• Gaining a better understanding of how Outward Bound Western Canada course outcomes are achieved : a research study /

      McKenzie, Marcia D.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      This study examined how Outward Bound Western Canada (OBWC) course outcomes are achieved by exploring the relationships among course components, students' characteristics, and course outcomes. OBWC is a wilderness-based adventure education organization that helps students achieve outcomes such as increased self-awareness, self-confidence, motivation, interpersonal skills, concern for others, and concern for the environment. This study explored the ways in which the various components of courses and the characteristics of students contribute to determining the outcomes students experience as a result of their courses. The purpose of the study was to gain a better understanding of how OBWC course outcomes are achieved in order to strengthen adventure education theory, enhance practice at OBWC and other adventure education organizations, and provide a foundation for further research on this topic. As an interpretive case study, this study sought to describe how OBWC course outcomes are achieved and to provide interpretations of the research findings. Data was gathered from OBWC students and instructors using the quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques of questionnaire, interview, and observation. Data collected from 98 participants ensured a considerable breadth to the study, while interviews with a number of participants also enabled the collection of in-depth data. Analysis and triangulation of the data from the various sources allowed discernment of the research findings. A comprehensive and detailed picture of how course outcomes are achieved emerged from the findings. Twenty-nine course components were found to influence course outcomes, including various aspects of course activities, the physical environment, instructors, and the group. The findings indicated that certain course components were most influential in determining increases to students' self-awareness, self-confidence, self-reliance, self-esteem, self-concept, motivation, self-responsibility, interpersonal skills, concern for others, and concern for the environment. A number of course components were found to indirectly contribute to positive course outcomes by helping maximize the effectiveness of other components, by increasing students' motivation while on course, or by facilitating the processing and transference of new information. The findings also suggested that several course components either directly or indirectly affected course outcomes in negative ways. In addition, the gender, age, population, and expectations of students were found to play a role in determining the course outcomes they experienced and in determining which course components caused those outcomes. Interpretation of the findings resulted in the generation of research-based theory. The main theoretical argument derived from the results of the study was that course outcomes are influenced by a combination of course components and characteristics of students. More specifically, the theory generated by the study indicated that five groupings of factors contribute to course outcomes, including course activities, the physical environment, instructors, the group, and students' characteristics. The study was considered in relation to existing adventure education literature and larger theoretical issues. The generated theory and research findings were then used to develop suggestions for improving practice at OBWC and other adventure education organizations, as well as for enhancing future research studies.
    • Gender bias in the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study 2003 (TIMMS) for Canadian students /

      Faber, Renata.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-01)
      This study is a secondary data analysis of the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study 2003 (TIMSS) to determine if there is a gender bias, unbalanced number of items suited to the cognitive skill of one gender, and to compare performance by location. Results of the Grade 8, math portion of the test were examined. Items were coded as verbal, spatial, verbal /spatial or neither and as conventional or unconventional. A Kruskal- Wallis was completed for each category, comparing performance of students from Ontario, Quebec, and Singapore. A Factor Analysis was completed to determine if there were item categories with similar characteristics. Gender differences favouring males were found in the verbal conventional category for Canadian students and in the spatial conventional category for students in Quebec. The greatest differences were by location, as students in Singapore outperformed students from Canada in all areas except for the spatial unconventional category. Finally, whether an item is conventional or unconventional is more important than whether the item is verbal or spatial. Results show the importance of fair assessment for the genders in both the classroom and on standardized tests.
    • The generation effect and word learning: a test of the effect of the language experience approach versus the text approach in the acquisition of new reading vocabulary

      Czaplicki, Christine.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      A class of twenty-two grade one children was tested to determine their reading levels using the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Achievement Test. Based on these results and teacher input the students were paired according to reading ability. The students ages ranged from six years four months to seven years four months at the commencement of the study. Eleven children were assigned to the language experience group and their partners became the text group. Each member of the language experience group generated a list of eight to be learned words. The treatment consisted of exposing the student to a given word three times per session for ten sessions, over a period of five days. The dependent variables consisted of word identification speed, word identification accuracy, and word recognition accuracy. Each member of the text group followed the same procedure using his/her partner's list of words. Upon completion of this training, the entire process was repeated with members of the text group from the first part becoming members of the language experience group and vice versa. The results suggest that generally speaking language experience words are identified faster than text words but that there is no difference in the rate at which these words are learned. Language experience words may be identified faster because the auditory-semantic information is more readily available in them than in text words. The rate of learning in both types of words, however, may be dictated by the orthography of the to be learned word.
    • Giving voice to lifelong learning in professional nursing practice

