• Identification and description of the development of the relationships between mentor and mentee teachers in the Halton Board of Education "Partners in the Classroom" Program

      Wilson, Albert G.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1992-07-09)
      Fifteen mentoring pairs of teachers were randomly selected from each group of teachers that had participated in the Halton Board of Education "Partners in the Classroom" program during 1988/89, 1989/90, and 1990/91. Each teacher was personally interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcriptions were prepared and examined and analyzed. During the first part of the interview questions were asked regarding personal and professional demographics. The purpose of the second part of the interview was to gain information relating to the development of the relationships, over a three-year period, between mentor and mentee teacher participants in the "Partners in the Classroom" program. The analysis of the data suggest that there are identifiable changes in the development of the relationship between the mentor teacher and the mentee teacher over time. Implications from the study results that could enhance the induction program for new teachers are discussed.
    • Identifying the psychosexual implications of radical radiation treatment in prostate cancer

      Baldwin, Alanna G.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-07-09)
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of psychosexual morbidity among men who experienced radical radiation treatment for prostate cancer. With relatively little known or available retrospective data on the psychosexual implications of radical radiation treatment in men with prostate cancer, this study posited eight research questions which provided the basis for the research. Fifty men from Southern Ontario, between the ages of 52 to 78 years, were included in the study. They had been previously randomized to a clinical trial comparing radical radiation therapy by external beam radiation, or radical radiation using a combination of a temporary iridium implant plus external beam radiation, for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer. Assessment of sexual functioning, drive, attitudes, body image, and sexual satisfaction was drawn from a multidimensional approach, since psychosexuality was viewed as having an impact on biological, psychological, and sociological domains of functioning. Medical chart reviews, semi-structured interviews, demographical profiles of each participant, and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) were the methods used to collect data over a four-month period. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were incorporated in the design and evaluation of the study. Frequencies, contingency analysis, Pearson's coefficient of correlation, t-tests, and ANOVA comprised the quantitative analysis. Data obtained from audio-taped interviews were analyzed qualitatively, and used for offering further insight and for facilitating the quantitative aspect of the analysis. Overall, there was sufficient evidence to suggest psychosexual morbidity among men who were treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer. As well,there were a number of significant findings available to answer all of the posited research questions. The most significant findings were noted in post-treatment erectile ability and sexual activity. A post-treatment change in erectile ability was reported by eighty percent of men. Sixty percent of men noted a decrease in their ability to achieve an erection by reporting some morning stiffness only, penile rigidity insufficient for penetration, decreased control of erection, and loss of spontaneous erection. Other contributing factors associated with change in erectile status were: pain or altering sensation of orgasm, blood in ejaculate, pain and decreased amount of ejaculate, and penile numbness or pain. Eighty-two percent of men experienced a post-treatment change in sexual function, primarily due to the impact of decreasing erectile status. Only seven men reported that they experienced a decrease in desire mentally, whereas the vast majority did not experience any change in desire. Changes in foreplay, stress with optimal sexual positioning, and reduced spontaneity of sex, were other factors reported with the changes in sexual activity. The findings in this study broaden our understanding of what middle- to later-aged men feel and experience as they venture onward following treatment. This was the first study that evaluated available prospective data on pre-treatment erectile status and sexual activity. As well, this study was the first (with participant compliance rates of 100 percent) to have included an interview format to capture the views of such a large number of men. This study concluded with recommendations and implications for future research and practice as we move in the direction of understanding what is necessary for preserving psychosexual well being and enhancing quality of life in men treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
    • Identity Formation and Negotiation of Afghan Female Youth in Ontario

      Akseer, Tabasum; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2012-10-12)
      The following thesis provides an empirical case study in which a group of 6 first generation female Afghan Canadian youth is studied to determine their identity negotiation and development processes in everyday experiences. This process is investigated across different contexts of home, school, and the community. In terms of schooling experiences, 2 participants each are selected representing public, Islamic, and Catholic schools in Southern Ontario. This study employs feminist research methods and is analyzed through a convergence of critical race theory (critical race feminism), youth development theory, and feminist theory. Participant experiences reveal issues of racism, discrimination, and bias within schooling (public, Catholic) systems. Within these contexts, participants suppress their identities or are exposed to negative experiences based on their ethnic or religious identification. Students in Islamic schools experience support for a more positive ethnic and religious identity. Home and community provided nurturing contexts where participants are able to reaffirm and develop a positive overall identity.
    • Imagery, Technology, and Remote Adult Aboriginal Teacher Candidates: A Brock University Pilot Project

