• Occupational therapist and client experiences of a mental health group

      Jones, Shirley E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-11-04)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the client and occupational therapist experiences of a mental health group. A secondary aim was to explore the extent to which this group seemed to have reflected a client-centred approach. The topic emerged from personal and professional issues related to the therapist as teacher and to inconsistencies in practice with the profession's client-centred philosophy. This philosophy, the study's frame of reference, was established in terms of themes related to the client-therapist relationship and to client values. Typical practice was illustrated through an extensive literature review. Structured didacticexperiential methods aiming toward skill development were predominant. The interpretive sciences and, to a lesser extent, the critical sciences directed the methodology. An ongoing support group at a community mental health clinic was selected as the focus of the study; the occupational therapist leader and three members became the key participants. A series of conversational interviews, the . core method of data collection, was supplemented by observation, document review, further interviews, and fieldnotes. Transcriptions of conversations were returned to participants for verification and for further reflection. Analysis primarily consisted of coding and organizing data according to emerging themes. The participants' experiences of group, presented as narrative stories within a group session vignette, were also returned to participants. There was a common understanding of the group's structure and the importance of having "air time" within the group; however, differences in perceptions of such things as the importance of the group in members' lives were noted. All members valued the therapeutic aspects of group, the role of group as weekly activity and, to a lesser extent, the learning that came from group. The researcher's perspective provided a critique of the group experience from a client-centred perspective. Some areas of consistency with client-centred practice were noted (e.g., therapist attitudes); however the group seemed to function far from a client-centred ideal. Members held little authority in a relationship dominated by the leaders, and leader agendas rather than member values controlled the session. Possible reasons for this discrepancy ranging from past health care encounters through to co-leader discord emerged. The actual and potential significance of this study was discussed according to many areas of implications: to OT practice, especially client-centred group practice, to theory development, to further areas of research and methodology considerations, to people involved in the group and to my personal growth and development.
    • One of Us or One of Them: A Generic Qualitative Study on the Efficacy of the Funds of Knowledge Strategy to Reduce Teacher Ethnocentrism

      Phillips-Jefford, Munjeera; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-08-18)
      The purpose of this study was to examine whether English a Second Language (ESL) instructors’ ethnocentrism could be reduced using multicultural education (MCE) principles. There were three focus group discussions and a Likert scale questionnaire. The findings demonstrated that while ESL instructors were conscious of systemic barriers, media stereotypes, and bullying, more diversity training is required in order to improve teachers’ attitudes, responses, and instructional strategies regarding integration issues due to the increasing diversity of learners present in classrooms today. The findings of the study also demonstrated that MCE principles could be used to effectively raise the awareness of ESL instructors when dealing with integration and assimilation issues. When immigration, human rights, and multicultural policies were examined critically, ESL instructors were able to improve their cross-cultural skills in the classroom to be more inclusive towards diverse ethnic groups by giving learners greater opportunities to express themselves. As a result, learners’ knowledge, experience, and skills were validated in the classroom leading to a more meaningful learning experience.
    • Online problem-based learning : perceptions of nursing educators /

      Scott, Barbara.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-05-21)
      A qualitative study was conducted to detennine 5 nursing educators' perceptions about the online application of a problem-based learning strategy in undergraduate nursing education. The question asked in the study was: Can the essential elements of face-to-face problem-based learning be supported in an online format? The data for this study came from 2 individual tape-recorded interviews with each of the 5 participants over a 3-month period and from a researchjournaI. The educators felt that student-centered learning and critical thinking could be supported within an online format. However, they noted that challenges could exist in terms of developing tutor roles, fostering student self-direction, facilitating group process and connections, and incorporating a nursing philosophy of online learning. The importance of tailoring an online problem-based learning course to reflect educators' philosophies and values in nursing emerged as an important theme from the interview responses. Overall, the participants suggested that an ideal environment would blend both face-to-face and online elements and that fewer elements would be offered in the first 2 years of the nursing program. They described a hybrid model of problem-based learning in which the online component could be used to support face-to-face sessions.
    • The only child grows up: exploring adult only-child educators /