      Bell, Susan M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-07-09)
      The purpose of this phenomenological study was to uncover the meaning of lifelong learning to nurses in an Academic Health Care setting. Six female pediatric nurses were interviewed and audiotaped in response to 2 main questions of interpretation and engagement in lifelong learning with respect to their nursing practice. Four additional probing questions elicited responses of further qualities and characteristics of the meaning of lifelong learning. The emergent themes uncovered the characteristics and nature of the journey of lifelong learning. The themes evolved into parallel characteristics developing into the concepts of personal empowerment and occupational authorship. The personal empowerment concept involved processes whereby the participants overcame or removed barriers to engage in personal lifelong learning. Participants utilized personal power and internal motivators to sustain their engagement in lifelong learning. The occupational authorship concept involved participants controlling their exploration into lifelong learning through collaboration and recognition of occupational demands to be met as a professional. The remaining themes revealed a seasoning journey. This journey entailed a process of mastery through the themes of engagement discord, discovery pilgrimage, transforming, and maturation. The engagement in this journey resulted in their lifelong learning to becoming more intuitive and a part oftheir being. The overall theme uncovered from the journeys was one of a vocation described as a call to thinking critically of nursing practice. The participants responded to lifelong learning as a call to be a good nurse by using critical thinking through reflection, transformative and constructionist learning processes. This study gave voice to the meaning of lifelong learning in their nursing practice as interpreted by -ao the nurse participants.
    • Grade 9 students' perceptions of the impact of a Drop Everything and Read (D.E.A.R.) program /

      Corbin, Anthony.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2007-06-29)
      Educators continually look for strategies to enhance and improve the reading practices of their students. This is an especially challenging task for secondary level teachers as high school students often lack intrinsic motivation to read for pleasure (Bucher & Manning, 2004; Horton, 2005; Wooicott, Research Pty. Ltd. 2001). The purpose of this study was to detennine the effects of the Drop Everything and Read (D.E.A.R.) program on writing, on reading, and on grades, from the perspective of eight Grade 9 students. Of particular interest were the students' perceptions of the effect that participation in the program had on their grades, their writing, their motivation to reading, and their concept of themselves as readers. The eight participants were tracked over the course of a semester. Using qualitative research techniques, data were collected from four sources: two student surveys, researcher's daily field observations, students' weekly reading logs, and three open-ended one-on-one interviews. In order to gain an understanding of the impact of the D.E.A.R program, the data were corroborated, and analyzed with NVivo: N7 (2006). From the data analysis, five themes emerged as a function of the Grade 9 students' experiences in the D.E.A.R. program: Reading Preferences, Time Spent Reading, Making Associations with Reading for Pleasure, Perceptions of Self-as-Reader, and Evaluations of the D.E.A.R Program. In the interest of supporting students' positive reading habits and for the future implementation, these five themes are presented as a series of findings together with recommendations for practice.
    • Grade nine teachers' perception of how teachers, parents, peers, administrators, and community members affect the development of the grade nine student /

      Hofer, Diane Elizabeth.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to examine grade nine teachers' perception of how teachers, parents, peers, administrators, and community members influence the overall development of grade nine students. Ten grade nine teachers (four male and six female) participated in the study which consisted of the completion of a one hour, tape-recorded interview. The central findings were as follows: 1) the grade nine student has evolved; 2) peers have an important impact on the four developmental areas (physical, emotional, social, and academic) of the grade nine student; and 3) the role of the grade nine teacher appears to have dramatically changed over the last seventeen years. Suggestions and recommendations for future research in this field are based on findings related to the enhancement of the secondary school experience for the grade nine adolescent.
    • Guerrillas in the mi(d)st: a study of discreet dissension among administrators in academe /

