• A safe place /

      Carmichael-Houle, Anne L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      This study is an effort to give voice to an experience. The experience in question is the decision of a student to trust a practitioner. The study also describes the features which led the student to believe that the practitioner would provide a "safe place" for interaction around matters of a delicate or personal nature. This study is the gift oftwo coauthors, each with a unique story which offers description of critical incidents, and what made these events meaningful. At the heart of the study is the potential for education and its professionals to provide safe places for students. Analysis of the data determines that a safe place involves two parties, one seeking a safe place and another who provides the safe place-in this study, the student and the practitioner. The student, with urgency, seeks a safe place to disclose personal information. In this urgency the student is confronted with features of control, comfort, respect, felt sense, and nonjudgemental listening. These features are the constitutive elements of a Safe Place. Capacity to recognize and construct safe places is a competency which the existing school lifeworld demands of today's practitioners. Understanding what are deemed to be safe places and how practitioners might work to create them are the extended outcomes of this study.
    • Salience of Charter Schools in Educational Policy Debates in Three Canadian Provinces: 1993-2010

      Mindzak, Michael; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-04-09)
      School choice-the movement towards increased parental and student control over public education-has been endorsed extensively as a means of revitalizing and improving public schools. Part of this movement is the concept of charter schools, which have expanded rapidly in the United States and around the globe. In stark contrast, Canadians have remained relatively content with current educational arrangements; only 13 charter schools currently exist in Canada, all in the province of Alberta. This study sought to identify why charter schools have failed to situate themselves in Canadian education. The study used an agenda setting framework to determine the salience of charter schools as a public issue in three provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario. Results largely indicate that over the past 18 years, charter schools have gradually declined as a salient issue. Additional discussion concerning the unique characteristics of Canadian education highlights factors that appear to discourage the expansion of such schools. However, although charter schools do not appear to be a current issue for Canadians, they may still emerge in the future, as parents and teachers continue to seek new ways of improving educational outcomes. Thus, although the impact of charter schools on public education has been minimal to date, they provide an illuminating lens towards better understanding educational reform and policy, as well as the fundamental values that shape education in Canada.
    • School choice behaviour of independent school parents

      Briggs, George L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      One hundred and thirty-three parents of students new ~o ~ive independent schools in Ontario wer. surveyed to inve~tigate school choice behaviour. Paren~s were asKed to indicate their reasons for changing schooling, ~he criteria for selection o~ a school and the nature of the search process. Parents were also asKed to ranK speci~ic precipitants for change and criteria for choice. Spearman RanK Correla.tion tests were run comparing precipitants for change and criteria for choice for the entire sample and sub-groups based on socioeconomic status, gender of the child and family size. No signl~icant differences were found between the various $ub-groups, however, there was a strong positive correlation between precipitants for change and criteria for choice.Chi sq,uare tests were run compa.ring the number of information sources utilized in the search process, and a comparison was made between the importance of the va.rious sources of information. The majority of parents were classified as ac~ive searchers, researching one alternative more carefully than others. Socioeconomic status was the only factor to have a sign ific:ant- effect on the ranKing of information sources.
    • School integration and the friendships of youth with developmental disabilities

      Sciberras, Juliann Marie.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-07-09)
      - The present study was an investigation into the effect ofschool integration on the friendships ofyouth with developmental disabilities and their peers without disabilities. The youths, their parents, and their teachers provided insights into the youths' friendships. A qualitative paradigm was used in this research. The researcher guided the collection and analysis ofthe data with the phenomenologicallifeworld existentials of body, space, time, and human relation (Van Manen, 1990). Individual interviews were conducted with each youth, and group interviews were conducted with each triad (a youth, their parent(s), and their teacher) to discuss the youth's friendships and the supports necessary to facilitate the friendships. Through phenomenological analysis of the data, four thematic statements emerged: friendships are far from perfect, to have a friend you have to be a friend, parents as choreographers offriendship, and teachers as reluctant partners in friendship facilitation. Based on the results ofthis study, it was concluded that the development of friendships between youth with developmental disabilities and their peers without disabilities was happening in integrated school settings. However, it was also evident that the support ofteachers and parents alike were required to facilitate the development and maintenance ofsuch friendships. Recommendations for practice are discussed, including the need for active participation by the youth's parents in the facilitation offriendships, and the use ofa "circle offriends" to facilitate friendship development. Also discussed are the recommendations for further research, including the need for the youth's friends to be interviewed regarding their friendships with the youth with disabilities, and the need for researcher observation ofth~ friendships in action. Further research could also explore the role ofthe mother versus the father in facilitating friendships, and the role of recreation and leisure opportunities in the ,development offriendships.
    • A school-based cognitive behavior modification intervention strategy for learned helpless mentally retarded students