      Trudeau, Lyn; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-09-05)
      The aim of this thesis is to explore the relationship between imagery, technology, and remote adult Aboriginal teacher candidates through the computer software Elluminate Live. It focuses on the implications that the role imagery plays in third generation distance education with these learners and the new media associated therein. The thesis honours the Medicine Wheel teachings and is presented within this cyclical framework that reflects Indigenous philosophies and belief systems. In accordance, Sharing Circle as methodology is used to keep the research culturally grounded, and tenets of narrative inquiry further support the study. Results indicate there are strong connections to curricula enhanced with imagery—most notably a spiritual connection. Findings also reveal that identity associated to geographical location is significant, as are supportive networks. Third generation distance education, such as Elluminate Live, needs to be addressed before Aboriginal communities open the doors to all it encompasses, and although previous literature peers into various elements, this study delves into why the graphical interface resonates with members of these communities. Of utmost importance is the insight this thesis lends to the pedagogy that may possibly evoke a transformative learning process contributing to the success rate of Aboriginal learners and benefit Aboriginal communities as a whole.
    • An impact evaluation of the Ontario ban on smoking in schools and on school property : does the ban on smoking influence high school students' intentions to smoke cigarettes?

      Corbett, Bradley A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2001-07-09)
      The Ontario Tobacco Control Act of 1994 imposed a total ban on smoking in schools, and on school property for every school in the province. The imposition of this policy created problems for school administrators. For instance, students who were smoking on walkways and properties adjacent to school boundaries, clashed with neighbouring property owners who were angry about the resulting damage and disruption. The enforcement of this policy consumes valuable resources at each school; therefore, knowledge about the impact of the policy is important. If effective, this policy has the potential to improve the health of students over their lifetime, by preventing or delaying smoking behaviour. Alternatively, an ineffective policy will continue to create administrative problems for the school and serve no legitimate purpose. Therefore, knowledge about the impact of the smoking ban policy on students' smoking intentions assists policy makers and school administrators in their understanding of the policy's impact within the schools. This research provided an impact evaluation of the ban on smoking in schools and on school property in Ontario. A total of 2069 students, from five high schools, in the Niagara Region, provided complete responses to a survey, designed to test whether smoking intentions were affected by the imposition of the policy. The study used Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991), specifically, the perceived behavioural control measure, to gain some understanding of students' perceptions of control over smoking imposed by the ban. The findings indicate the policy has the potential to influence students' overall smoking intentions. The ban on smoking policy was found to be a significant predictor of the smoking intentions of high school students. As well, attitude, social norms, and perceptions of control were significant predictors of smoking intentions. Exploratory findings also indicated differences between the control beliefs of students from different high schools, indicating potential differences in the enforcement of the smoking ban between schools. The findings also support the utility of the theory of planned behaviour as a methodology for evaluating the influence of punitive policies. This research study should be continued by utilizing the full theory of planned behaviour, including two phases of data collection and the measurement of actual smoking behaviour.
    • The impact of a digital children's literature program on primary students' reading motivation

      Ciampa, Katia; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      This qualitative study stemmed from a concern of the perceived decline in students' reading motivation after the early years of schooling, which has been attributed to the disconnect between the media students are accustomed to using outside the classroom and the media they predominantly use within the classroom. This research documented the effectiveness of a digital children's literature program and a postreading multimedia program on eight grade 1 students' reading motivation, word recognition, and comprehension abilities. Eight students were given ten 25-minute sessions with the software program over 15 weeks. Preprogram, interim-program, and postprogram qualitative data were collected from students, teachers, and parents through questionnaires, interviews, standardized reading assessment tools, classroom observations, field notes, and student behaviour observation checklists. Findings are summarized into 3 themes. The motivational aspects and constructivist styles of instruction in the digital reading programs may have contributed to 5 student participants' increased participation in online storybook reading at home. Qualitative data revealed that the digital children's literature program and multimedia postreading activities seemed to have a positive influence on the majority of grade 1 student participants' reading motivation, word recognition, and listening comprehension skills. These findings suggest the promise of multimedia and Internet-based reading software programs in supporting students with reading andlor behavioural difficulties. In keeping with current educational initiatives and efforts, increased use of media literacy practices in the grade 1 curriculum is suggested.
    • The Impact of a Text-Reader Support Program on Intermediate Students' Reading Comprehension