      Plavinskis, Sandra.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2006-06-29)
      This qualitative study examines the phenomenon of discreet dissension in the administration of academe through literature review and the focused reflections of retired, senior administrators of postsecondary institutions in Ontario. Discretionary decision making is a large component of senior administrative positions. At times, senior administrators use their discretion to engage in institutionally endorsed behaviour to fulfill institutionally sanctioned objectives. At other times, senior administrators use their discretion to engage in dissenting courses of action, contrary to the prescribed and codified policies, procedures, and norms of the institution in order to achieve institutionally endorsed objectives and/or to achieve objectives congruent with individual values. Discreet dissension emerges as an administrative activity for further investigation, enhancing the understanding of the art of administration.
    • Health-related learning needs and interests of selected non-institutionalized elderly

      Bradley, Mary Joan.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      The research question in this study was "How do the noninstitutionalized elderly in the Hamilton-Wentworth Region perceive their learning needs and interests related to health?" The theoretical foundations of instruction for adults were reviewed as well as learning needs and interests in adult education, the assessment of learning needs in general, and the assessment of the learning needs of the elderly. The methodology used was a descriptive design. A research-based questionnaire-interview was developed, refined, and pilot tested. From a random sampling procedure, a participant group of 23 was secured. The questionnaireinterview was administered in a home visit situation. Data, which were collected, were coded, analyzed, processed, and printed. The results indicated that each participant had many learning needs and interests of varying intensities. The participants had many preferences in the delivery of health promotion. The learning needs and interests had several significant correlations with other variables. The implications of the result~ were discussed.
    • The Hidden Truths of Self-Presentation, Self-Disclosure, and Deception on Online Dating Profiles: A Call for Change

      Lashgari, Misha; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-09-05)
      The way in which individuals seek romantic partners has changed considerably in the past decades, most notably through online dating sites (ODSs). Despite the possibility of misrepresentation amongst client users, such sites continue to grow in popularity because ODSs provide a large pool from which individuals can select and attract potential partners. While much research has been undertaken on ODSs, little empirical research has examined postsecondary students’ use of ODSs. Therefore, this study sought to investigate why postsecondary students have become involved with and how they present themselves on ODSs. The researcher surveyed 20 postsecondary students and conducted in-depth interviews with 2 participants who use ODSs. Although the limited sample prevented results from being generalized, quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest that participants became involved with ODSs for various purposes, such as seeking long-term relationships and/or marriage partners, or simply exploring or visiting ODSs out of curiosity. Findings indicate that ODS users’ physical appearance and/or “attractiveness” is considered the strongest predictor of relationship success. The study discusses how participants’ self-presentation affects outcomes of ODS usage, particularly when negative self-identification and presentation corresponding to factors such as individuals’ weight and age are taken into account.
    • Home schooling in view of John Calvin : a study in education and communion of saints /

      Sikkema, Keith.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-05-21)
      This study explores the tension that has emerged around the rise of home schooling in a faith-community strongly committed to establishing and maintaining day schools in the tradition of John Calvin. It aims to identify and understand factors that contributed to this tension and to find ways to bridge, diffuse, reduce, or eliminate it. In line with Calvin, personal convictions, and the nature of the community, the study takes a Christian epistemological and axiological stance. Its premise is that the integrity of the commvmity is more important than the manner in which its children are taught. The study reviews relevant literature and several interviews. It considers both secular and Christian literature to understand communities, community breakdown, and community restoration. It also examines literature about the significance of home, school, and community relationships; the attraction of Reformed day schools; and the appeal of home schooling. Interviews were conducted with 4 home schooling couples and 2 focus groups. One focus group included local school representatives, and the other home schoolers and school representatives from an area with reputedly less tension on the issue. Interviews were designed for participants to give their perspectives on reasons for home schooling, the existing tension, and ways to resolve the issues. The study identifies the rise of home schooling in this particular context as the initial issue and the community's deficiency to properly deal with it as the chief cause for the rising tensions. However, I argue that, within the norms the community firmly believes in, home schooling need not jeopardize its integrity. I call for personal, social, and spiritual renewal to restore the covenant community in gratitude to God.
    • How are Girls' Attitudes Toward Cyberbullying Affected by Drama for Social Intervention?