      Schmid, Michelle.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2007-06-29)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of adult only-child educators. The researcher explored the extent to which the experiences of growing up in a one-child family influenced the participants' professional experiences. This was a qualitative study. A narrative case study approach was used, and data were collected from 4 participants through 1 -to- 1 interviews. The narratives were analyzed, and common themes were identified. The findings showed that many of the participants' only-child experiences have influenced their professional roles as educators. This was largely with respect to their interactions with students. These participants valued positive relationships founded on genuine care and concern for their students. The participants also fostered a positive educational environment that provided high levels of support for the social learning and character development of their students. There are several implications for educational practice resulting from this study. Educators and other school personnel must be critically aware of meeting the socialization needs of their students. Consideration must be given to developing schoolwide initiatives related to the social skills development and character education of students. In addition, preservice and inservice teacher education programs must ensure that educators are prepared to provide rich environments where relationships with students are central and social learning opportunities are prevalent.
    • Organizational change: implications of culture and leadership in the transformation to a total quality management paradigm

      Meuser, Elizabeth, A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      The study was undertaken to investigate organizational readiness for change to a total quality management (TQM) paradigm as the corporate-wide strategy within a long-term care facility. The focus of the study was on leadership values and organizational cultural characteristics that could either accelerate or impede the change process at The Public Hospital. structurally, the ~tudy included 'three distinct components. The first component examined the management philosophy outlined by Deming (1986) and his contemporary Juran (1989) in order to determine what leadership values best support the new Total Quality Management paradigm. Secondly, this information was compared to present leadership values at The Public Hospital with the purpose of identifying opportunities for improvement within the organization's current culture as the hospital moves toward the desired TQM culture. The final component, a roadmap, was developed to reflect the most appropriate direction for organizational change at The Public Hospital.
    • The origins of exercise adherence in the Canadian seniors population

      Kilfeather, Karen.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      This research identified and examined the responses of 19 physically active seniors to determine why they were physically active. The participants were physically active seniors, from the Niagara region who participated in physical activity 2, or more times per week. The purpose to this research was to determine what specific experiences or characteristics those seniors' possessed which motivated them to follow an exercise regime in later life. Three focus group interviews were conducted and participants responded to a set of predetermined questions. Responses to the interview questions were transcribed and analysed by comparing words and participant responses. This method of analysis is known as ethnographic summary. Themes, concepts, and experiences that emerged from the focus group interviews were also recorded according to systematic coding by way of content analysis. From this study, factors that predispose, enable, reinforce and prevent seniors from participating in exercise have been identified. Nine recommendations for improving seniors quality of life have also emerged from the study. Additionally, the findings from the study illustrate that those responsible for planning programs for seniors need to consider senior's wants and needs. Finally, the study also has educational implications. All participants in the study experienced a positive introduction to daily phyiscal activity through their school setting. Participants of the study believed, that their positive experiences at school, directly influenced their lifelong involvement in exercise.
    • Our future in geriatrics : an examination of the knowledge, attitudes and career choices of physical therapy students in Ontario : a pretest-posttest study /

      Shilton, Michelle.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      There continues to be a shortage of health professionals interested in providing care for the older adult. Part of the problem seems to stem from the negative perceptions of geriatrics as a clinical speciality. This study examines the knowledge, attitudes and career decisions of physical therapy students in Ontario before and after an educational intervention. Surveys were conducted with 144 physical therapy students from five universities before and after their geriatrics course in order to measure their knowledge, attitudes and interest in working with older adults. The incoming class of physical therapy students (n = 1 86) acted as control subjects for the study. The Revised Palmore Facts On Aging Quiz measured the students' knowledge of aging (Miller & Dodder, 1980). The Revised Tuckman-Lorge (Axelrod & Eisdorfer, 1961) and the Kogan Old People Scales (Kogan, 1961) were used to examine attitude. An environmental scale was developed based on the work of Snape (1986) to measure the impact of the working conditions on the students' career choices. A 10-point Likert-type scale based on the work of Michlelutte & Diseker (1985) was modified and used to measure career interest in working with the elderly. On independent sample t-tests, positive attitudes were related to the demographic characteristic of gender; ethnicity was negatively related; and marital status was found to be unrelated to attitude (fi<.05). Having a relationship with an older adult and taking courses in gerontology were also found to be positively related to attitude (fi<.05). Results on a betweensubjects design which compared students before and after the course found that knowledge scores improved from pretest to posttest (fi<.05). In general, attitude scores improved from T1 to T2 on both measurement tools (b<.05). The environmental and vocational interest scales yielded statistically significant differences between the control and experimental groups during the intervention period (p<.05). The results of this research indicated that knowledge and attitudes improve after an educational intervention; however, there was little impact on the students' overall career decisions. Further research is indicated to examine the complex relationship between attitude and behaviour and its impact on students' career choices. In addition, the impact of geriatric clinical environment on students' attitudes and career decisions needs to be further explored.
    • Overcoming victim behaviour through physical education