      Ogilvie, Margaret F.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1985-07-09)
      This study assessed the usefulness of a cognitive behavior modification (CBM) intervention package with mentally retarded students in overcoming learned helplessness and improving learning strategies. It also examined the feasibility of instructing teachers in the use of such a training program for a classroom setting. A modified single subject design across individuals was employed using two groups of three subjects. Three students from each of two segregated schools for the mentally retarded were selected using a teacher questionnaire and pupil checklist of the most learned helpless students enrolled there. Three additional learned helplessness assessments were conducted on each subject before and after the intervention in order to evaluate the usefulness of the program in alleviating learned helplessness. A classroom environment was created with the three students from each school engaged in three twenty minute work sessions a week with the experimenter and a tutor experimenter (TE) as instructors. Baseline measurements were established on seven targeted behaviors for each subject: task-relevant speech, task-irrelevant speech, speech denoting a positive evaluation of performance, speech denoting a negative evaluation of performance, proportion of time on task, non-verbal positive evaluation of performance and non-verbal negative evaluation of performance. The intervention package combined a variety of CBM techniques such as Meichenbaum's (1977) Stop, Look and Listen approach, role rehearsal and feedback. During the intervention each subject met with his TE twice a week for an individual half-hour session and one joint twenty minute session with all three students, the experimentor and one TE. Five weeks after the end of this experiment one follow up probe was conducted. All baseline, post-intervention and probe sessions were videotaped. The seven targeted behaviors were coded and comparisons of baseline, post intervention, and probe testing were presented in graph form. Results showed a reduction in learned helplessness in all subjects. Improvement was noted in each of the seven targeted behaviors for each of the six subjects. This study indicated that mentally retarded children can be taught to reduce learned helplessness with the aid of a CBM intervention package. It also showed that CBM is a viable approach in helping mentally retarded students acquire more effective learning strategies. Because the TEs (Tutor experimenters) had no trouble learning and implementing this program, it was considered feasible for teachers to use similar methods in the classroom.
    • Second-Career Adults: Issues Encountered in Teacher Education Programs

      Gadoua, John J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-02-25)
      The purpose of this case study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the experiences of 3 second-career males prior to and during their participation in teacher education programs. Case study research techniques were used to elicit data from 3 participants who had completed teacher education programs and were actively teaching in various capacities in Ontario. Data were collected through an email questionnaire, 2 open-ended, one-on-one interviews, and the researcher's field notes and reflections of the interview process. These data were coded, analyzed for emerging trends, collated, and presented as a series of findings. The study revealed that these 3 second-career males transitioning into teacher education programs encountered a number of difficulties, some of which are a result of the way program providers structure their recruitment processes and present their curricula. Findings indicated that the second-career males in this study appeared to be inadequately prepared to work in a female-dominated profession. The study also found incompatibilities between associate teachers and these second-career candidates during practice teaching sessions. The findings and implications are of interest to teacher educators, school boards, teacher federations, and prospective adult candidates that may be considering teaching as an alternative second career.
    • Secondary School Department Heads as Teacher Leaders: A Study in Suburban Ontario

      Clarke, Kristen A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-02-25)
      This study focused on the leadership perceptions of 6 department heads, the conditions for their leadership role and their strategies, and supports for navigating their role. Research participants engaged in 2 sets of semistructured interviews; this resulted in a wealth of richly detailed data. It is clear that department heads do act as teacher leaders, even if they do not use this language to discuss their roles. Five elements of the role of the department head as teacher leader unfolded. The research participants perceived their leadership role to be rooted in teaching. They noted their management and leadership roles. They recognized the importance of support for their work and the support that they provide to others. In addition, they provided an overview of key strategies that they implement to lead in their individualized contexts. Department heads also noted the difficulties associated with their position and the effects that these challenges have on them as individuals. This research has resulted in a number of key recommendations for stakeholders. Department heads themselves need to openly discus's their leadership role with their colleagues and their administrators. In turn, administrators need to develop a deeper understanding of the role along with the potential for balkanization in schools. In addition, unions, school districts, and professional bodies need to develop a system of support for department heads and other teacher leaders. With ongoing meaningful communication and professional development, department heads will be more fully recognized as teacher leaders.
    • Self-directed learning, lifelong learning and transformative learning in the Society for Creative Anachronism