      McGee, Tieha; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-03-05)
      This study examined the efficacy of providing four Grade 7 and 8 students with reading difficulties with explicit instruction in the use of reading comprehension strategies while using text-reader software. Specifically, the study explored participants' combined use of a text-reader and question-answering comprehension strategy during a 6-week instructional program. Using a qualitative case study methodology approach, participants' experiences using text-reader software, with the presence of explicit instruction in evidence-based reading comprehension strategies, were examined. The study involved three phases: (a) the first phase consisted of individual interviews with the participants and their parents; (b) the second phase consisted of a nine session course; and (c) the third phase consisted of individual exit interviews and a focus group discussion. After the data collection phases were completed, data were analyzed and coded for emerging themes, with-quantitativ,e measures of participants' reading performance used as descriptive data. The data suggested that assistive technology can serve as an instructional "hook", motivating students to engage actively in the reading processes, especially when accompanied by explicit strategy instruction. Participants' experiences also reflected development of strategy use and use of text-reader software and the importance of social interactions in developing reading comprehension skills. The findings of this study support the view that the integration of instruction using evidence-based practices are important and vital components in the inclusion oftext-reader software as part of students' educational programming. Also, the findings from this study can be extended to develop in-class programming for students using text-reader software.
    • The impact of a training program in phonological awareness on children's early writing

      Graham, Christina.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1992-07-09)
      This study examined the effects that a training program in phonological awareness had on the early writing skills of children in a Grade One class in the Lincoln County Separate school system. The intent of the training program was to provide consistent and systematic practice in the manipulation of the phonological structure of language. The games and activities of the training program were related to a framework of developmental phonological skills and practised in a group setting during an unstructured period of the regular classroom schedule. The training program operated three days in a six-day cycle for approximately twenty minutes a day, from November until mid-March. All children were tested at the outset and conclusion of the study to determine level of functioning in letter identification, word recognition, verbal intelligence, phonological awareness and spelling. Results of the pre-tests and post-tests were compared to determine differences between the experimental and control groups over time. In addition, a systematic analysis of the children's writing looked at the development of the spelling of regular and irregular words. The results of this study provided strong support for the hypothesis that the treatment group would progress through the stages of early writing development more quickly than children without such training. On the basis of differences between the groups over time, it was evident that training in phonological awareness had a direct positive effect on the spelling of regular words for children during the early stages of writing. The training program did not have a significant effect on the spelling of irregular words. Test results evaluating phonological awareness indicated a significant difference within each group over time but no significance between the groups during the experimental period. It would appear that the results of these tests reflect maturational changes in the child rather than causal effects of the training program. Nor did the effects of the training program transfer significantly to other aspects of language. Although some of the hypotheses considered were not supported by the study, the results do indicate that children during the early stages of writing development can benefit from a training program in phonological awareness. The theoretical direction for effective programming as a result of this study is discussed. The educational implications of training phonological awareness concurrent to beginning efforts in writing are considered.
    • Impact of a Youth Development Camp on Participants’ Skills, Attitudes, and Views Towards Science and Scientific Inquiry

      Digweed, Bradley E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This mixed-methods research study sought to determine the impact of an informal science camp—the Youth Science Inquiry Development Camp (YSIDC)—on participants’ science inquiry skills, through self-assessment, as well as their views and attitudes towards science and scientific inquiry. Pre and post data were collected using quantitative surveys (SPSI, CARS), a qualitative survey (VOSI-E), interviews, and researcher’s observations. Paired sample t-tests from the quantitative surveys revealed that the YSIDC positively impacted participants’ science inquiry skills and attitudes towards science. Interviews supported these findings and provided contextual reasons for these impacts. Implications from this research would suggest that informal and formal educational institutions can increase science inquiry skills and promote positive views and attitudes towards science and scientific inquiry by using non-competitive cooperative learning strategies with a mixture of guided and open inquiry. Suggested directions for further research include measuring science inquiry skills directly and conducting longitudinal studies to determine the lasting effects of informal and formal science programs.
    • The impact of education on the use of breat self- examination among Canadian women

