. As well, poss1ble factors that may lead to successful 1nclusion of these students are examined. Of these, teacher exper1ence, educat10n spec1f1c to the d1sab1l1ty of emot1onal/behavioural d1sordered comb1ned w1th teacher self-perception of success appear to hold the greatest promise. In view of these findings, recommendat1ons are made for professional pract1ce and future research d1rect1ons.
    • Teacher professional growth in an authentic learning environment

      Slepkov, Howard.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-05-28)
      The last several decades have been marked by tremendous changes in education - technological, pedagogical, administrative, and social. These changes have led to considerable increments in the budgets devoted to professional development for teachers ~ with the express purpose of helping them accommodate their practices to the new realities oftheir classrooms. However, research has suggested that, in spite of the emphasis placed on encouraging sustained change in teaching practices, little has been accomplished. This begs the question of what ought to be done to not only reverse this outcome, but contribute to transformational change. The literature suggests some possibilities including: a) considering teachers as learners and applying what, is known about cognition and learning; b) modifying the location and nature ofprofessional development so that it is authentic, based in the classroom and focusing on tasks meaningful to the teacher; c) attending to the infrastructure underlying professional development; and d) ensuring opportunities for reflective practice. This dissertation looks at the impact of each ofthese variables through an analysis ofthe learning journeys of a group ofteachers engaged in a program called GrassRoots in one midsized school board in Ontario. Action research was conducted by the researcher in his role as consultant facilitating teacher professional growth around the use of Web sites as culminating performance tasks by students. Research focused on the pedagogical approach to the learning of the teachers involved and the infrastructure underlying their learning. Using grounded theory, a model for professional development was developed that can be used in the future to inform practices and, hopefully, lead to sustained transformational school change.
    • Teacher survival : staying alive in the job of teaching /

      Dennis, Kim Phillips.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      This study presents information gathered during personal interviews with dynamic and capable teachers in the areas of preparedness for teaching, teaching concerns, survival skills and strategies, and how these teachers support themselves and others in the teaching profession. The data are related to Purkey and Novak's work on invitational education and connections are made to Combs' perceptual orientation. Potential participants were gathered through personal recommendations from their colleagues. All teachers recommended were approached and asked for voluntary participation. Of those who agreed to participate, 6 were selected based on gender and years of experience. There was a male and female participant at each of the following career levels: early, mid, and late. The 4 major survival skills that became apparent were the ability to believe in oneself and others, to act decisively upon that belief through personal and professional goal-setting as well as accessing resources, to actively seek opportunities for interaction with other professionals, and to celebrate personal and professional successes.
    • Teachers' experiences and perceptions of voluntary committee work as a vehicle for leadership development

      Toth, Pieter; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2012-07-24)
      In response to a looming leadership shortage, leadership development for teachers has become an increasingly important area of interest around the world. A review of the literature identified the key components of educational leadership development programs as effective curriculum, leadership practice, relationship building, and reflection. A gap in the research was found regarding the use of voluntary committee work as a vehicle for leadership practice. The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' perceptions of their experiences within board-level committees to determine the key factors that contributed, positively or negatively, to their leadership,pevelopment. A qualitative research design was employed using semistructured interviews with 8 participants. The key findings included a list of factors perceived by teachers as either supporting or hindering their leadership development. The supporting factors were: (a) leadership practice, (b) mentors and role models, (c) relationships and networks, and (d) positive outcomes for students. The hindering factors were: (a) lack of follow through and support, (b) committee members with a careerist approach to the experience, (c) personal and political agendas, and (d) overcommitment leading to burnout. Recommendations for practice focused on strategies to enhanc~_ the committee experience as a tool for leadership development. Recommendations for theory and research suggested more research be done on each of the 8 key factors, perceptions associated with teachers choosing to follow a leadership path, and how school boards can structure the committee process as an effective leadership development tool. This study provides a starting point for educators to begin to intentionally design, develop, and deliver voluntary committee experiences as a tool for leadership development.
    • Teachers' likes and dislikes as factors in educational change