      Damianoff, Danny; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      This study examines the connection between leisure group participation and learning activities undertaken by participants in the Society for Creative Anachronism (SCA), a medieval recreationist group. The thesis of this connection was developed through the researcher's observations during SCA participation. The intent of this study is to understand adult learning from the self-directed learning, lifelong learning, and -transformative learning components derived from participant's SCA experiences. This qualitative study was conducted by interviewing eight active SCA participants, two in each participation theme of historical research, artistic representation, performance, and martial skills. Informants' responses demonstrated an integration of their leisure activity with learning. The contextualization of learning a s both a primary activity and a necessary support to participation, places learning a t the heart of participants' SCA related activities. The positive descriptions of learning activities, descriptive terms of ownership, and situating learning as an enjoyable activity engaged for the pleasure of the experience, provides adult educators with a fascinating glimpse of willing and engaged adult learners pursuing lifelong learning outside of the traditional educational structure. Two themes emerged during the interviews. First, bonding with others provided the motivation to continue their activities. Secondly, a feeling of commitment and helonging defined their enjoyment and satisfaction with SCA participation. The clear implications are that adult educators can create effective learning communities by developing educational structures that engage adult learners wi th meaningful social interaction.
    • Self-directed learning, stress and the adult learner /

      Witter, Elene L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-05-21)
      The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the relationship between the degree of self-directed learning readiness and stress for level one nursing students and level two nursing students. One hundred female nursing students participated in the study who were attending an Ontario Community College. Data were collected from the main nursing campus and the satellite nursing campus using the random sample method. Instruments used were said to be valid and reliable for testing self-directed learning readiness and stress respectively. Data were analyzed using frequency response to each item, means and standard deviation, and the Pearson product correlation between selfdirected learning readiness and stress. The results of the study show that there is a difference in the relationship between the degree of self-directed learning readiness and stress between the level one nursing students and the level two nursing students. Such results will be of particular interest to nursing instructors and administrators when planning for delivery of programs to such students.
    • Self-directedness, personality type and success in self- employment

      Okanik, Barbara.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      The new economy has spirited a transformation ofwork organizations from big business structures into smaller, more flexible enterprises, many of which are launched as self-employment initiatives. The growing trend towards increasing selfemployment in Canada demands aeritical review of how educational programs support and encourage entrepreneurship and self-employment opportunities for students ofpost-secondary and adult training programs. The focus ofthis study was threefold. First, the study examined whether a relationship exists between self-directedness and success in self-employment. Secondly, the purpose of this research was to determine whether a relationship exists between psychological type as defined by Jung and success in selfemployment. Finally, this research effort attempted to develop a model for identifying individual potential for self-employment based on combined factors of self-directedness and psychological type. Success was measured in three stages: 1) Did the subject start a selfemployment initiative? 2) Did the business survive six months? 3) Did the business survive one year? The research went beyond classroom training activities to determine whether individuals actually started a business enterprise while participating ina self-employment program designed for individuals who were unemployed. Given that many people initiate a self-employment venture.without actually operating the business beyond the initial start-up, this research effort measured success based on a commitment of at least one year to the selfemployment initiative. Results ofthe study revealed that individuals with a high level of selfdirected learning readiness tended to be more likely to succeed in business in terms ofbusiness starts, survival for six months, and survival for one year. In addition, it was discovered that individuals who were extraverted intuitive types succeeded more often in business at all three levels than any other type. These findings supported a model using the SDLRS and the PET Type Check as predictors for success in entrepreneurial ventures.
    • The self-management approach of health education in the treatment of chronic illnesses

