• Paradigms and prisons: a narrative of translation and transformation : my hero's journey from "at-risk" youth to teacher/learner in a jail setting /

      Trimble, Warren Albert.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2007-06-29)
      All life is suffering. Life is the pursuit ofhappiness. These are two foundational Buddhist dictums that, in their simplicity, I have entirely misunderstood regarding their depth, misreading them as contradictory. Indeed, my superficial interpretations led me to Thoreau's life ofquiet desperation and deep depression. We come to know and bring understanding to our lives by storying them. My own Hero's Journey, the path from my egoic selftoward the universal Self, can be understood as the resultant translations and transformations. Inevitably each of us is involved in such a story, though most are unaware of the stages along our own Hero's journey. ' Narrative honours writing as a means of knowing. The contemplative reflection allows insight into our imprisoning paradigms, beliefs, behaviours, and blind spots. My research revisits and explores nodal experiences along my Hero's Journey through 4 categories: self, society, soil, and Self. While the value of this process of narrative inquiry lay in its ability to come to know and understand one's self, perhaps its greater value is of a more universal nature. My inquiry, while adding to the body of academic educational narrative literature, may also illuminate a path to educators, students, and all interested, encouraging a response to the call of their own Hero's journey. I am a teacher/learner in a jail setting, working with youth between the ages of 12 and 18 who have committed crimes such as armed robbery, assault, rape, and murder. As this thesis follows my continual development from egoic self/teacher/learner to universal Self/Teacher/Learner, it also enables me to both consciously and unconsciously open the ways in which I expand my care, compassion, and love to work with at-risk youth.
    • Participants' perceptions of their involvement in a cardiovascular disease risk factor reduction program

      Polych, Bonnie.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-11-04)
      A cardiovascular disease risk factor reduction program was implemented in the Niagara region. To gain an understanding of this program from the participants ' perspective, 10 participants of the program were interviewed to document their perceptions of what they learned in the program, their perceptions of their behaviour change and their perceptions of factors that facilitated or impeded any behaviour change. The learning style inventory and PET test were also given to the participants to further understand their perceptions. Findings unique to this study highlighted aspects of the andragogical model, self-directed learning theory, learning style preference and psychological type that were prominent in the participants' comments and perspectives. Implications for practice, theory development and further research are suggested.
    • Participation of registered nurses in continuing education

      Gehan, Karen Anne.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      This correlational study investigated the psychological types, learning style preferences, readiness for self-directed learning, demographic and continuing education participation data of 154 registered nurses at two different Southern Ontario hospitals. One hospital was a large tertiary care university-affiliated teaching centre (Cityview) and the other was a smaller secondary care community hospital (Waterview). The instruments used in the study were the PET Type Check, Kolb's Learning Style Inventory, the Self-Directed Readiness Scale (SDLRS), and a Nursing Survey developed by the researcher. Descriptive statistics, crosstabulations and correlational analyses were calculated. The most common psychological types identified among this sample of nurses were extraverted thinking, introverted intuitive and extraverted intuitive. There were no significant differences between the two hospitals. The accommodator learning style was preferred overall, with more nurses at Waterview Hospital preferring the diverger learning style, and more nurses at Cityview Hospital preferring the accommodator learning style. The majority of nurses scored in the average and above average categories on the SDLRS, indicating that they perceive themselves as ready to engage in self-directed learning. At Cityview Hospital there were more nurses in the average and high readiness categories, whereas at Waterview Hospital more nurses scored in the below average category. No significant correlations were found for learning style with psychological type, or for learning style with SDLRS scores. A positive correlation was found to exist between SDLRS scores and each of the psychological types extraverted feelings, extraverted thinking, and introverted intuitive.The only significant correlation for psychological type and continuing education activity was a positive correlation between extraverted thinking types and participation in informal discussion or study groups. Positive correlations were found for SDLRS scores with each of the following continuing education activities; number of hours per month spent reading journals; journal reading; attendance at credit courses; watching videos; using reference texts. Further details of the results are included as well as a discussion of the findings and implications for future research.
    • Pausing at the river's edge : a narrative inquiry into the practice of a reading teacher /

      Onody, Judy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      In this narrative self-study I retell and connect the stories ofmy personal journey with literacy from childhood to the present. I use narrative as both methodology and method as I story my life experiences and my personal encounters with literacy. The heart ofmy reflections comes from the pages of personal journals written and storied over many years of trying to make meaning of powerful literacy experiences in my life. Now, in going back through the stories and reconstructing meaning, I make connections between the memories along the journey and the place from which I now tell my story. The interpretations I construct give voice to beliefs 1 have lived by and illuminations to moments in time that I have come to see with new eyes as I have engaged in this inquiry. The journey and self-reflection within the pages of this inquiry provide understanding of the driving force behind my personal passion for literacy. I am better able to understand my motivations and share the stories that validate my personal and professional path through time.
    • Peer Attitudes Towards Students With Exceptionalities in the Classroom