      Caron, Michelle V.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2001-07-09)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the level of education that Canadian women have and their use of breast self-examination (BSE). The secondary objective of this study was to do some exploratory research to measure how the demographic characteristics of these women, and the behaviours that they chose to participate in, might be associated to their use of BSE. This exploratory research was done to gain a better understanding of what kinds of lifestyle and behavioural factors are associated with the use of BSE, and how these factors impact on the relationship that education has on women's use of BSE. The data for the women in the sample were taken from the 1990 Population Health Survey, conducted by Statistics Canada. This survey included questions related to both the demographic characteristics of this population, and their behavioural choices in regards to various healthy lifestyle factors. Education was found to be significantly related to the use of BSE. Many of the demographic variables (age, income, marital status and language) were also found to be significantly related to the use of BSE. The behavioural variables (tobacco use, alcohol use) did not reflect such a strong relationship.
    • The Impact of Hospital Downsizing on Registered Nurses Displaced from Full -Time Employment

      Gustafson, Diana L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-03-04)
      This research identified and explored the various responses of ten women Registered Nurses displaced from full-time employment as staff nurses in general hospitals in southern Ontario. These nurses were among the hundreds in Ontario who were displaced between October 1991 and October 1995 as a result of organizational downsizing and other health care reform initiatives. The purpose of this research was to document the responses of nurses to job displacement, and how that experience impacted on a nurse's professional identity and her understanding of the nature and utilization of nursing labour. This study incorporated techniques consistent with the principles of naturalistic inquiry and the narrative tradition. A purposive sample was drawn from the Health Sector Training and Adjustment Program database. Data collection and analysis was a three-step process wherein the data collection in each step was informed by the data analysis in the preceding step. The main technique used for qualitative data collection was semistructured, individual and group interviews. Emerging from the data was a rich and textured story of how job displacement disrupted the meaningful connections nurses had with their work. In making meaning of this change, displaced nurses journeyed along a three-step path toward labour adjustment. Structural analysis was the interpretive lens used to view the historical, sociopolitical and ideological forces which constrained the choices reasonably available to displaced nurses while Kelly's personal construct theory was the lens used to view the process of making choices and reconstruing their professional identity.
    • The impact of hospital downsizing on registered nurses displaced from full-time employment

      Gustafson, Diana L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      This research identified and explored the various responses often women Registered Nurses displaced from full-time elnployment as staff nurses in general hospitals in southern Ontario. These nurses were among the hundreds in Ontario who were displaced between October 1991 and October 1995 as a result of organizational downsizing and other health care reform initiatives. The purpose ofthis research was to document tIle responses of nurses to job displacement, and how that experience impacted on a nurse's professional identity and her understanding of the nature and utilization of nursing labour. This study incorporated techniques consistent with the principles of naturalistic inquiry and the narrative tradition. A purposive sample was drawn from the Health Sector Training and Adjustment Program database. Data collection and analysis was a three-step process wherein the data collection in each step was informed by the data analysis in the preceding step. The main technique used for qualitative data collection was semistructured, individual and group interviews. Emerging from the data was a rich and textured story ofhow job displacement disrupted the meaningful connections nurses had with their work. In making meaning of this change, displaced nurses journeyed along a three-step path toward labour adjustment. Structural analysis was the interpretive lens used to view the historical, sociopolitical and ideological forces which constrained the choices reasonably available to displaced nurses while Kelly's personal construct theory was the lens used to view the process of making choices and reconstruing their professional identity.
    • The impact of integrated programming on student attitude and achievement in grade 9 academic mathematics and science

      Cosentino, Cindy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-11-04)
      This research studioo the effect of integrated instruction in mathematics and~ science on student achievement in and attitude towards both mathematics and science. A group of grade 9 academic students received instruction in both science and mathematics in an integrated program specifically developed for the purposes of the research. This group was compared to a control group that had received science and mathematics instruction in a traditional, nonintegrated program. The findings showed that in all measures of attitude, there was no significant difference between the students who participated in the integrated science and mathematics program and those who participated in a traditional science and mathematics program. The findings also revealed that integration did improve achievement on some of the measures used. The performance on mathematics open-ended problem-solving tasks improved after participation in the integrated program, suggesting that the integrated students were better able to apply their understanding of mathematics in a real-life context. The performance on the final science exam was also improved for the integrated group. Improvement was not noted on the other measures, which included EQAO scores and laboratory practical tasks. These results raise the issue of the suitability of the instruments used to gauge both achievement and attitude. The accuracy and suitability of traditional measures of achievement are considered. It is argued that they should not necessarily be used as the measure of the value of integrated instruction in a science and mathematics classroom.
    • The impact of meaningfulness of and responsibility for work on the relationships among work values, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction for part- time faculty in a community college