      Campbell, Wendy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-07-09)
      Health education is essential to the successful treatment of individuals with chronic illnesses. Self-management is a philosophical model of health education that has been shown to be effective in teaching individuals with chronic arthritis to manage their illness as part of their daily lives. Despite the proven results of arthritis self-management programs, some limitations of this form of health education were apparent in the literature. The present study attempted to address the problems of the self-management approach of health education such as reasons for lack of participation in programs and poor course outcomes. In addition, the study served to investigate the relationship between course outcomes and participation in programs with the theory upon which arthritis self-management programs are based, known as self-efficacy theory. Through a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, data collection, and analysis, a deeper understanding of the self-management phenomenon in the treatment of chronic arthritic conditions was established. Findings of the study confirm findings of previous studies that suggest that arthritis self-management programs result in enhanced levels of self-efficacy and are effective in teaching individuals with arthritis to self-manage their health and health care. Findings of the study suggest that there are many factors that determine the choice of participants to participate in programs and the outcomes for the individuals who do choose to participate in programs. Some of the major determinants of enrollment and outcomes of programs include: the participant's personality, beliefs, attitudes and abilities, and the degree of emotional acceptance of the illness. Other determinants of course enrollment and outcomes included class size and length of time, timing of participation, and ongoing support after the program. The results of the study are consistent with the self-management literature and confirm the relationship between the underlying philosophies of adult education and Freire's model of education and self-management.
    • Self-Regulated Learning and Psychomotor Skill Development in Second-Year Veterinary Students

      Joy, Andria; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Previous studies have shown that students who use self-regulated learning strategies have demonstrated improved academic, sport, and medical psychomotor skill mastery. In veterinary education, deliberate practice is currently the educational model for psychomotor skill development in veterinary students. However, with the advent of clinical skills labs, students are expected to self-direct their own development of psychomotor skills, such as suturing, intravenous (IV) catheter placement, and physical exams. Self-directed learning requires the use of self-regulated learning strategies. This research study demonstrates the effect of introducing self-regulated learning theory and deliberate practice theory versus introducing only deliberate theory on the suturing abilities of second-year veterinary students at the Ontario Veterinary College in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. It was theorized that students who use self-regulated learning strategies and deliberate practice to master their skills would out-perform those students who only used deliberate practice. This was not demonstrated with this research and may have been due to the intervention which involved the introduction of these theories to both the test and control group, or to the small group size that resulted from attrition from this research project.
    • Sentence combining and thinking : a study of adult ESL learners

      Charters, Elizabeth.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (St. Catharines, Ont. : Brock University, Faculty of Education, 2003., 2009-07-09)
      This paper begins by outlining the development of the thesis question from the classroom concerns of a teacher and the broad theoretical questions ofa graduate student to the preliminary selection of method. Sentence combining is chosen to represent the writing process in a form suitable for introspective study through think-alound activities.
    • Sex education for individuals who have a developmental disability : the need for assessment

      Watson, Shelley.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-07-09)
      This study was an evaluation of the sexual knowledge of individuals who have '"a developmental disability and the effect of sex education. This was also a pilot study involving the evaluation of the Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool (SSKAAT; Griffiths & Lunsky, in press). This tool is a revised version of the Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test (SSKAT; Wish, Fiechtl McCombs, & Edmonson, 1980). Thirty-two individuals participated in the study (20 males and 12 females), who were receiving supports from local community agencies. Participants were assessed using the SSKAAT and SSKAT in an initial assessment and in a 6-week follow-up. Sixteen participants received a 6-week sex education program, Life Horizons I and II (Kempton & Stanfield, 1988a, 1988b), between the assessments, while 16 participants served as a control group. It was found that sex education was successful at increasing knowledge regarding sexuality, as demonstrated by increased scores on both the SSKAT and SSKAAT. However, the current study did not demonstrate any significant effect of gender on knowledge about sexuality. It was also found that IQ did not have a significant effect on knowledge regarding sexuality. The present study found the SSKAAT to be very reliable, with test-retest reliabilities ranging from .87 to .99. This appeared to be an improvement over the original SSKAT, whose reliability ranged from .72 to .90. Furthennore, the revised SSKAAT was fOlmd to provide a much more in-depth assessment of sexual knowledge and attitudes for individuals who have a developmental disability.
    • Sexual Health Education (SHE) in Ontario: Exploring a Sample of the Public Discourse Surrounding the 2015 Update to Ontario’s Human Development and Sexual Health Curriculum