      Henning, Megan; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This concurrent triangulation mixed methods research project sought to investigate inconsistencies in the current literature regarding student attitudes towards their peers who have exceptionalities. The study encompassed 27 student participants across primary, junior, and intermediate divisions in a Southwestern Ontario school who were involved in classroom discussions, questionnaires, and individual interviews with the goal of identifying elementary school-aged students’ attitudes towards their peers who have exceptionalities in the classroom. Using an appreciative inquiry lens, data collection prompted students to recall positive memories they may have shared with peers who have exceptionalities. An emergent thematic analysis and triangulation of multiple data sources revealed that students acknowledge differences between students with exceptionalities and other same-aged peers; however, students consistently communicated their intent to support all students within their classrooms. While study findings also indicated that students demonstrated an understanding of the importance of inclusion, further research is needed regarding their actual behaviour.
    • Peer-Led Team Learning as an Instructional Strategy for Secondary School Science

      Wells, Thadeane; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-04-19)
      This study investigated the impact of an instructional learning strategy, peer-led team learning (PLTL), on secondary school students' conceptual understanding of biology concepts related to the topic of evolution. Using a mixed methods approach, data were gathered quantitatively through pre/posttesting using a repeated measures design and qualitatively through observations, questionnaires, and interviews. A repeated measures design was implemented to explore the impact of PLTL on students' understanding of concepts related to evolution and students' attitudes towards PLTL implementation. Results from quantitative data comparing pre/posttesting were not able to be compared through inferential statistics as a result of inconsistencies in the data due to a small sample size and design limitations; however, qualitative data identified positive attitudes towards the implementation of PLTL, with students reporting gains in conceptual understanding, academic achievement, and interdependent work ethic. Implications of these findings for learning, teaching, and the educational literature include understanding of student attitudes towards PLTL and insight into the role PLTL plays in improving conceptual understanding of biology concepts. Strategies are suggested to continue further research in the area of PLTL.
    • Perceived effectiveness of alternative programming : a case study /

      Nickerson, Kate.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      The topic of this research was alternative programming in secondary public education. The purpose of this research was to explore the perceived effectiveness of two public secondary programs that are aJternative to mainstream or "regular" education. Two case study sites were used to research diverse ends of the aJtemative programming continuum. The first case study demonstrated a gifted program and the second demonstrated a behavioral program. Student needs were examined in terms of academic needs, emotional needs, career needs, and social needs. Research conducted in these sites examined how the students, teachers, onsite staff, and program administrators perceived that individual needs were met and unmet in these two programs. The study was qualitative and exploratory, using deductive and inductive research techniques. Similar themes of best practice that were identified in the case study sites aided in the development of a teaching and learning model. Four themes were identified as important within the case study sites. These themes included the commitment and motivation of teachers and the support of administration in the gifted program, and the importance of location and the flow of information and communication in the behavior program. Six themes emerged that were similar across the case study sites. These themes included the individual nature of programming, recognition of student achievement, the alternative program as a place of safety and community, importance of interpersonal capacity, priority of basic needs, and, finally, matching student capacity with program expectations. The model incorporates these themes and is designed as a resource for teachers, program administrators, parents, and policy makers of alternative educational programs.
    • Perceived learning needs in staff development of some care providers in five long-term care settings in Southern Ontario /

      Millar, Deborah L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      This exploratory descriptive study described what 20 care providers in 5 long-term care facilities perceived to aid or hinder their learning in a work-sponsored learning experience. A Critical Incident Technique (Woolsey, 1986) was the catalyst for the interviews with the culturally and professionally diverse participants. Through data analysis, as described by Moustakas (1994), I found that (a) humour, (b) the learning environment, (c) specific characteristics of the presenter such as moderate pacing, speaking slowly and with simple words, (d) decision-making authority, (e) relevance to practice, and (f) practical applications best met the study participants' learning needs. Conversely, other factors could hinder learning based on the participants' perceptions. These were: (a) other presenter characteristics such as a program that was delivered quickly or spoken at a level above the participants' comprehension, (b) no perceived relevance to practice, (c), other environmental situations, and (d) the timing of the learning session. One of my intentions was to identify the emic view among cultural groups and professional/vocational affiliations. A surprising finding of this study was that neither impacted noticeably on the perceived learning needs of the participants. Further research with a revised research design to facilitate inclusion of more diverse participants will aid in determining if the lack of a difference was unique to this sample or more generalizable on a case-to-case transfer basis to the study population.
    • Perceptions of creativity in a fashion design course /

