• Reading Instruction and Instructors’ Perceptions of Learners’ Needs in LINC Level 1-3 Classes

      Henrie, Kimberley A; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2012-05-03)
      This study investigates instructors’ perceptions of reading instruction and difficulties among Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) Level 1-3 learners. Statistics Canada reports that 60% of immigrants possess inadequate literacy skills. Newcomers are placed in classes using the Canadian Language Benchmarks but large, mixed-level classes create little opportunity for individualized instruction, leading some clients to demonstrate little change in their reading benchmarks. Data were collected (via demographic questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, teaching plans, and field study notes) to create a case study of five LINC instructors’ perceptions of why some clients do not progress through the LINC reading levels as expected and how their previous experiences relate to those within the LINC program. Qualitative analyses of the data revealed three primary themes: client/instructor background and classroom needs, reading, strategies, methods and challenges, and assessment expectations and progress, each containing a number of subthemes. A comparison between the themes and literature demonstrated six areas for discussion: (a) some clients, specifically refugees, require more time to progress to higher benchmarks; (b) clients’ level of prior education can be indicative of their literacy skills; (c) clients with literacy needs should be separated and placed into literacy-specific classes; (d) evidence-based approaches to reading instruction were not always evident in participants’ responses, demonstrating a lack of knowledge about these approaches; (e) first language literacy influences second language reading acquisition through a transfer of skills; and (f) collaboration in the classroom supports learning by extending clients’ capabilities. These points form the basis of recommendations about how reading instruction might be improved for such clients.
    • Reflection Reframed: The Process of Photography as Strategy for Teachers' Reflective Practice

      Trzecak, Terry; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-04-15)
      Teacher reflective practice is described as an effective method for engaging teachers in improving their own professional learning. Yet, some teachers do not understand how to effectively engage in the reflective processes, or prefer not to formalize the process through writing a reflective journal as taught in most teacher education programs. Developing reflective skills through the process of photography was investigated in this study as a strategy to allow enhanced teacher reflection for professional and personal growth. The process of photography is understood as the mindful act of photographing rather than focusing on the final product-the image. For this study, 3 practicing educators engaged in photographic exercises as a reflective process. Data sources included transcribed interviews, participant journal reflections, and sketchbook artifacts, as well as the researcher's personal journal notes. Findings indicated that, through the photographic process, (a) teacher participants developed new and individual strategies for professional leaming; and (b) teacher participants experienced shifts in the way they conceptualized their personal worldviews.
    • Reflective practice and the novice nurse /

      Fleming, Karen.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2005-06-04)
      The importance of reflective practice to the novice nurse was explored in this study. The novice nurse, for the purpose of this study, was defined as a Registered Nurse who graduated from an accredited nursing program within a 1 2-month period prior to the data collection date and who had no prior experience as a Registered Nurse before graduation. All of the nurses enrolled in this study were female. This study explored the perceived link between transformational learning and reflective practice, and whether there may be a need to standardize a conceptual framework and definition for reflective practice in nursing academia. The literature that was reviewed for this study indicated that there were inconsistencies in the application of reflective practice within academic curriculums. The literature did identify that the majority of academic scholars have agreed that reflection is paramount in the development of critical thinking skills, self-awareness, and selfdirection. And, while all of these skills drive professional practice and effect excellent patient care, institutional health care has been reticent to support the value of reflective practice because of a lack of empirical data sets. The 4 novice Registered Nurses who participated in this study were asked 4 openended questions that provided a foundation for comparing the novice nurses' experiences, interpretations, and perceptions of reflective practice. These nurses participated in individual audiotaped interviews with the researcher. The study was based upon Heath's (1998) model of "Theory hitegration via Reflective Practice." The results demonstrated that reflective practice was significant to the novice nurse and was used as a tool to identify further learning needs. Transformational learning through reflection was described by the study participants. The findings within this study are consistent with previous work done in the area of reflection and the novice nurse.
    • Registered nurses' perceptions of factors impacting on their continuing education /