      Smithson, Dianne M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      One hundred and thirty four subjects participated in this survey. Quantitative data were obtained and correlational analyses were used to test a model to study the relationships among the achievement of work values and organizational commitment and job satisfaction and to identify the moderating effects of the meaningfulness of work and responsibility for work on these relationships. Part-time faculty in the Faculty of Continuing Education of a community college were mailed a questionnaire on all the variables of the model. Several reliable, valid instruments were used to test the variables. Data analysis through Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that the achievement of the work values of recognition and satisfaction with promotions did predict organizational commitment and job satisfaction, although the moderating effects of the meaningfulness of work and responsibility for work was not supported in this study. This study suggests that the revised model may be used for determining the relationships between the achievement of work values and organizational commitment and job satisfaction in a community college setting.
    • The impact of scheduling on the implementation of the new Ontario curriculum: teachers' perceptions /

      Lingard, Lynn.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-06-04)
      This qualitative study explored secondary teachers' perceptions of scheduling in relation to pedagogy, curriculum, and observation of student learning. Its objective was to determine the best way to organize the scheduling for the delivery of Ontario's new 4-year curriculum. Six participants were chosen. Two were teaching in a semestered timetable, 1 in a traditional timetable, and 3 had experience in both schedules. Participants related a pressure cooker "lived experience" with weaker students in the semester system experiencing a particularly harsh environment. The inadequate amount of time for review in content-heavy courses, gap scheduling problems, catch-up difficulties for students missing classes, and the fast pace of semestering are identified as factors negatively impacting on these students. Government testing adds to the pressure by shifting teachers' time and attention in the classroom from deeper learning to a superficial coverage of material, from curriculum as lived to curriculum as text to be covered. Scheduling choice should be available in public education to accommodate the needs of all students. Curriculum guidelines need to be revamped to reflect the content that teachers believe is necessary for a successful course delivery. Applied level courses need to be developed for students who are not academically inferior but learn differently.
    • Impact of social constructs on administrator understanding of social justice

      Oyugi, Perez; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2010-10-27)
      Educational administrators are expected to relate social justice considerations to their actions and to the theoretical foundations of their practice. At the same time, social constructs-including those related to administrative practice, social justice, and societal norms-are important in helping administrators understand, frame, and describe administrative issues. Furthermore, as part of socially constructed language, these constructs represent discursive practices and accepted ways of knowing, valuing, and experiencing the world. Drawing on the multidimensional methods of critical discourse analysis as articulated in the writings of Michel Foucault, Norman Fairclough, and Allan Luke, and using deconstruction as a strategic device for reading and interpreting texts, this exploratory qualitative study examined how administrator knowledge, values, and experiences impact their understanding of social justice within the context of delivering social justice for students who experience bullying. Study findings reveal that school administrators interpreted social justice as equitable distribution, action, and results; fairness; and equity. Constructs embedded in these interpretations assumed common things such as universal acceptance of norms of social relations and conveyed administrator intent to secure the kind of social relations that enabled individuals to enjoy greater equality within existing social arrangements.
    • The impact of the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness and of health counselling on health attitudes and behaviour

      Monks, Carrie.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      The purpose of this research study was to determine whether or not the use of a single day of Personal Wellness Evaluations would be meaningful enough to change the attitudes of participants toward adopting a healthier lifestyle, or if it was necessary to include regular planned health counselling alon-g with the Personal Wellness Evaluations in order to'observe changes in beliefs, attitudes and behaviours toward active living and the adoption of a healthier lifestyle. Attitudes and behaviours toward physical fitness and healthy lifestyle choices were assessed through a questionnaire composed of the following instruments: Fishbein and Ajzen Attitude and Behaviour Questionnaire, Leisure Behaviour Questionnaire, Ten Centimeter Bipolar Health Continuum, Neugarten Life Satisfaction Assessment, Job Description Index, Selected questions from the Ontario Health Survey, and the Symptom Reporting Questionnaire. Physical fitness evaluation consisted of the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness, measures of blood pressure, and total cholesterol. The participants were divided into three groups: Group 1- CSTF & health counselling, Group 2- CSTF only, and Group 3- a control group. All three groups received the questionnaire both at the beginning and at the end of the study. Group 1 and Group 2 also participated in fitness testing at these same times, with a three-month time interval between test times. Group 1 also received weekly one-hour health education sessions during the three months between fitness testing. While there were some differences found between the three groups in this study, the results of this study suggested that this three-month workplace wellness program had no impact on the participants' attitudes and behaviours toward health and physical activity. There were no significant differences in the physical fitness measures between Group 1 and Group 2 , nor in the participants' questionnaire responses. These results may be due to the participants' lack of compliance to this wellness program. Employees who 11 participate in a workplace weIlness program must be self-motivated to comply with the program in order to receive the full benefits the program has to offer. Some participants in this study did not have the internal motivation necessary to remain in the study for the three-month period. Future research may consider implementing a workplace wellness program for a longer duration as well as incorporating a specific physical fitness program for the participants to follow. An exercise program could improve the participants' physical fitness, while the health counselling would give the individuals the health education necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle.
    • Implementation of hospital-wide computer information system :a case study of this change process