      Raun, Tiiu.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1989-07-09)
      Teachers at local elementary and secondary schools were invited to participate in a survey research study by completing a questionnaire containing 26 statements regarding educational issues (e.g., "I am satisfied with the quality of my interactions with students."). Teachers were asked to indicate whether they agreed, were neutral, or disagreed with each statement; and further, to make a suggestions for appropriate change; to indicate a level at which the change could be implemented (classroom, school, board, ministry, society); and to indicate to what extent they perceive they have influence on change in the area represented in the statement. The responses of 50 elementary and 50 secondary teachers were randomly chosen from among the completed questionnaires and the information was recorded for analysis. Results of frequency counts of responses showed teachers were generally satisfied with their experiences of the areas referred to in the statements. Seventy-two percent of the responses agreed with the statements; 15% of the responses indicated disagreement, and 13% of the responses were neutral. Cross-tabulations of the survey data with demographic information showed differences among the responses of female and male teachers; elementary and secondary teachers; and teachers grouped according to their total years of teaching experience.
    • Teachers' perceptions of effects of terminal examinations on teaching and learning at the secondary school level in Zimbabwe

      Mojapelo, Ottilia.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      This study was particularly aimed at the examinations and the effect they have on schooling at the secondary school level in Zimbabwe. The views and opinions of teachers on the use of terminal examinations for certification and the influence they are seen to have on teachers' approach to the curriculum were examined. The literature has shown that there is widespread criticism of the justice and effects of terminal examinations. It is argued that they lead to an over-emphasis of that which is measured, knowledge and intellectual ability, at the expense of that kind of education progress which is almost impossible to measure in an end-of-the-course assessment. Three hundred and six secondary school teachers responded to a survey which asked for teachers' perceptions of examinations and the curriculum. The findings of this study indicated that teaching is structured towards examinations. Although teachers are trying to teach and develop reasoning skills and other activities, the pressure of examinations and the importance of doing well in them force teachers to restrict themselves to examination requirements.
    • Teachers' perspectives on the implementation of expectations-based curricula /

      Wirag, Timothy A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2003-07-14)
      This qualitative study examines teachers' experiences implementing new standardized curricula in Ontario schools. This new curricula contained several policy changes and an expectations based format which directed what knowledge and skills students were to demonstrate in each subject. This level of specificity of subject-content served to control teachers in relation to curricula; however, data suggested that at the same time, teachers had enormous flexibility in terms of pedagogy. Four secondary teachers who were implementing a Grade 10 course in the 2000-2001 school year participated in the study. The qualitative framework supported the researcher's emphasis on examining the participants' perspectives on the implementation of expectation-based curricula. Data collected included transcripts from interviews conducted with teacher participants and a representative of the Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, field notes, and a research journal. Many of the factors often cited in the literature as influencing implementation practices were found to have affected the participants' experiences of curriculum implementation: time, professional development, and teachers' beliefs, particularly concerning students. In addition, the format of the policy documents proved to both control and free teachers during the implementation process. Participants believed that the number of specific expectations did not provide them an opportunity to add content to the curriculum; at the same time, teachers also noted that the general format of the policy document allowed them to direct instruction to match students' needs and their own teaching preferences. Alignment between teachers' beliefs about education and their understanding of the new curriculum affected the ways in which many participants adapted during the implementation process.
    • Teachers' processes of negotiating meaning of new curriculum