      Hobin, Christopher L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2009-05-21)
      This study presents infonnation gathered during personal interviews in which participants were asked how they, as physical educators, might possibly assist the victim of bullying through their programs. The research is a qualitative study, using an inductive approach. Five participants were chosen, based on convenience sampling, with semi-structured interviews which were audio recorded. The theoretical research found that the most stable characteristics of victimized boys were lack of strength and lack of physical fitness. This suggested that Physical Education class might be the best place in which to empower victimized students to reduce their own victimization by addressing these areas of strength and fitness. From the interviews it became clear that, while these educators showed a willingness to help bullying victims through their programs, their adherence to a Physical Education model based primarily on elitism, as opposed to individual fitness, would make it difficult for them to do so effectively.
    • Paradigms and prisons: a narrative of translation and transformation : my hero's journey from "at-risk" youth to teacher/learner in a jail setting /

      Trimble, Warren Albert.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2007-06-29)
      All life is suffering. Life is the pursuit ofhappiness. These are two foundational Buddhist dictums that, in their simplicity, I have entirely misunderstood regarding their depth, misreading them as contradictory. Indeed, my superficial interpretations led me to Thoreau's life ofquiet desperation and deep depression. We come to know and bring understanding to our lives by storying them. My own Hero's Journey, the path from my egoic selftoward the universal Self, can be understood as the resultant translations and transformations. Inevitably each of us is involved in such a story, though most are unaware of the stages along our own Hero's journey. ' Narrative honours writing as a means of knowing. The contemplative reflection allows insight into our imprisoning paradigms, beliefs, behaviours, and blind spots. My research revisits and explores nodal experiences along my Hero's Journey through 4 categories: self, society, soil, and Self. While the value of this process of narrative inquiry lay in its ability to come to know and understand one's self, perhaps its greater value is of a more universal nature. My inquiry, while adding to the body of academic educational narrative literature, may also illuminate a path to educators, students, and all interested, encouraging a response to the call of their own Hero's journey. I am a teacher/learner in a jail setting, working with youth between the ages of 12 and 18 who have committed crimes such as armed robbery, assault, rape, and murder. As this thesis follows my continual development from egoic self/teacher/learner to universal Self/Teacher/Learner, it also enables me to both consciously and unconsciously open the ways in which I expand my care, compassion, and love to work with at-risk youth.
    • Participants' perceptions of their involvement in a cardiovascular disease risk factor reduction program

      Polych, Bonnie.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-11-04)
      A cardiovascular disease risk factor reduction program was implemented in the Niagara region. To gain an understanding of this program from the participants ' perspective, 10 participants of the program were interviewed to document their perceptions of what they learned in the program, their perceptions of their behaviour change and their perceptions of factors that facilitated or impeded any behaviour change. The learning style inventory and PET test were also given to the participants to further understand their perceptions. Findings unique to this study highlighted aspects of the andragogical model, self-directed learning theory, learning style preference and psychological type that were prominent in the participants' comments and perspectives. Implications for practice, theory development and further research are suggested.
    • Participation of registered nurses in continuing education