      Dent, Elissa; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      In an increasingly hypersexualized culture, Canadian youth face challenges (e.g., increased risk for unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, social ostracization and bullying, and mental health challenges) associated with sexuality and sexual health (Brady & Halpern-Felsher, 2007; Drouin, Ross, & Tobin, 2015; Public Health Agency of Canada [PHAC], 2008) on their way to adulthood. The need for relevant sexual health education that helps youth make healthy and informed choices is well established (Bourke, Boduszek, Kellher, McBride, & Morgan, 2014; Frappier et al., 2008; Reis, Ramiro, Matos, & Diniz, 2011). Ontario, as part of its ongoing comprehensive curricular review and revision processes, updated the Human Development & Sexual Health curriculum, a central component of the province’s Health and Physical Education curriculum. The comprehensive revision to the Human Development & Sexual Health curriculum released initially in 2010, and again in 2015, was met with both support and controversy. The purpose of this research study was to explore a portion of the public discourse surrounding the province of Ontario’s 2015 update to the Grades 1 through 8 Human Development & Sexual Health curricula. Specifically, the research investigated documentation from six key stakeholder groups: i) news organizations; ii) parents; iii) field-related professionals; iv) non-governmental organizations; v) lobby groups; and vi) the provincial government. Using qualitative document analyses techniques, data sources were described and analyzed. An identification and summary of main themes are offered. Finally, implications for future educational policy reforms and recommendations for future research are addressed.
    • A Shift in Role: The Perspectives of Ontario Secondary Principals Working in Data-Driven Environments

      Paterson, Paul; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-04-11)
      This study occurred in 2009 and questioned how Ontario secondary school principals perceived their role had changed, over a 7 year period, in response to the increased demands of data-driven school environments. Specifically, it sought to identify principals' perceptions on how high-stakes testing and data-driven environments had affected their role, tasks, and accountability responsibilities. This study contextualized the emergence of the Education Quality and Accountability Offices (EQAO) as a central influence in the creation of data-driven school environments, and conceptualized the role of the principal as using data to inform and persuade a shift in thinking about the use of data to improve instruction and student achievement. The findings of the study suggest that data-driven environments had helped principals reclaim their positional power as instructional leaders, using data as an avenue back into the classroom. The use of data shifted the responsibilities of the principal to persuade teachers to work collaboratively to improve classroom instruction in order to demonstrate accountability.
    • Shop-floor narratives : how six workers and a researcher describe learning activities

      De Man, Gustaaf.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      I am a part-time graduate student who works in industry. This study is my narrative about how six workers and I describe shop-floor learning activities, that is learning activities that occur where work is done, outside a classroom. Because this study is narrative inquiry, you wilileam about me, the narrator, more than you would in a more conventional study. This is a common approach in narrative inquiry and it is important because my intentions shape the way that I tell these six workers' stories. I developed a typology of learning activities by synthesizing various theoretical frameworks. This typology categorizes shop-floor learning activities into five types: onthe- job training, participative learning, educational advertising, incidental learning, and self-directed learning. Although learning can occur in each of these activities in isolation, it is often comprised of a mixture of these activities. The literature review contains a number of cases that have been developed from situations described in the literature. These cases are here to make the similarities and differences between the types of learning activities that they represent more understandable to the reader and to ground the typology in practice as well as in theory. The findings are presented as reader's theatre, a dramatic presentation of these workers' narratives. The workers tell us that learning involves "being shown," and if this is not done properly they "learn the hard way." I found that many of their best case lean1ing activities involved on-the-job training, participative learning, incidentalleaming, and self-directed learning. Worst case examples were typically lacking in properly designed and delivered participative learning activities and to a lesser degree lacking carefully planned and delivered on-the-job training activities. Included are two reflective chapters that describe two cases: Learning "Engels" (English), and Learning to Write. In these chapters you will read about how I came to see that my own shop-floor learning-learning to write this thesis-could be enhanced through participative learning activities. I came to see my thesis supervisor as not only my instructor who directed and judged my learning activities, but also as a more experienced researcher who was there to participate in this process with me and to help me begin to enter the research community. Shop-floor learning involves learners and educators participating in multistranded learning activities, which require an organizational factor of careful planning and delivery. As with learning activities, which can be multi-stranded, so too, there can be multiple orientations to learning on the shop floor. In our stories, you will see that these six workers and I didn't exhibit just one orientation to learning in our stories. Our stories demonstrate that we could be behaviorist and cognitivist and humanist and social learners and constructivist in our orientation to learning. Our stories show that learning is complex and involves multiple strands, orientations, and factors. Our stories show that learning narratives capture the essence of learning-the learners, the educators, the learning activities, the organizational factors, and the learning orientations. Learning narratives can help learners and educators make sense of shop-floor learning.
    • Sinister creativity: a phenomenological exploration of some of the experiences and perceptions of six lefthanded visual artists