      VanderVliet, Cathy; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2012-04-02)
      This qualitative study addresses the question of how teachers negotiate meaning of new curriculum to better understand how curriculum is transformed from a theoretical construct to a practical one. Through interviews with 5 teachers, their experiences were examined as they negotiated the process of implementing new curriculum. Three theoretical constructs provided the entry point into the study: epistemology, teacher knowledge, and teacher learning. Using inductive analysis, 4 points or attributes of negotiation emerged: reference, growth, autonomy, and reconciliation. These attributes provided a theoretical framework from which a constructivist conceptualization of teacher learning and teacher knowledge could serve to understand the process of how teachers negotiate meaning of curriculum. Studied and theorized in this way, teacher knowledge and teacher learning are seen to be inextricably linked in a relationship that is dynamically changed by forces of stability and instability. Theorizing the negotiation of meaning from a constructivist epistemology also strengthened the assertion that negotiating meaning is a unique structural process, and that knowledge construction is therefore unique to each knower and subject to experience in a particular time and place. The implications for such a theory are, first, that it questions the legitimacy of privatized teacher practice and, second, that it calls for a renewed conceptualization of collegial network and relationship to strengthen the capacity for negotiating meaning of curricular initiatives. Understanding the relationship of curricular theory and negotiating meaning also has implications for curriculum development. In particular, the study highlights the necessity of professional discretion and the generative process of negotiating meaning.
    • Teachers' professional learning within communities of mathematics-for-teaching practice

      Fleming, Glynnis; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2012-03-29)
      Ontario bansho is an emergent mathematics instructional strategy used by teachers working within communities of practice that has been deemed to have a transformational effect on teachers' professional learning of mathematics. This study sought to answer the following question: How does teachers' implementation of Ontario bansho within their communities of practice inform their professional learning process concerning mathematics-for-teaching? Two other key questions also guided the study: What processes support teachers' professional learning of content-for-teaching? What conditions support teachers' professional learning of content-for-teaching? The study followed an interpretive phenomenological approach to collect data using a purposive sampling of teachers as participants. The researcher conducted interviews and followed an interpretive approach to data analysis to investigate how teachers construct meaning and create interpretations through their social interactions. The study developed a model of professional learning made up of 3 processes, informing with resources, engaging with students, and visualizing and schematizing in which the participants engaged and 2 conditions, ownership and community that supported the 3 processes. The 3 processes occur in ways that are complex, recursive, nonpredictable, and contextual. This model provides a framework for facilitators and leaders to plan for effective, content-relevant professional learning by placing teachers, students, and their learning at the heart of professional learning.
    • Teachers’ Beliefs and Perceptions of Bullying and Bullying Prevention Initiatives

      Woods, Heather; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      While bullying prevention programs appear to be decreasing the number of bullying incidents overseas, bullying prevention programs here in Canada have not been proving as effective. Evaluations of bullying prevention programs often focus on the outcomes and neglect to examine the training regimen for teachers. As teachers are on the front lines of bullying prevention programs, the current study explored teachers’ beliefs about the various types of bullying, their perceptions of their own abilities (e.g., teacher bullying prevention efficacy (TBPE), self-concept, and theory of mind) to implement bullying prevention initiatives, and how the school climate may influence their efficacy beliefs. Participants in the current study were 61 Canadian teachers (n = 51 women), predominantly from Ontario. Participating teachers represented all elementary division levels (primary, junior, and intermediate). Participants’ teaching experience ranged from zero years of teaching (pre-service) to 28 years of experience (M = 10.50, SD = 7.35). It was found that participants reported a relatively high TBPE score, which was related to their likely intervention in cyberbullying situations but not for other forms of bullying situations. It was found that teachers were most likely to intervene in physical bullying than verbal, relational, and cyberbullying, respectively. TBPE was influenced by the school climate. Teachers’ scores on the theory of mind scale was not a significant indicator of any teachers’ bullying beliefs. Analyses exploring the relationship between bullying beliefs and self-concept, morality predicted teachers TBPE scores and the likelihood of intervention. Teachers’ recommendations for bullying prevention training and school bullying prevention programs were explored. Results are discussed in terms of implications for practice and future research.
    • Teaching Adolescents to Think and Act Responsibly Through Narrative Film-making: A Qualitative Study