      Fournier, Gillian L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-04-29)
      This is a study exploring teenaged girls’ understanding and experiences of cyberbullying as a contemporary social phenomenon. Participants included 4 Grade 11 and 12 girls from a medium-sized independent school in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The girls participated in 9 extracurricular study sessions from January to April 2013. During the sessions, they engaged with Drama for Social Intervention (Clark, 2009; Conrad, 2004; Lepp, 2011) activities with the intended goal of producing a collective creation. Qualitative data were collected throughout the sessions using fieldnotes, participant journals, interviews, and participant artefacts. The findings are presented as an ethnodrama (Campbell & Conrad, 2006; Denzin, 2003; Saldaña, 1999) with each thematic statement forming a title of a scene in the script (Rogers, Frellick, & Babinski, 2002). The study found that girl identity online consists of many disconnected avatars. It also suggested that distancing (Eriksson, 2011) techniques, used to engender safety in Drama for Social Intervention, might have contributed to participant disengagement with the study’s content. Implications for further research included the utility of arts-based methods to promote participants’ feelings of growth and reflection, and a reevaluation of cyberbullying discourses to better reflect girls’ multiple avatar identities. Implications for teachers and administrators encompassed a need for preventative approaches to cyberbullying education, incorporating affective empathy-building (Ang & Goh, 2010) and addressing girls’ feelings of safety in perceived anonymity online.
    • How Ontario elementary school principals negotiate their varied work roles

      Convey, Terri.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2005-11-04)
      This qualitative study>addresses the question of how Ontario elementary school principals negotiate their varied work roles, through interviews with and observations of 6 principals. Using inductive data analysis, principals' negotiations were divided into 5 categories: negotiating priorities, negotiating the process, negotiating constraints, negotiating the roles of others, and negotiating the self. These principals worked within these categories simultaneously, emphasizing some more than others, dependent on the circumstances. For these principals, the time they spent with people in the school and the resulting relationships that enabled them to build were a first priority, and a large part of how each principal chose to negotiate the demands of their role arose from their personality and their personal values.
    • How to Mend a ‘Good’ Education: A Settler Autoethnography

      Miller, Sarah; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Though White Settler educators who profess a critical pedagogy take up the project of decolonization with heartfelt enthusiasm, many of them remain unaware of the ways they unconsciously embody, and are complicit in, reproducing colonial structures. This autoethnography tells the story of my attempt to confront a similar dissonance in my teaching practice. My central question “How can I teach towards social justice and against oppression when my Whiteness represents the very structures of marginalization I oppose?” could only be answered by moving beyond the classroom and examining the deeply personal ways that colonial structures and narratives shaped, and continue to shape, all aspects of my identity. I drew data from my personal journals, a “writing” story composed during the research process, and longer form vignettes written in response to the initial stages of data collection. Wall’s (2016) Moderate Ethnography informed my analysis. I used the concepts of Whiteness-as-Property and White- Complicity to help contextualize my experience and employed Aoki’s (1994) Curriculum-as-Lived and the theory of Epistemological Pluralism as tools to understand the connections between personal and professional decolonization. Though more research is needed, this project suggests that for meaningful decolonization to take place there must be an earnest desire on the part of White Settlers (educators and non-educators alike) to attend to their personal complicity in colonialism.
    • Hurry up and slow down : education to close the ingenuity gap /

      Faris, Paul.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      To explore the idea of education to close the ingenuity gap I use Thomas Homer-Dixon's work to define ingenuity. The notion that the supply of ingenuity to solve our technical and social problems is not keeping pace with the ingenuity required to solve those problems is called the ingenuity gap. Man-made technological developments are increasing the density, intensity, and pace of globalisation. People must reorganise decision-making organisations and problem-solving methods to pragmatically combat the growing ingenuity gap. John Dewey's work illustrates the fundamental attitudes for the thinking and judgment associated with educating for ingenuity. Howard Gardner's idea that truth, beauty, and morality ought to form the core values and tenets of the philosophy of educating for ingenuity is integral to this thesis. The act of teaching facilitates the invitation to the communication necessary to foster ingenuity. John Novak-discusses the five relationships of educational leadership that enhance an environment of ingenuity. The International Baccalaureate (IB) is an existing model of global education, one that defines some of the school experiences and academic development of core values of educating for ingenuity. Expanding upon the structure of the IB and other research within this thesis, I speculate upon what my school, where educating for ingenuity so as to close the ingenuity gap is the goal, would be like.
    • Identification and description of the development of the relationships between mentor and mentee teachers in the Halton Board of Education "Partners in the Classroom" Program