      Gehan, Karen Anne.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      This correlational study investigated the psychological types, learning style preferences, readiness for self-directed learning, demographic and continuing education participation data of 154 registered nurses at two different Southern Ontario hospitals. One hospital was a large tertiary care university-affiliated teaching centre (Cityview) and the other was a smaller secondary care community hospital (Waterview). The instruments used in the study were the PET Type Check, Kolb's Learning Style Inventory, the Self-Directed Readiness Scale (SDLRS), and a Nursing Survey developed by the researcher. Descriptive statistics, crosstabulations and correlational analyses were calculated. The most common psychological types identified among this sample of nurses were extraverted thinking, introverted intuitive and extraverted intuitive. There were no significant differences between the two hospitals. The accommodator learning style was preferred overall, with more nurses at Waterview Hospital preferring the diverger learning style, and more nurses at Cityview Hospital preferring the accommodator learning style. The majority of nurses scored in the average and above average categories on the SDLRS, indicating that they perceive themselves as ready to engage in self-directed learning. At Cityview Hospital there were more nurses in the average and high readiness categories, whereas at Waterview Hospital more nurses scored in the below average category. No significant correlations were found for learning style with psychological type, or for learning style with SDLRS scores. A positive correlation was found to exist between SDLRS scores and each of the psychological types extraverted feelings, extraverted thinking, and introverted intuitive.The only significant correlation for psychological type and continuing education activity was a positive correlation between extraverted thinking types and participation in informal discussion or study groups. Positive correlations were found for SDLRS scores with each of the following continuing education activities; number of hours per month spent reading journals; journal reading; attendance at credit courses; watching videos; using reference texts. Further details of the results are included as well as a discussion of the findings and implications for future research.
    • Pausing at the river's edge : a narrative inquiry into the practice of a reading teacher /

      Onody, Judy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      In this narrative self-study I retell and connect the stories ofmy personal journey with literacy from childhood to the present. I use narrative as both methodology and method as I story my life experiences and my personal encounters with literacy. The heart ofmy reflections comes from the pages of personal journals written and storied over many years of trying to make meaning of powerful literacy experiences in my life. Now, in going back through the stories and reconstructing meaning, I make connections between the memories along the journey and the place from which I now tell my story. The interpretations I construct give voice to beliefs 1 have lived by and illuminations to moments in time that I have come to see with new eyes as I have engaged in this inquiry. The journey and self-reflection within the pages of this inquiry provide understanding of the driving force behind my personal passion for literacy. I am better able to understand my motivations and share the stories that validate my personal and professional path through time.
    • Peer Attitudes Towards Students With Exceptionalities in the Classroom

      Henning, Megan; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This concurrent triangulation mixed methods research project sought to investigate inconsistencies in the current literature regarding student attitudes towards their peers who have exceptionalities. The study encompassed 27 student participants across primary, junior, and intermediate divisions in a Southwestern Ontario school who were involved in classroom discussions, questionnaires, and individual interviews with the goal of identifying elementary school-aged students’ attitudes towards their peers who have exceptionalities in the classroom. Using an appreciative inquiry lens, data collection prompted students to recall positive memories they may have shared with peers who have exceptionalities. An emergent thematic analysis and triangulation of multiple data sources revealed that students acknowledge differences between students with exceptionalities and other same-aged peers; however, students consistently communicated their intent to support all students within their classrooms. While study findings also indicated that students demonstrated an understanding of the importance of inclusion, further research is needed regarding their actual behaviour.
    • Peer-Led Team Learning as an Instructional Strategy for Secondary School Science

      Wells, Thadeane; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-04-19)
      This study investigated the impact of an instructional learning strategy, peer-led team learning (PLTL), on secondary school students' conceptual understanding of biology concepts related to the topic of evolution. Using a mixed methods approach, data were gathered quantitatively through pre/posttesting using a repeated measures design and qualitatively through observations, questionnaires, and interviews. A repeated measures design was implemented to explore the impact of PLTL on students' understanding of concepts related to evolution and students' attitudes towards PLTL implementation. Results from quantitative data comparing pre/posttesting were not able to be compared through inferential statistics as a result of inconsistencies in the data due to a small sample size and design limitations; however, qualitative data identified positive attitudes towards the implementation of PLTL, with students reporting gains in conceptual understanding, academic achievement, and interdependent work ethic. Implications of these findings for learning, teaching, and the educational literature include understanding of student attitudes towards PLTL and insight into the role PLTL plays in improving conceptual understanding of biology concepts. Strategies are suggested to continue further research in the area of PLTL.
    • Perceived effectiveness of alternative programming : a case study /