      Garchinski, Christina; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      The current qualitative study examined an adapted version of the psychoeducational program, Teaching Adolescents to Think and Act Responsibly: The EQUIP Approach (DiBiase, Gibbs, Potter, & Blount, 2012). The adapted version, referred to as the EQUIP – Narrative Filmmaking Program, was implemented as a means of character education. The purpose of this study was three-fold: 1) to examine how the EQUIP – Narrative Film-making Program influenced student’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviours; 2) to explore the students’ and the teacher’s perception of their experience with the program; and 3) to assess whether or not the integrated EQUIP – Narrative Film-making Program addressed the goals of Ontario’s character education initiative. Purposive sampling was used to select one typical Grade 9 Exploring Technologies class, consisting of 15 boys from a Catholic board of education in the southern Ontario region. The EQUIP – Narrative Film-making Program required students to create moral narrative films that first portrayed a set of self-centered cognitive distortions, with follow-up portrayals of behavioural modifications. Before, during, and after intervention questionnaires were administered to the students and teacher. The student questionnaires invited responses to a set of cognitive distortion vignettes. In addition, data was collected through student and teacher interviews, and researcher observation protocol reports. Initially the data was coded according to an a priori set of themes that were further analyzed according to emotion and values coding methods. The results indicated that while each student was unique in his thoughts, feelings, and behavioural responses to the cognitive distortion vignettes after completing the EQUIP program, the overall trends showed students had a more positive attitude, with a decreased proclivity for antisocial behaviour and self-serving cognitive distortion portrayed in the vignettes. Overall, the teacher and students’ learning experiences were mainly positive and the program met the learning expectations of Ontario’s character education initiative. Based on these results of the present study, it is recommended that the EQUIP – Narrative Film-making Program be further evaluated through quantitative research and longitudinal study.
    • Teaching media literacy skills about commercials: a comparative analysis of media literacy instruction /

      Love, Christa.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      In this study, methods of media literacy instruction including analytic activities, production activities, and a combination of analytic and production activities were compared to determine their influence on grade 8 students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours towards commercials. The findings showed that media literacy instruction does improve media literacy skills. Specifically, activities that included an analytic component or an analytic and production component were significantly better than activities that included a production component. Participants that completed analytic or analytic and production activities were able to discern media-related terms, target audience, selling techniques, social values, and stereotypes in commercials better than participants that completed only production activities. The research findings also showed obstacles when teaching media literacy. When engaged in analytic activities, the difficulties included locating suitable resources, addressing the competition from commercials, encouraging written reflection, recognizing social values, and discussing racial stereotypes. When engaged in production activities, the difficulties were positioning recording stations, managing group work, organizing ideas, filming the footage, computer issues, and scheduling time. Strategies to overcome these obstacles are described.
    • The teaching practicum as an opportunity for professional growth: perceptions of three associate-teachers /

      Sauer, Leigh-Ann.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-04)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the student-teaching practicum as an opportunity for professional growth for associate-teachers. Three associate-teachers from one school board in southern Ontario were purposefully selected to participate in the study. Participants were interviewed before and after one 4-week teaching practicum. They were asked to keep a reflective journal during the practicum, and provided with questions to guide their reflection. The literature suggests that meaningful professional development is contextual and requires reflection on practice. For example, Schon's (l987b) hall of mirrors phenomenon occurs when teachers reflect on their own practice while observing and guiding the practice of others. Findings from this study suggest the teaching practicum has the potential to be a valuable professional development opportunity for associateteachers, but that the university and the school board affiliated with the participants do not conceptualize it as such. As well, the research suggests that although all participants found the teaching practicum valuable, the extent to which they were able to grow professionally depended on their professional personality. In addition, it was found that the reflective journal enhanced opportunities for associate teacher reflection. This research suggests that universities and school boards may wish to consider the studentteacher practicum as a professional development opportunity.
    • Teaching Principled negotiation skills to parents and their children : the impact of parental involvement /