      Wilson, Albert G.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1992-07-09)
      Fifteen mentoring pairs of teachers were randomly selected from each group of teachers that had participated in the Halton Board of Education "Partners in the Classroom" program during 1988/89, 1989/90, and 1990/91. Each teacher was personally interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcriptions were prepared and examined and analyzed. During the first part of the interview questions were asked regarding personal and professional demographics. The purpose of the second part of the interview was to gain information relating to the development of the relationships, over a three-year period, between mentor and mentee teacher participants in the "Partners in the Classroom" program. The analysis of the data suggest that there are identifiable changes in the development of the relationship between the mentor teacher and the mentee teacher over time. Implications from the study results that could enhance the induction program for new teachers are discussed.
    • Identifying the psychosexual implications of radical radiation treatment in prostate cancer

      Baldwin, Alanna G.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-07-09)
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of psychosexual morbidity among men who experienced radical radiation treatment for prostate cancer. With relatively little known or available retrospective data on the psychosexual implications of radical radiation treatment in men with prostate cancer, this study posited eight research questions which provided the basis for the research. Fifty men from Southern Ontario, between the ages of 52 to 78 years, were included in the study. They had been previously randomized to a clinical trial comparing radical radiation therapy by external beam radiation, or radical radiation using a combination of a temporary iridium implant plus external beam radiation, for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer. Assessment of sexual functioning, drive, attitudes, body image, and sexual satisfaction was drawn from a multidimensional approach, since psychosexuality was viewed as having an impact on biological, psychological, and sociological domains of functioning. Medical chart reviews, semi-structured interviews, demographical profiles of each participant, and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) were the methods used to collect data over a four-month period. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were incorporated in the design and evaluation of the study. Frequencies, contingency analysis, Pearson's coefficient of correlation, t-tests, and ANOVA comprised the quantitative analysis. Data obtained from audio-taped interviews were analyzed qualitatively, and used for offering further insight and for facilitating the quantitative aspect of the analysis. Overall, there was sufficient evidence to suggest psychosexual morbidity among men who were treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer. As well,there were a number of significant findings available to answer all of the posited research questions. The most significant findings were noted in post-treatment erectile ability and sexual activity. A post-treatment change in erectile ability was reported by eighty percent of men. Sixty percent of men noted a decrease in their ability to achieve an erection by reporting some morning stiffness only, penile rigidity insufficient for penetration, decreased control of erection, and loss of spontaneous erection. Other contributing factors associated with change in erectile status were: pain or altering sensation of orgasm, blood in ejaculate, pain and decreased amount of ejaculate, and penile numbness or pain. Eighty-two percent of men experienced a post-treatment change in sexual function, primarily due to the impact of decreasing erectile status. Only seven men reported that they experienced a decrease in desire mentally, whereas the vast majority did not experience any change in desire. Changes in foreplay, stress with optimal sexual positioning, and reduced spontaneity of sex, were other factors reported with the changes in sexual activity. The findings in this study broaden our understanding of what middle- to later-aged men feel and experience as they venture onward following treatment. This was the first study that evaluated available prospective data on pre-treatment erectile status and sexual activity. As well, this study was the first (with participant compliance rates of 100 percent) to have included an interview format to capture the views of such a large number of men. This study concluded with recommendations and implications for future research and practice as we move in the direction of understanding what is necessary for preserving psychosexual well being and enhancing quality of life in men treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
    • Identity Formation and Negotiation of Afghan Female Youth in Ontario

      Akseer, Tabasum; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2012-10-12)
      The following thesis provides an empirical case study in which a group of 6 first generation female Afghan Canadian youth is studied to determine their identity negotiation and development processes in everyday experiences. This process is investigated across different contexts of home, school, and the community. In terms of schooling experiences, 2 participants each are selected representing public, Islamic, and Catholic schools in Southern Ontario. This study employs feminist research methods and is analyzed through a convergence of critical race theory (critical race feminism), youth development theory, and feminist theory. Participant experiences reveal issues of racism, discrimination, and bias within schooling (public, Catholic) systems. Within these contexts, participants suppress their identities or are exposed to negative experiences based on their ethnic or religious identification. Students in Islamic schools experience support for a more positive ethnic and religious identity. Home and community provided nurturing contexts where participants are able to reaffirm and develop a positive overall identity.
    • Imagery, Technology, and Remote Adult Aboriginal Teacher Candidates: A Brock University Pilot Project