      Nickerson, Kate.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      The topic of this research was alternative programming in secondary public education. The purpose of this research was to explore the perceived effectiveness of two public secondary programs that are aJternative to mainstream or "regular" education. Two case study sites were used to research diverse ends of the aJtemative programming continuum. The first case study demonstrated a gifted program and the second demonstrated a behavioral program. Student needs were examined in terms of academic needs, emotional needs, career needs, and social needs. Research conducted in these sites examined how the students, teachers, onsite staff, and program administrators perceived that individual needs were met and unmet in these two programs. The study was qualitative and exploratory, using deductive and inductive research techniques. Similar themes of best practice that were identified in the case study sites aided in the development of a teaching and learning model. Four themes were identified as important within the case study sites. These themes included the commitment and motivation of teachers and the support of administration in the gifted program, and the importance of location and the flow of information and communication in the behavior program. Six themes emerged that were similar across the case study sites. These themes included the individual nature of programming, recognition of student achievement, the alternative program as a place of safety and community, importance of interpersonal capacity, priority of basic needs, and, finally, matching student capacity with program expectations. The model incorporates these themes and is designed as a resource for teachers, program administrators, parents, and policy makers of alternative educational programs.
    • Perceived learning needs in staff development of some care providers in five long-term care settings in Southern Ontario /

      Millar, Deborah L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      This exploratory descriptive study described what 20 care providers in 5 long-term care facilities perceived to aid or hinder their learning in a work-sponsored learning experience. A Critical Incident Technique (Woolsey, 1986) was the catalyst for the interviews with the culturally and professionally diverse participants. Through data analysis, as described by Moustakas (1994), I found that (a) humour, (b) the learning environment, (c) specific characteristics of the presenter such as moderate pacing, speaking slowly and with simple words, (d) decision-making authority, (e) relevance to practice, and (f) practical applications best met the study participants' learning needs. Conversely, other factors could hinder learning based on the participants' perceptions. These were: (a) other presenter characteristics such as a program that was delivered quickly or spoken at a level above the participants' comprehension, (b) no perceived relevance to practice, (c), other environmental situations, and (d) the timing of the learning session. One of my intentions was to identify the emic view among cultural groups and professional/vocational affiliations. A surprising finding of this study was that neither impacted noticeably on the perceived learning needs of the participants. Further research with a revised research design to facilitate inclusion of more diverse participants will aid in determining if the lack of a difference was unique to this sample or more generalizable on a case-to-case transfer basis to the study population.
    • Perceptions of creativity in a fashion design course /

      Murray, Bernadine M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-06-04)
      Creativity is important to the growth and development of society, to educational institutions, and to the personal growth of individuals. Students who are aware of their creativity are assumed to have innovative ideas and fresh insights. Limited research has been conducted to see if students can identify their own creative abilities. In this study, I explored the students' perceptions and experiences in a fashion design course. This study documented the creative journey from the concept stage of an apparel collection to the final product. Participants were asked to reflect and document their creative moments, describe a creative process, and identify a creative environment. The participants were students who were enrolled in a fashion design course and were asked to participate in this study because they experienced all stages of the design process. Data were collected through personal reflection surveys, focus groups, and personal interviews. Themes of creative moments that emerged from this study were experiences that the participants had as they proceeded through the stages of the fashion design process. All of the participants identified a creative process, but the stages varied for each participant The participants identified themes related to promoting creativity in an environment, including the atmosphere, creative people, teachers, reflection, student needs, and assignments. The participants identified potential barriers in an environment, including rules and guidelines, teachers, the classroom, deadlines and time, feedback, and other important issues. The results ofthis study suggest that there needs to be a better understanding of creativity and greater support and encouragement for creativity in the classroom. Instructors need to support environments that are conducive to creative development and lead to effective learning for students. Students need to learn how to enhance their creativity as well as understand the barriers that block their creative development.
    • Perceptions of leadership in adolescent girls, members of the Girl Guides of Canada