      Fusek, Bozena.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-05-19)
      This qualitative study examined the effects of hospital restructuring on a group of nurses at a community hospital. Eleven nurses were asked questions in order to gain insight into their experience in this situation. Ten of these participants were female, and one was male. The intent was to gather information about how restructuring has affected their lives, including, their motivational factors and barriers to participation in continuing education, and their descriptions of their workplace environment. Audiotaped interviews were conducted on two occasions to obtain this data. Emergent themes included the nurses' comments about continuing education, motivational factors, barriers that included geography and time, reactions of co-workers, restructuring, the College of Nurses' Quality Assurance Program including peer feedback, and performance appraisals. The literature review compares the barriers and motivational factors to the previous research findings. Thus, this study gave voice to the experience of this group of nurses, working in a healthcare setting that is involved in restructuring. This information is important to the healthcare system, since many areas are involved in restructuring. The whole process, if it is to be successful, depends on the frontline workers, namely the nurses. Thus, if there is anything to be learned from this group of people, that could be used to improve this progression, everyone would benefit from this information, were it to be implemented. Everyone is a stakeholder in the quality of healthcare in our province. The frontline workers are the ones that hold the vantage point to be able to provide suggestions for the changes needed to successful. These nurses are not just motivated by work issues however, and educating them and motivating them will also improve the care provided through increased knowledge and enhanced self-esteem.
    • Relating leadership, thinking styles, self-concept, motivation and stress management in education

      Frame, Robert James.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1992-07-09)
      Seventy-five principals and vice-.wincipals from public elementary and secondary schools in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada participated in this study. Participants provided ,information concerning their thinking styles, motivations, and the physical effects of stress. This information was examined to find out how satisfaction-oriented, and how security-oriented the thinking styles of the participants were. Second, the data were analysed to see how the thinking style orientations related to life style habits and the effects of stress. The satisfaction-oriented thinking styles scored higher than all of the security-oriented thinking styles by a wide margin with a small preference for the satisfaction-people-oriented styles labelled humanistic-helpful, and affiliative as opposed to the satisfaction-task-oriented styles labeled achievement, and self-actualizing. Although all eight of the security-oriented thinking styles scored well below all of the satisfaction-oriented thinking styles on the Life Styles Inventory, the perfectionistic style scored higher than all of the security-oriented styles by an impressive margin. The next highest scores were recorded by a cluster of three passive-defensive people-oriented thinking styles labeled approval, conventional, and dependent. The competitive style scored lower, and the styles labeled avoidance, oppositional, and power scored the lowest of all the defensive-security-oriented styles. These findings suggest that principals and vice-principals see themselves as relaxed, flexible, and satisfied with their ability to adapt to the stress levels they experience in their lives; however, there was some support for medical research findings that suggest that specific security-oriented thinking styles are associated with emotional stresses that contribute to the development of specific lifestyle habits, physical symptoms, and illnesses. Although the number of females in this study provides very limited generalizability, the findings of this study suggest that high achieving females tend to develop satisfaction-growth styles to a higher level than males, and they tend to use security-oriented styles to a lesser degree than males.
    • The relationship between creativity and moral judgment

      McLaren, P. L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      A sample of 50 male and female subjects ranging in age from 12 to 73 were divided into three groups according to the scale of maturity of moral judgment developed by Lawrence Kohlberg. Subjects were also tested on a measure of creativity developed by Torrance after the formulations of Guilford in order to test the hypothesis that the re^- lationship between creativity and maturity of moral judgment is curvilinear. Researchers have failed to develop any working hypothesis concerning the relationship between creativity and moral judgment or postulate any consistent theoretical framework concerning the possible relationship between these two constructs. The empirical investigation involved a scientific testing of a random selection of elementary subjects9 high school adolescents, and creative adults. Tests included Kohlberg8s Moral dilemmas and Guilford's Product Improvement Task. A trend analysis was conducted to reveal whether or not a curvilinear relationship existed between the independent variable (Moral Maturity Stages) and the de~ pe dent variable (creativity performance under each level). Curvilinear trends were observed in two out of four creativity subscales but were not statistically significant. It was concluded that these contradictory findings were due to the relatively small number of subjects tested, the narrow range or moral judgment scores, and the limited conception of creativity defined by the creativity measure used (The Product Improvement Task). It was suggested that an instrument assessing an identity status would be most useful as well as a creativity measure better suited for a theory of creativity essentially developmental in perspective.
    • The relationship between self-serving cognitive distortions and bullying behaviours among elementary school children /