      Rizzo, Kelly-Joelle.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      This study explored the impact of training parents and children concurrently in principled negotiation skills for the purpose of developing negotiation skills and problem solving abilities in children. A second experimental group was utilized to determine the viability of negotiation skills training of junior elementary students for the purpose of improving problem solving and conflict resolving abilities. The student population in each experimental group was trained using The Program for Young Negotiators (Curhan, 1996). A control group was also established using the remaining grade four and five students attending the participating school. These students did not receive training as part of this study. Student group distribution was as follows: Experimental group 1 (students with parent participant) consisted of 10 (5 grade five and 5 grade 4 students), Experimental group 2 students without parent participant) consisted of 48 (20 grade 4 and 28 grade 5 students), and the Control group 3 (55 grade 4 and 5 students). The impact of training was measured using the Five Factor Negotiation Scale developed for use with the Program for Young Negotiators (Curhan, 1996). This measure was employed as a pre- and post-test questionnaire to the total student population, (113 students) to determine levels of ability in each of the key elements of negotiation, personal initiative, collaboration, communication, conflict based perspective taking, and conflict resolution approach (Nakkula & Nikitopoulos, unpublished). This measure has a coefficient alpha of .75 which is acceptable for this type of affective instrument. As well, open ended ability questions designed to measure ability, knowledge, and behaviour as they relate to negotiation skill application were given to the total student population, (113 students). Finally, journals were maintained by the students in both experimental groups, and informal feedback discussions were held with students and parents participating in the study.The intent of using both qualitative and quantitative measures was to provide an overall perspective of student abilities as they related to principled negotiation skills. While the quantitative measures were from the student perspective, more qualitative information was sought from parents and teachers through informal interviews, discussions, and use of confidential feedback cards. For analysis purposes, the ability questions were randomly selected for Experimental group 2 and Control group 3 in an effort to balance the groups more equitably with Experimental group 1. The findings of this study indicate that students of the junior elementary school age can be taught how to perceive conflict in a more constructive way. However, they are not as likely to use their skills when the conflict is with a sibling as they are with a peer, a teacher, or a parent. While no statistically significant differences between mean scores for Experimental groups 1 and 2 exist some subtle differences are noted. Overall, increases in mean scores for grade 4 students exceeded the increases for grade 5 students within Experimental group 1 . The implication being that younger students benefit more from having a parent trained in principled negoUation skills than older students. The skill level of a parent in principled negotiation can not be underesUmated. Without a consistent and effective role model the likelihood of developing student skill level to a point of automaticity is greatly reduced. Enough so that perhaps the emphasis should be placed on training parents more so than the students.
    • Ten years after : a qualitative study of students' experiences in a high school theatre company

      Zdriluk, Helen; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2010-10-27)
      This qualitative study explored 4 former students' perceptions of the learning associated with their involvement in a high school theatre program and the contextual factors they linked to their perceived development. The study involved 4 adult participants, 2 male and 2 female, who had participated extensively in a high school theatre company from 1996 to 2001 when they were students in a large Ontario school board. Data were collected from January to August, 2007, when the 4 former students took part in two in-depth, open-ended interviews. The focus of investigation was participant perspectives. Data analysis revealed that the 4 participants' involvement in high school theatre produced both wide-ranging and enduring developmental benefits across personal, social, and cognitive domains. Participants achieved these benefits through interactions among 3 related contexts: (a) rehearsal and performance practices, (b) the world of the play, and (c) characteristics of the high school theatre company.
    • Test of Hockman and Oldham's job characteristics model in a post-secondary educational setting