      Myers, Nancy E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1986-07-09)
      This case study examines the impact of a computer information system as it was being implemented in one Ontario hospital. The attitudes of a cross section of the hospital staff acted as a barometer to measure their perceptions of the implementation process. With The Mississauga Hospital in the early stages of an extensive computer implementation project, the opportunity existed to identify staff attitudes about the computer system, overall knowledge and compare the findings with the literature. The goal of the study was to develop a greater base about the affective domain in the relationship between people and the computer system. Eight exploratory questions shaped the focus of the investigation. Data were collected from three sources: a survey questionnaire, focused interviews, and internal hospital documents. Both quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed. Instrumentation in the study consisted of a survey distributed at two points in time to randomly selected hospital employees who represented all staff levels.Other sources of data included hospital documents, and twenty-five focused interviews with staff who replied to both surveys. Leavitt's socio-technical system, with its four subsystems: task, structure, technology, and people was used to classify staff responses to the research questions. The study findings revealed that the majority of respondents felt positive about using the computer as part of their jobs. No apparent correlations were found between sex, age, or staff group and feelings about using the computer. Differences in attitudes, and attitude changes were found in potential relationship to the element of time. Another difference was found in staff group and perception of being involved in the decision making process. These findings and other evidence about the role of change agents in this change process help to emphasize that planning change is one thing, managing the transition is another.
    • Implementing a question-generation strategy with bilingual students: exploring the perspectives of a beginning teacher /

      Al-Fartousi, May.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-09)
      This study examined the challenges associated with the explicit delivery of questiongeneration strategy with 8 Arab Canadian students from the perspective of a bilingual beginning teacher. This study took place in a private school and involved 2 stages consisting of 9 instructional sessions, and individual interviews with the students. Data gathered from these interviews and the researcher's field notes from the sessions were used to gain insights about the participants' understanding and use of explicit instruction. The themes that emerged from the data included "teacher attitude," "students' enhanced metacognitive awareness and strategy use," "listening skills," and "instructional challenges." Briefly, teacher's attitude demonstrated how teacher's beliefs and knowledge influenced her willingness and perseverance to teach explicitly. Students' enhanced metacognitive awareness and strategy use included students' understanding and use of the question-generation strategy. The students' listening skills suggested that culture may influence their response to the delivery of explicit instruction. Here, the cultural expectations associated with being a good listener reinforced students' willingness to engage in this strategy. Students' prior knowledge also influenced their interaction with the question-generation strategy. Time for process versus covering content was a dominant instructional challenge. This study provides first hand information for teachers when considering how students' cultural backgrounds may affect their reactions to explicit strategy instruction.
    • Implicit and explicit functions in the acquisition of a phonics rule in the word recognition of learning disabled and non learning disabled students /

      McNamara, John Kennedy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      One group of 12 non learning disabled students and two groups of 12 learning disabled students between the ges of 10 and 12 were measured on implicit and explicit knowledge cquisition. Students in each group implicitly cquired knowledge bout I of 2 vocabulary rules. The vocabulary rules governed the pronunciation of 2 types of pseudowords. After completing the implicit acquisition phase, all groups were administered a test of implicit knowledge. The non learning disabled group and I learning disabled group were then asked to verbalize the knowledge acquired during the initial phase. This was a test of explicit knowledge. All 3 groups were then given a postlest of implicit knowledge. This tcst was a measure of the effectiveness of the employment of the verbalization technique. Results indicate that implicit knowledge capabilities for both the learning disabled and non learning disabled groups were intact. However. there were significant differences between groups on explicit knowledge capabilities. This led to the conclusion that implicit functions show little individual differences, and that explicit functions are affected by ability difference. Furthermore, the employment of the verbalization technique significantly increased POStlest scores for learning disabled students. This suggested that the use of metacognitive techniques was a beneficial learning tool for learning disabled students.