      Murray, Bernadine M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-06-04)
      Creativity is important to the growth and development of society, to educational institutions, and to the personal growth of individuals. Students who are aware of their creativity are assumed to have innovative ideas and fresh insights. Limited research has been conducted to see if students can identify their own creative abilities. In this study, I explored the students' perceptions and experiences in a fashion design course. This study documented the creative journey from the concept stage of an apparel collection to the final product. Participants were asked to reflect and document their creative moments, describe a creative process, and identify a creative environment. The participants were students who were enrolled in a fashion design course and were asked to participate in this study because they experienced all stages of the design process. Data were collected through personal reflection surveys, focus groups, and personal interviews. Themes of creative moments that emerged from this study were experiences that the participants had as they proceeded through the stages of the fashion design process. All of the participants identified a creative process, but the stages varied for each participant The participants identified themes related to promoting creativity in an environment, including the atmosphere, creative people, teachers, reflection, student needs, and assignments. The participants identified potential barriers in an environment, including rules and guidelines, teachers, the classroom, deadlines and time, feedback, and other important issues. The results ofthis study suggest that there needs to be a better understanding of creativity and greater support and encouragement for creativity in the classroom. Instructors need to support environments that are conducive to creative development and lead to effective learning for students. Students need to learn how to enhance their creativity as well as understand the barriers that block their creative development.
    • Perceptions of leadership in adolescent girls, members of the Girl Guides of Canada

      Downie, Ann Louise.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      Twenty-eight young women who were members of the Girl Guides of Canada as Rangers and Cadets from a convenience sample chose to participate in this case study. They were from four separate locations in Southern Ontario. The interviews and observations at unit meetings allowed an indepth look into the perceptions of leadership of these young women. The amount of time observing and interacting with each participant provided a snapshot of what they thought and how they responded to the questions asked at that particular time. Each girl responded to the question, "Are you a leader?" They then gave examples of their own leadership and described leaders they knew. Their responses are reported in relation to their definitions. Their identifications of effective and ineffective leaders were examined, as well as their views of the best and worst things a leader can do. This information is reported by unit, as some patterns in their responses emerged which were unique to each group. The responses of all of the girls to the leadership of Guiders, Rangers and Cadets and the hypothetical effect of male leaders and male Rangers in Guiding are reported. For these, the participants' views were sorted based on the common themes/ and regardless of their group affiliation, since many of the same themes emerged when examining these questions. The information collected was extensive and allowed for trends and parallels to become evident 0 All of the participants identified themselves as leaders. A diversity of views exists in their perceptions of leadership. For many, age makes a difference in leadership. The majority identified the single-sex aspect of the organization as comfortable and stated that it should remain so. Gender profoundly affects who is listened to and what opportunities are available.
    • The perceptions of play among educators in kindergarten and grade one classrooms /

      Smith, Shelley.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      This qualitative study focuses on the role of play in primary education, and was designed to determine and understand the perceptions of play among primary educators who are teachers in kindergarten and grade one classrooms. In attempting to understand how primary educators use play in their classrooms, the following findings emerged. Educators struggle in primary grades to support play in the classroom because of a lack of a clear understanding of what play is. Further, teachers face several oppositions to using play in the classroom. Much of the opposition arises from a concern for classroom management as well as negative parental views towards play. Additionally, the teachers from this study feel that there is limited support available for them to implement a curriculum that includes play. Despite support from academic research, indicating that children, particularly in the primary grades, benefit greatly from play, the place for play in the curriculum is not secure. In this study, strategies that would assist and support primary educators in using play in their classrooms are suggested.
    • Perceptions of some teachers about the similarities and/or differences in teaching online versus in a classroom environment /