      Downie, Ann Louise.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      Twenty-eight young women who were members of the Girl Guides of Canada as Rangers and Cadets from a convenience sample chose to participate in this case study. They were from four separate locations in Southern Ontario. The interviews and observations at unit meetings allowed an indepth look into the perceptions of leadership of these young women. The amount of time observing and interacting with each participant provided a snapshot of what they thought and how they responded to the questions asked at that particular time. Each girl responded to the question, "Are you a leader?" They then gave examples of their own leadership and described leaders they knew. Their responses are reported in relation to their definitions. Their identifications of effective and ineffective leaders were examined, as well as their views of the best and worst things a leader can do. This information is reported by unit, as some patterns in their responses emerged which were unique to each group. The responses of all of the girls to the leadership of Guiders, Rangers and Cadets and the hypothetical effect of male leaders and male Rangers in Guiding are reported. For these, the participants' views were sorted based on the common themes/ and regardless of their group affiliation, since many of the same themes emerged when examining these questions. The information collected was extensive and allowed for trends and parallels to become evident 0 All of the participants identified themselves as leaders. A diversity of views exists in their perceptions of leadership. For many, age makes a difference in leadership. The majority identified the single-sex aspect of the organization as comfortable and stated that it should remain so. Gender profoundly affects who is listened to and what opportunities are available.
    • The perceptions of play among educators in kindergarten and grade one classrooms /

      Smith, Shelley.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      This qualitative study focuses on the role of play in primary education, and was designed to determine and understand the perceptions of play among primary educators who are teachers in kindergarten and grade one classrooms. In attempting to understand how primary educators use play in their classrooms, the following findings emerged. Educators struggle in primary grades to support play in the classroom because of a lack of a clear understanding of what play is. Further, teachers face several oppositions to using play in the classroom. Much of the opposition arises from a concern for classroom management as well as negative parental views towards play. Additionally, the teachers from this study feel that there is limited support available for them to implement a curriculum that includes play. Despite support from academic research, indicating that children, particularly in the primary grades, benefit greatly from play, the place for play in the curriculum is not secure. In this study, strategies that would assist and support primary educators in using play in their classrooms are suggested.
    • Perceptions of some teachers about the similarities and/or differences in teaching online versus in a classroom environment /

      Siedlaczek, Katarzyna.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2001-05-21)
      The introduction of computer and communications technology, and particularly the internet, into education has opened up some new possibilities for teaching and learning. Courses designed and delivered in an online environment offer the possibility of highly interactive and individually focussed teaching and learning experiences. However, online courses also present new challenges for both teachers and students. A qualitative study was conducted to explore teachers' perceptions about the similarities and differences in teaching in the online and face-to-face (F2F) environments. Focus group discussions were held with 5 teachers; 2 teachers were interviewed in depth. The participants, 3 female and 2 male, were full-time teachers from a large College of Applied Arts & Technology in southern Ontario. Each of them had over 10 years of F2F teaching experience and each had been involved in the development and teaching of at least one online course. i - -; The study focussed on how teaching in the online environment compares with teaching in the F2F environment, what roles teachers and students adopt in each setting, what learning communities mean online and F2F and how they are developed, and how institutional policies, procedures, and infrastructure affect teaching and learning F2F and online. This study was emic in nature, that is the teachers' words determine the themes identified throughout the study. The factors identified as affecting teaching in an online environment included teacher issues such as course design, motivation to teach online, teaching style, role, characteristics or skills, and strategies. Student issues as perceived by the teachers included learning styles, role, and characteristics or skills. As well, technology issues such as a reliable infrastructure, clear role and responsibilities for maintaining the infrastructure, support, and multimedia capability affected teaching online. Finally, administrative policies and procedures, including teacher selection and training, registration and scheduling procedures, intellectual property and workload policies, and the development and communication of a comprehensive strategic plan were found to impact on teaching online. The teachers shared some of the benefits they perceived about teaching online as well as some of the challenges they had faced and challenges they perceived students had faced online. Overall, the teachers feh that there were more similarities than differences in teaching between the two environments, with the main differences being the change from F2F verbal interactions involving body language to online written interactions without body language cues, and the fundamental reliance on technology in the online environment. These findings support previous research in online teaching and learning, and add teachers' perspectives on the factors that stay the same and the factors that change when moving from a F2F environment to an online environment.