      Bombay, Kristen.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-05-21)
      The purpose ofthe study was to examine the relationshq) between self-serving cognitive distortions and involvement in bullying behaviours. While relationships were e}q)k)red for both bullies and victims, the bully represented the main focus ofthis research. The participants ofthis study were 206 elementary school children in grades 5, 6, 7, and 8 from a school board in South Western Ontario. Participants conq>leted a 2- part self-report questionnaire within a 1-week time period. Part I aimed to measure self-serving cognitive distortions, while Part II was designed to assess selfreports of bullying behaviours. Analyses revealed that a significant direct relationship existed between children's self-serving cognitive distortions and bullying others. More specifically, children's self-serving cognitive distortions were moderately correlated with bullying others (r = .50, p< 0.01). This finding was consistent for both male and female participants. In addition, significant moderate correlations also existed between each ofthe 9 subscales ofself-serving cognitive distortions and bullying others. In regard to the relationship between children's self-serving cognitive distortions and victimization, a low significant direct relationshq) was found (r = .22 p<0.01). This finding was consistent for both male and female participants. The results ofthis study are discussed in terms oftheir theoretical, as well as applied implications.
    • The relationship of individual, team and organizational learning in Ontario hospital clinical labratories

      Tanyaovalaksna, Sumeth; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      I t is generally accepted among scholars that individual learning and team learning contribute to the concept we refer to as organizational learning. However, a small number of quantitative and qualitative studies that have investigated their relationship reported contradicting results. This thesis investigated the relationship between individual learning, team learning, and organizational learning. A survey instrument was used to collect information on individual learning, team learning, and organizational learning. The study sample comprised of supervisors from the clinical laboratories in teaching hospitals and community hospitals in Ontario. The analyses utilized a linear regression to investigate the relationship between individual and team learning. The relationship between individual and organizational learning, and team and organizational learning were simultaneously investigated with canonical correlation and set correlation. T-test and multivariate analysis of variance were used to compare the differences in learning scores of respondents employed by laboratories in teaching and those employed by community hospitals. The study validated its tests results with 1,000 bootstrap replications. Results from this study suggest that there are moderate correlations between individual learning and team learning. The correlation individual learning and organizational learning and team learning and organizational learning appeared to be weak. The scores of the three learning levels show statistically significant differences between respondents from laboratories in teaching hospitals and respondents from community hospitals.
    • Relationships among adolescent substance use, leisure boredom, and physical activity

      McCaul, Kerri L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1998-07-09)
      This study was a secondary analysis of data drawn from the Youth Leisure Study. The purpose of the study was to: a) explore the relationships among physical activity, leisure boredom, and various substance use variables; b) determine if leisure boredom moderated the relationship among physical activity and substance use variables; and c) create a foundation of knowledge with which to educate adolescents and educators of the importance of adopting and maintaining a healthy lifestyle early in life (i.e., free from unhealthy behaviours such as substance use and physical inactivity). Studies examining relationships among physical activity and substance are limited and, in the past, have yielded inconsistent results. The interaction of leisure boredom with physical activity intensity variables, including both team and individual pursuits were tested using moderated hierarchical regression procedures. Six measures of physical activity were used as independent variables, including, frequency of high, medium, and low intensity individual and team physical activities. Various types of substance use, including, tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use, binge drinking, and drunkenness were used as dependent variables. The results for this study indicated that frequency of physical activity intensity was a consistent, positive predictor of alcohol use and binge drinking, but not tobacco use, marijuana use, or drunkenness. Leisure boredom was found to be a highly significant predictor of tobacco use, however, it was not a moderator of relationships among physical activity intensity and substance use variables. The implications for the study findings, are discussed further, and suggestions for future research are presented.
    • Religious Diversity and Teacher Education: Experiences and Perspectives of Muslim Women as Teacher Candidates in Pre-service Programs