      Siedlaczek, Katarzyna.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2001-05-21)
      The introduction of computer and communications technology, and particularly the internet, into education has opened up some new possibilities for teaching and learning. Courses designed and delivered in an online environment offer the possibility of highly interactive and individually focussed teaching and learning experiences. However, online courses also present new challenges for both teachers and students. A qualitative study was conducted to explore teachers' perceptions about the similarities and differences in teaching in the online and face-to-face (F2F) environments. Focus group discussions were held with 5 teachers; 2 teachers were interviewed in depth. The participants, 3 female and 2 male, were full-time teachers from a large College of Applied Arts & Technology in southern Ontario. Each of them had over 10 years of F2F teaching experience and each had been involved in the development and teaching of at least one online course. i - -; The study focussed on how teaching in the online environment compares with teaching in the F2F environment, what roles teachers and students adopt in each setting, what learning communities mean online and F2F and how they are developed, and how institutional policies, procedures, and infrastructure affect teaching and learning F2F and online. This study was emic in nature, that is the teachers' words determine the themes identified throughout the study. The factors identified as affecting teaching in an online environment included teacher issues such as course design, motivation to teach online, teaching style, role, characteristics or skills, and strategies. Student issues as perceived by the teachers included learning styles, role, and characteristics or skills. As well, technology issues such as a reliable infrastructure, clear role and responsibilities for maintaining the infrastructure, support, and multimedia capability affected teaching online. Finally, administrative policies and procedures, including teacher selection and training, registration and scheduling procedures, intellectual property and workload policies, and the development and communication of a comprehensive strategic plan were found to impact on teaching online. The teachers shared some of the benefits they perceived about teaching online as well as some of the challenges they had faced and challenges they perceived students had faced online. Overall, the teachers feh that there were more similarities than differences in teaching between the two environments, with the main differences being the change from F2F verbal interactions involving body language to online written interactions without body language cues, and the fundamental reliance on technology in the online environment. These findings support previous research in online teaching and learning, and add teachers' perspectives on the factors that stay the same and the factors that change when moving from a F2F environment to an online environment.
    • The performance and strategies of adolescents in learning to read artificial words /

      Whatmough, Deborah A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1991-07-14)
      The present study explored processing strategies used by individuals when they begin to read c;l script. Stimuli were artificial words created from symbols and based on an alphabetic system. The words were.presented to Grade Nine and Ten students, with variations included in the difficulty of orthography and word familiarity, and then scores were recorded on the mean number of trials for defined learning variables. Qualitative findings revealed that subjects 1 earned parts of the visual a'nd auditory features of words prior to hooking up the visual stimulus to the word's name. Performance measures-which appear to affect the rate of learning were as follows: auditory short-term memory, auditory delayed short-term memory, visual delayed short- term memory, and word attack or decod~ng skills. Qualitative data emerging in verbal reports by the subjects revealed that strategies they pefceived to use were, graphic, phonetic decoding and word .reading.
    • The person inside the nurse : the professional socialization of baccalaureate nursing students

      Biggs, Bobbi.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-07-09)
      The goal ofthis research was to gain an understanding ofthe process ofprofessional socialization by accessing role meaning ofstudents engaged in a BScN program. Students from each ofthe four years and faculty members from the school ofnursing volunteered as participants. G. Kelly's (1955) Personal Construct Theory provided the framework to determine awareness and constructed meanings. A reflective tool, called LifeMapping, was adapted and utilized to relate student experiences within education that have attributed to nurse role meaning. Focus group interviews verified data interpretation. Students are informed oftheir choice to study nursing through part-time and volunteer work, secondary school cooperative placements. Descriptions reveal that choices are tested and both positive and negative aspects ofthe role observed. Bipolar images of good and bad nurses seem to be context-related. These images may establish biases in choices related to learning experiences. The person inside ofeach aspiring nurse interprets, revises and understands experiences to incorporate individual meaning into their value and belief structures. Students are aware ofchanges and descnbe them as developments that occur personally up to Year ill and role-image changes that begin in Year II. The major difficulty that students encountered was descnbed as negative attitudes towards their anticipated role. Humanistic-interactionist philosophies are echoed in student accounts of learning experiences. Growth and role development corresponds to process factors of small group, problem-base learning.
    • Personality and neuropsychological factors involved in females' relational aggression

      Savage, Michael.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-11-04)
      The personality and neuropsychological factors associated with relational aggression were examined in a group of30 grade 6,7, and 8 girls identified through cluster analysis as being highly, yet almost exclusively, relationally aggressive and a group of 30 nonaggressive matched controls. Parents of the students in both groups completed the Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychological Inventory (1998), a 200- item DSM-IV -TR aligned, parent-as-respondent, standardized measure of c.hildren' s psychological functioning. It was found that high levels of relational aggression, in the absence of physical and verbal aggression, were associated with symptoms of DSM-IV - TR Axis I oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder and a wide variety of personality traits associated with DSM-IV -TR Axis II paranoid, borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, schizotypal, and passive aggressive personality disorders. Implications of these findings for theory, practice, and further research are discussed.
    • Personality type and self-directed learning