      Trudeau, Lyn; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-09-05)
      The aim of this thesis is to explore the relationship between imagery, technology, and remote adult Aboriginal teacher candidates through the computer software Elluminate Live. It focuses on the implications that the role imagery plays in third generation distance education with these learners and the new media associated therein. The thesis honours the Medicine Wheel teachings and is presented within this cyclical framework that reflects Indigenous philosophies and belief systems. In accordance, Sharing Circle as methodology is used to keep the research culturally grounded, and tenets of narrative inquiry further support the study. Results indicate there are strong connections to curricula enhanced with imagery—most notably a spiritual connection. Findings also reveal that identity associated to geographical location is significant, as are supportive networks. Third generation distance education, such as Elluminate Live, needs to be addressed before Aboriginal communities open the doors to all it encompasses, and although previous literature peers into various elements, this study delves into why the graphical interface resonates with members of these communities. Of utmost importance is the insight this thesis lends to the pedagogy that may possibly evoke a transformative learning process contributing to the success rate of Aboriginal learners and benefit Aboriginal communities as a whole.
    • An impact evaluation of the Ontario ban on smoking in schools and on school property : does the ban on smoking influence high school students' intentions to smoke cigarettes?

      Corbett, Bradley A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2001-07-09)
      The Ontario Tobacco Control Act of 1994 imposed a total ban on smoking in schools, and on school property for every school in the province. The imposition of this policy created problems for school administrators. For instance, students who were smoking on walkways and properties adjacent to school boundaries, clashed with neighbouring property owners who were angry about the resulting damage and disruption. The enforcement of this policy consumes valuable resources at each school; therefore, knowledge about the impact of the policy is important. If effective, this policy has the potential to improve the health of students over their lifetime, by preventing or delaying smoking behaviour. Alternatively, an ineffective policy will continue to create administrative problems for the school and serve no legitimate purpose. Therefore, knowledge about the impact of the smoking ban policy on students' smoking intentions assists policy makers and school administrators in their understanding of the policy's impact within the schools. This research provided an impact evaluation of the ban on smoking in schools and on school property in Ontario. A total of 2069 students, from five high schools, in the Niagara Region, provided complete responses to a survey, designed to test whether smoking intentions were affected by the imposition of the policy. The study used Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991), specifically, the perceived behavioural control measure, to gain some understanding of students' perceptions of control over smoking imposed by the ban. The findings indicate the policy has the potential to influence students' overall smoking intentions. The ban on smoking policy was found to be a significant predictor of the smoking intentions of high school students. As well, attitude, social norms, and perceptions of control were significant predictors of smoking intentions. Exploratory findings also indicated differences between the control beliefs of students from different high schools, indicating potential differences in the enforcement of the smoking ban between schools. The findings also support the utility of the theory of planned behaviour as a methodology for evaluating the influence of punitive policies. This research study should be continued by utilizing the full theory of planned behaviour, including two phases of data collection and the measurement of actual smoking behaviour.
    • The impact of a digital children's literature program on primary students' reading motivation

      Ciampa, Katia; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      This qualitative study stemmed from a concern of the perceived decline in students' reading motivation after the early years of schooling, which has been attributed to the disconnect between the media students are accustomed to using outside the classroom and the media they predominantly use within the classroom. This research documented the effectiveness of a digital children's literature program and a postreading multimedia program on eight grade 1 students' reading motivation, word recognition, and comprehension abilities. Eight students were given ten 25-minute sessions with the software program over 15 weeks. Preprogram, interim-program, and postprogram qualitative data were collected from students, teachers, and parents through questionnaires, interviews, standardized reading assessment tools, classroom observations, field notes, and student behaviour observation checklists. Findings are summarized into 3 themes. The motivational aspects and constructivist styles of instruction in the digital reading programs may have contributed to 5 student participants' increased participation in online storybook reading at home. Qualitative data revealed that the digital children's literature program and multimedia postreading activities seemed to have a positive influence on the majority of grade 1 student participants' reading motivation, word recognition, and listening comprehension skills. These findings suggest the promise of multimedia and Internet-based reading software programs in supporting students with reading andlor behavioural difficulties. In keeping with current educational initiatives and efforts, increased use of media literacy practices in the grade 1 curriculum is suggested.