      Rickard, Ted J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1998-07-09)
      Six lefthanded artist-educators were interviewed to attempt to discover any patterns t6 their perceptions and experiences. Artists have their own culture and priorities. According to the literature, lefthanded people appear more likely to suffer from dyslexia, allergies, asthma and other auto-immune diseases as well as machinery and equipment injuries. Patterns emerging suggested that lefthanded people indeed suffer more from dyslexia. More startling was the distinct possibility that many artists have traumatic childhood histories. This would commonly include negative school experiences, and for a significant number sexual assault, perceived or actual abandonment by parents, and/or consistently low selfesteem. The researcher discovered possible reasons why creative people frequently have problems at school, why they tend to be rebellious and anti-establishment oriented, how many of them perceive societal rules, and why they are more likely to be lefthanded. These characteristics all have significant implications for art school administrators.
    • A speculative systems model of the dynamic interaction among students, faculty and administration in the community college, with particular reference to intrinsic motivation and the teacher-administrator interface

      Tremblay, R. Brent.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      The challenge the community college faces in helping meet the needs of the living open system of society is examined in this study. It is postulated that internalization student outcomes are required by society to reduce entropy and remain self-renewing. Such behavior is characterized as having an intrinsically motivated energy source and displays the seeking and conquering of challenge, the development of reflective knowledge and skill, full use of all capabilities, internal control, growth orientation, high self-esteem, relativistic thinking and competence. The development of a conceptual systems model that suggests how transactions among students, faculty and administration might occur to best meet the needs of internalization outcomes in students, and intrinsic motivation in faculty is a major purpose of this study. It is a speculative model that is based on a synthesis of a wide variety of variables. Empirical evidence, theoretical considerations, and speculative ideas are gathered together from researchers and theoretici.ans who are working on separate answers to questions of intrinsic motivation, internal control and environments that encourage their development. The model considers the effect administrators·have on faculty anq the corresponding effect faculty may have on students. The major concentration is on the administrator--teacher interface.For administrators the model may serve as a guide in planning effective transactions, and establishing system goals. The teacher is offered a means to coordinate actions toward a specific overall objective, and the administrator, teacher and researcher are invited to use the model to experiment, innovate, verify the assumptions on which the model is based, and raise additional hypotheses. Goals and history of the community colleges in Ontario are examined against current problems, previous progress and open system thinking. The nature of the person as a five part system is explored with emphasis on intrinsic motivation. The nature, operation, conceptualization, and value of this internal energy source is reviewed in detail. The current state of society, education and management theory are considered and the value of intrinsically motivating teaching tasks together with "system four" leadership style are featured. Evidence is reviewed that suggests intrinsically motivated faculty are needed, and "system four" leadership style is the kind of interaction-influence system needed to nurture intrinsic motivation in faculty.
    • Spelling performance of third grade students : a comparison of whole-language-plus-strategy instruction, strategy instruction only, and the whole language approach

      Thomas, Jean S. Butyniec.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1995-07-09)
      This study investigated three methods for teaching children how to spell. Third grade students were divided into three conditions for a one-week training period consisting of 15- to 20-minute lessons. One of the two experimental conditions used a whole language approach along with explicit strategy instruction. The second condition used strategy instruction within a traditional setting. The control used strictly a whole language approach to le~ing hO\\l to spell. The spelling perfonnance of all three conditions improved after the one-week training period. However, students in the strategy instruction groups did significantly better on the study "'7ords than the whole language only group. The students in whole-Ianguage-plusstrateg)! instruction outperformed both other groups. Significantly better spelling perfonnance was observed even at the nine-week posttest. This study frrst supported the hypothesis that children can make significantly greater improven1ents in their spelling when explicitly taught how to use spelling strategies. Secondl)', this study indicated that whole language provided a relevant context for the study words, clearly giving the students in the whole-Ianguage-plus-strategy condition an additional advantage.