      Herbeson, Ellen Frances.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      This correlational study was designed to investigate the relationship between self-directed learning and personality type. A sample of 133 graduate and undergraduate education students completed the MBTI and the SDLRS. Two hypotheses were examined: (a) scores on the intuitive scale will account for a significant amount of the variance in the prediction of selfdirected learning readiness and, (b) scores on the introverted scale will account for a significant amount of the variance in self-directed learning readiness. Stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that psychological type accounts for 28% of the variance in self-directed learning. Support for the first hypothesis was found with 15% of the variance in selfdirected learning accounted for by intuition. The second hypothesis was not supported. Introversion accounted for 13% of the variance but in a negative manner. Results of this study indicate that personality type does influence the ability of the learner to be self-directed in studies. These findings add another dimension for the adult educator to consider when attempting to develop self-directedness in learners.
    • Perspectives of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder on a Community-Based Parent Education Program

      Alves, Kelly; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2015-01-21)
      In 2012 a community-based agency that oversees Intensive Behaviour Intervention services for young children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) began delivering newly developed curricula to parents of eligible children. The curricula’s intent was to inform parents about ASD and Applied Behaviour Analysis, to increase their awareness of available community resources, and assist them to be active and engaged in their child’s learning. This mixed-method study used a program-specific survey and focus groups to explore the perspectives parents had on their involvement in these education sessions. Through constant comparison analysis 4 major and 3 minor themes emerged. In general, parents acknowledged that this parent education program included relevant content and a favourable delivery format. The study summarized a number of well-articulated, practical suggestions parents provided. Implications for practice would be applicable to educators interested in providing quality group-based education to parents of young children with ASD.
    • The physical environment and organizational behavior

      Pecyna, Henrietta.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Research into organizational behaviour has indicated that there is an inevitable conflict between the needs of the individual and organizational demands. Psychologists have given insights into basic individual needs and contend that satisfaction of these needs constitutes a motivating force which enhances desired behavioural patterns. Behaviouralists have suggested that a basic and pervasive individual need is the culturally determined need for privacy. Anthropologists and environmental psychologists have shown that man's spatial behaviour is observable and predictable and that changes in the physical environment or the way it is perceived are accompanied by concommitant changes in behaviour. Research findings from each of the disciplines have been reviewed in an attempt to show that the physical environment is a significant factor in satisfying the needs of the individual organizational member, hence, a significant influence on organizational behaviour. A model has been generated to show the relationship between the physical setting and behaviour and to underscore the importance of making provisions within the physical setting for the attainment of a culturally determined optimal level of privacy. The physical setting, by providing for this need, becomes a significant factor in reducing the conflict between the individual and the organization and makes for acceptable role behaviour and the fulfilment of organizational goals.
    • Postsecondary Artist Teachers' Responses to Computer Technology in Their Drawing Pedagogy

      Mikolajewski, Charlotte I; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-09-05)
      While the influence of computer technology has been widely studied in a variety of contexts, the drawing teaching studio is a particularly interesting context because of the juxtaposition of traditional medium and computer technology. For this study, 5 Canadian postsecondary teachers engaged in a 2-round Delphi interview process to discuss their responses to computer technology on their drawing pedagogy. Data sources included transcribed interviews. Findings indicated that artist teachers are both cautious to embrace and curious to explore appropriate use of computer technology on their drawing pedagogy. Artist teachers are both critical and optimistic about the influence of computer technology.
    • Postsecondary Teaching and Learning Development Needs: Motivators and Barriers Associated With Participation in Educational Development

      Knorr, Kris; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This study investigated instructor perceptions of motivators and barriers that exist with respect to participation in educational development in the postsecondary context. Eight instructors from a mid-size, research intensive university in south-western Ontario participated in semistructured interviews to explore this particular issue. Data were analyzed using a qualitative approach. Motivation theory was used as a conceptual framework in this study, referring primarily to the work of Ryan and Deci (2000), Deci and Ryan (1985), and Pink (2009). The identified motivators and barriers spanned all 3 levels of postsecondary institutions: the micro (i.e., the individual), the meso (i.e., the department or Faculty), and the macro (i.e., the institution). Significant motivators to participation in educational development included desire to improve one’s teaching (micro), feedback from students (meso), and tenure and promotion (macro). Significant barriers to participation included lack of time (micro), the perception that an investment towards one’s research was more important than an investment to enhancing teaching (meso), and the impression that quality teaching was not valued by the institution (macro). The study identifies connections between the micro, meso, macro framework and motivation theory, and offers recommendations for practice.