      Lumb, Punita; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-09-05)
      This qualitative research project explores the insights of Muslim women as teacher candidates completing pre-service programs in Ontario. Ontario schools cater to students from many ethnic, cultural and religious groups, including a sizable Muslim population. Muslims make up 4.6% of Ontario’s population with the highest concentration of Muslims in the GTA (Statistics Canada, 2011). The Muslim population in Ontario is of a significant enough number that, in a post 9/11 world, it has prompted discussion of how to integrate Muslim populations in Canada. In this research, I explore how Islamophobic sentiment is experienced in Ontario-based teacher education programs. I use Critical Race Theory (CRT) and Critical Race Feminism (CRF) to analyse and deconstruct experiences of female Muslim teacher candidates in pre-service programs. I discuss how Muslims are a racialized group that experience racism as discussed by critical race literature; however, there is a marked difference between how Muslim men and women experience gendered Islamophobia. By using in-depth research-based interviews, I explore how Muslim women perceived diversity, education, accommodations and Islamophobia in pre-service programs. This study adds to the current literature on critical race theory and anti-racist practices in education. Furthermore, this study adds to the voice of Muslim women in the discussion of diversity and inclusivity in educational institutions.
    • Repertory grid adaptations in detecting connotative trends and social behaviour problems in education

      Kompf, Michael; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-01-02)
      This thesis adapts George Kelly's (1955) Role Construct Repertory Test as a method of detecting connotative trends and social behaviour problems in education. In order to reflect the needs of changing educational environments, Kelly's Repertory Grid was selected as being a versatile and perceptually flexible instrument that would allow educators to better understand and recognize the diverse nature and consequences of the learning process, as perceived by students of different levels. Two forms of the Repertory Grid, A for individual assessment and B for group administration, were adapted from Kelly's original Repertory Grid and presented to three samples spanning different educational levels. Constructs and role figures were supplied and extremity ratings were used to allow detection of the intensity of the subject's perceptions. These extremity ratings added to the interpretative quality of the Grid as an individual measure. The further advantage of extremity ratings is illustrated by the manner in which the data can be considered to represent the perceptions of groups of similar persons, thereby producing a relative, normative measure. Analysis of the lications of the Osgood Semantic Differential show that ratings of adjective pairs based on evaluation and activity tend to increase with age and education, and that adjective pairs based on the potency dimension remain fairly constant. Also the overall extremity used to rate these adjectives increases most significantly between the ages of 12.65 and 22 years. The instruments (Repgrids A and B) also show a high degree of face validity and can allow educators to look at the perceptions students have of themselves and important others. This interpretation can be done simply with few instructions. This device, properly used, could open new avenues of educational relationships and their implications. Kelly's design allows one to not only look at another's perceptions through his own eyes, but also to look with new perspective at one's own position on relational and behavioural issues.
    • Research in the clinical setting : a qualitative study of the value of play research in the continuing education of occupational therapists.

      Gaik, Sandra.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-05-21)
      Occupational therapists have always recognized playas an important part of a child's life. However, until recently play has been viewed as a medium for reaching treatment goals, rather than as an activity that is valuable in and of itself. If occupational therapists think of playas the primary activity or occupation of childhood, then play should be a very important area of focus for paediatric clinicians. In order to assist children to become as independent as possible with play and to have fulfilling play experiences the occupational therapist needs to have a clear understanding of how to assess, set goals which lead towards competence in play, and promote play. Recent play literature has placed importance on play behaviours and looking at the relationship between the child and both the human and nonhuman environment. Believing that play and playfulness can and should be promoted, for children with physical disabilities, requires that therapists learn new assessment and intervention strategies. A new assessment tool, The Test of Playfulness, was developed by Bundy in 1994. It addressed play behaviours and environmental influences. The author, a co-investigator and eight occupational therapists were involved in a playfulness study using this test to compare the playfulness of children with physical disabilities with their able-bodied peers. After the study was completed the author questioned whether or not involvement in the playfulness study was enough of a change agent to bring about transformative learning in order to further the eight occupational therapists' education about play.This study investigated changes in either the therapists' thinking about play or their behaviour in their clinical practice. The study also examined the participants' retention of knowledge about the Test of Playfulness. The eight therapists who had been involved in the playfulness study (participants) were matched with eight therapists who had not been involved (nonparticipants). The therapists were interviewed 9 to 12 months after completion of the playfulness study. They were asked to describe various scenarios of play and open ended prompts were used to elicit the therapists' perceptions of play, good play, the role or value of play, environmental and gender influences on play, play assessment and intervention, and play research, for children with and without disabilities. The participants were also prompted to discuss their experience with the playfulness study. A self-report questionnaire was also completed at the end of the interview. The results of the study demonstrated that: (a) the play research project was a good format for continuing the participants' education about play; (b) their thinking had changed about play; (c) according to self report, they had used this new knowledge in their clinical practice; and (d) the participants remembered the items on the Test of Playfulness and could use them in describing various aspects of play. This study found that participating in a play research project had been an effective method of professional development. It also highlighted the need for increased awareness of the recent literature on play and the developing role of the occupational therapist in the assessment and intervention of play.
    • Research in the clinical setting : a qualitative study of the value of play research in the continuing education of occupational therapists.