      Guise, Mary T.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      One hundred and seventy-two subj ects participated in this quantitative, correlational survey which tested Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristics Model in an educational setting. Subjects were Teaching Masters, Chairmen and Deans from an Ontario community college. The data were collected via mailed questionnaire, on all variables of the model. Several reliable, valid instruments were used to test the variables. Data analysis through Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that core job characteristics predicted certain critical psychological states and that these critical psychological states, in turn were able to predict various personal and work outcomes but not absenteeism. The context variable, Satisfaction with Co-workers, was the only consistent moderating variable between core characteristics and critical psychological states; however, individual employee differences did moderate the relationship between critical psychological states and all of the personal and work outcomes except Internal Work Motivation. Two other moderator variables, Satisfaction with Context and Growth Need Strength, demonstrated an ability to predict the outcome General Job Satisfaction. The research suggests that this model may be used for job design and redesign purposes within the community college setting.
    • Therapeutic riding : learning and recovery for people with disabilities

      Dunstan, Kate.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      The purpose ofthis study was to explore the process oftherapeutic riding as an experiential and holistic approach to learning and recovery for people with disabilities as perceived by the providers oftherapeutic riding. To enhance the connection between theory and practice and to suggest future research, the researcher endeavoured to develop a theory that contributed to the knowledge base oftherapeutic riding, animal-assisted therapy and education, experiential education, and experiential therapy in addition to contributing to connections among them. This topic was investigated because ofthe lack ofresearch about the process of therapeutic riding, particularly from learning and a recovery perspective. Few studies have addressed how therapeutic riding outcomes are achieved or how the therapeutic riding process actually works. This study was identified as grounded theory using qualitative data through interviews and narrative reflections with therapeutic riding providers, a researcher's journal, field notes, and written documents. Grounded theory analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. This consisted ofdoing open, axial, and selective coding. This study provided detailed descriptions ofthe research approach, researcher's involvement, participant and site selection, data collection and analysis, methodological assumptions and limitations, credibility established, and ethical considerations. The findings ofthe data analysis revealed the theme ofrelationships as central to the learning and recovery process oftherapeutic riding for people with disabilities. The significance ofthe team relationships, the horse and rider relationship, and the providers and rider relationship was found. The essential components ofthe learning and recovery process were presented in a diagram in the selective coding phase. Goals oftherapeutic riding included psycho-education; behavioural and social; physical; and equestrian. Parts ofthe process ofhow outcomes were achieved included motivation; "opens new doors;" risk; task analysis; control; communication; and environmental factors. Outcomes of therapeutic riding included independence and mobility; confidence; and transfer abilities or skills. The implications ofthese findings for theory, practice, and further research were also. explored.
    • Thinking skills in the language arts : an application of cognitive schema theory to the narrative writing process /

      Corby, Marjorie Sessions.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1983-06-01)
      A cognitively based instructional program for narrative writing was developed. The effects of using cognitively based schematic planning organizers at the pre-writing stage were evaluated using subjects from the Primary, Junior and Intermediate divisions. Results indicate that the use of organizers based on problem solving significantly improved the organization and the overall quality of narrative writing for students in grades 3, 6 and 7. The magnitude of the improvement of the treatment group over the control group performance in Organization ranged from 10.7% to 22.9%. Statistical and observational data indicate many implications for further research into the cognitive basis for writing and reading; for the improvement and evaluation of school writing programs; for the design of school curricula; and for the inservice education for teachers of writing.
    • Towards Equitable Access to Postsecondary Education: Learning From the Voices of First Generation Students

      Winter, Ellyse; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-08-18)
      This qualitative, phenomenological study investigated first generation students’ perceptions of the challenges they experienced in the process of accessing higher education and the type of school-based support that was received. Particular emphasis was placed on the impact of parental education level on access to postsecondary education (PSE) and how differences in support at the primary and secondary levels of schooling influenced access. Purposeful, homogenous sampling was used to select 6 first generation students attending a postsecondary institution located in Ontario. Analysis of the data revealed that several interrelated factors impact first generation students’ access to postsecondary education. These include familial experiences and expectations, school streaming practices, secondary school teachers’ and guidance counselors’ representations of postsecondary education, and the nature of school-based support that participants received. The implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed and recommendations for enhancing school-based support to ensure equitable access to postsecondary education for first generation students are provided.