      Gaik, Sandra.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-09-23)
      Occupational therapists have always recognized playas an important part of a child's life. However, until recently play has been viewed as a medium for reaching treatment goals, rather than as an activity that is valuable in and of itself. If occupational therapists think of playas the primary activity or occupation of childhood, then play should be a very important area of focus for paediatric clinicians. In order to assist children to become as independent as possible with play and to have fulfilling play experiences the occupational therapist needs to have a clear understanding of how to assess, set goals which lead towards competence in play, and promote play. Recent play literature has placed importance on play behaviours and looking at the relationship between the child and both the human and nonhuman environment. Believing that play and playfulness can and should be promoted, for children with physical disabilities, requires that therapists learn new assessment and intervention strategies. A new assessment tool, The Test of Playfulness, was developed by Bundy in 1994. It addressed play behaviours and environmental influences. The author, a co-investigator and eight occupational therapists were involved in a playfulness study using this test to compare the playfulness of children with physical disabilities with their able-bodied peers. After the study was completed the author questioned whether or not involvement in the playfulness study was enough of a change agent to bring about transformative learning in order to further the eight occupational therapists' education about play.
    • Resilience factors of university and college students with learning disabilities as revealed through retrospective interviews /

      Bulthuis, Tracey J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-04)
      This qualitative study examined resilience factors of eight university and college students with learning disabilities as revealed through retrospective interviews. This study has added to the existing literature surrounding resilience especially as it relates to individuals with learning disabilities. This study may provide additional insight into the emotional impacts of repeated and chronic risks on students with learning disabilities. The major themes that emerged using the interpretive phenomenological analysis method (Smith & Osborn, 2003) were organized under these four major headings: Challenges and Obstacles, Surviving Challenges, Supportive Conditions, and A Journey of Discovery and Hope. An adaptation of the listening guide analytical method (Gilligan, Spencer, Weinberg, & Bertsch, 2003) was also utilized and offered a more personal depiction of the participants and an exploration of the unique contributions their stories made to this study. Specifically, a theme of feeling trapped/wanting to escape emerged as a reaction to adversity faced during elementary school years. Furthennore, this study has demonstrated that for several of the participants, the benefits of positive outlets extended beyond nurturing areas of strength and self-esteem to also include the provision of a short respite from their challenges and enhanced feelings of overall well-being. Additionally, this study may add to the existing literature surrounding character traits evident in resilient students, specifically highlighting the significance of optimism and selfacceptance.
    • The Respect Circle: Ten Teachers, One Classroom Management Model

      Brown, Kathryn L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-02-22)
      In this qualitative investigation, the researcher examined the experiences of 10 teachers as they implemented a classroom management model called the Respect Circle. Through interviews and journal entries, the writer sought to understand how the participating teachers developed their classroom management practice, using the Respect Circle as a reference point. Data collection occurred over a 10-week period from October to December. The findings of this study demonstrate the multifaceted and complex nature of classroom management. Participants identified relationships with their students as the premier factor in establishing classroom management. Additionally, pro action, professional reflection, adaptability, and consistency figured prominently in the classroom management approaches taken by the participating teachers. Utilizing the experiences and suggestions of the participants as a springboard, the Respect Circle model was revised. The findings underline areas of concern regarding classroom management and suggest that teachers want a respectful, structured yet flexible model upon which to base their classroom management. Suggestions for teachers, new and experienced; school administrators; and developers of classroom management courses are provided.
    • Risk-taking behaviours in adolescent boys and girls : sexuality and dietary health

      Armstrong, Lynn Ann.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      This study examined adolescents' reported sexual and dietary health-risk behaviours and perceptions. Specifically, this study analyzed the data of 600 students (300 male~ 300 female) in grades 9, I 1, and OAC (mean, standard deviation). The mean age of the students in the sample is 16 with a standard deviation of 1.6. The study was a secondary analysis ofthe first-year data of a 3-year longitudinal study conducted by Youth Lifestyle Choices-Community University Research Alliance (YLC-CURA) on adolescents. To explore sexuality and dietary health, this study purposefully selected sections of the survey that represented sex and dieting behaviours of adolescents. Separate gender and age data analyses revealed different patterns among the variables. Specifically., findings revealed that adolescents who engaged in recent sexual activities were more likely to have a relatively more positive body image perception and were relatively more likely to engage in disordered eating. Across both genders and 3 age levels, adolescents reported that despite their unhealthy dietary habits they felt that dieting was not a high-risk behaviour. Results were discussed in terms of educational implication for sexual health programs.
    • The role of education in building individual human capital : How do professionals look at it?

      Askari, Mahmoud Yousef; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2011-12-16)
      This study followed a qualitative research approach to investigate how welleducated professionals see the role of formal education in building human capital. Individuals need to understand the relationship between education and their human capital to justify the time and money they invested to get their education. Colleges and universities need to know the value of their output, to better value and promote the process of knowledge production and transmission and help the general public appreciate their work more. While the importance of a good education is a key factor in the success of learners, this study revealed the power of social capital in making this success a reality. It may not be enough for an individual to acquire good education to guarantee a better future. The power of social connections can be the main determinant in one’s wellbeing. This study shows that it is important to address students’ life outside school beside the importance of a classroom education.
    • The role of leaders in building organizational learning capacity

      Beal, Gordon; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      In a world in which social, economic, and environmental circumstances are continuously evolving and increasingly complex, leaders face the challenging prospect of navigating their organizations through unpredictable operating conditions. Finding a way to tap into the learning capacity of the people who comprise their organizations may be the answer to adapt and to survive. This qualitative research study explored the role of leaders in building this organizational learning capacity. The literature identified three domains of personal, interpersonal, and organizational capacity for learning in an organizational setting. Interviews with three senior leaders who had successfully built learning capacity in their respective organizations revealed four elements of leader commitment: (a) to the process of building learning capacity, (b) to organizational objectives and results, (c) to personal actions and behaviours, and (d) to the people of the organization. Each of the four elements of leader commitment spans the three domains of learning capacity that can guide leaders as they build organizational learning capacity.
    • A safe place /

      Carmichael-Houle, Anne L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      This study is an effort to give voice to an experience. The experience in question is the decision of a student to trust a practitioner. The study also describes the features which led the student to believe that the practitioner would provide a "safe place" for interaction around matters of a delicate or personal nature. This study is the gift oftwo coauthors, each with a unique story which offers description of critical incidents, and what made these events meaningful. At the heart of the study is the potential for education and its professionals to provide safe places for students. Analysis of the data determines that a safe place involves two parties, one seeking a safe place and another who provides the safe place-in this study, the student and the practitioner. The student, with urgency, seeks a safe place to disclose personal information. In this urgency the student is confronted with features of control, comfort, respect, felt sense, and nonjudgemental listening. These features are the constitutive elements of a Safe Place. Capacity to recognize and construct safe places is a competency which the existing school lifeworld demands of today's practitioners. Understanding what are deemed to be safe places and how practitioners might work to create them are the extended outcomes of this study.
    • Salience of Charter Schools in Educational Policy Debates in Three Canadian Provinces: 1993-2010

      Mindzak, Michael; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-04-09)
      School choice-the movement towards increased parental and student control over public education-has been endorsed extensively as a means of revitalizing and improving public schools. Part of this movement is the concept of charter schools, which have expanded rapidly in the United States and around the globe. In stark contrast, Canadians have remained relatively content with current educational arrangements; only 13 charter schools currently exist in Canada, all in the province of Alberta. This study sought to identify why charter schools have failed to situate themselves in Canadian education. The study used an agenda setting framework to determine the salience of charter schools as a public issue in three provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario. Results largely indicate that over the past 18 years, charter schools have gradually declined as a salient issue. Additional discussion concerning the unique characteristics of Canadian education highlights factors that appear to discourage the expansion of such schools. However, although charter schools do not appear to be a current issue for Canadians, they may still emerge in the future, as parents and teachers continue to seek new ways of improving educational outcomes. Thus, although the impact of charter schools on public education has been minimal to date, they provide an illuminating lens towards better understanding educational reform and policy, as well as the fundamental values that shape education in Canada.