• Desired learning outcomes for the curricula in financial services industry as perceived by professionals in the financial services industry located in the Greater Toronto Area /

      Brodhecker, W. Harvey.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-05-21)
      This study sought to explore the changing nature of the financial services industry in Toronto, Canada and the impact that these changes will have on the vocational educational outcomes required by Ontario Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (CAAT) graduates who wish to enter the financial services industry. The study was descriptive and exploratory, based on both quantitative and qualitative data. Triangulation of 3 data sources (a collection of newspaper articles from the Toronto Star between July 1999 and June 2000, the calendars of the 25 CAATs, and a survey questionnaire prepared by me and distributed to subject matter experts who are key practitioners in the financial services industry) was used. The study contains a discussion of how the financial services industry is changing. The first question to be answered was: What do current practitioners in financial services perceive to be the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will be required of future graduates for employment within the financial services industry? The study found that Ontario CAAT's graduates entering the financial services field need both business and financial services vocational learning outcomes. Colleges should have 2 programs 1 in accounting and 1 in financial services. The report addresses which specific topics should be included in the financial services program. The second question to be answered was: How does this anticipated profile of knowledge, skills, and attitudes change depending on the degree of implementation of the new technologies by the survey respondent? The study found no pattern. The third question to be answered was: In what way do existing programs need to change in the area of accreditation as perceived by the respondents? The study found that for accreditation, 3 credentials should be addressed within the financial services program. These are the Canadian Securities, the Life Underwriters, and the Certified Financial Planner designations. The last question to be answered was: What new knowledge, skills, and attitudes need to be incorporated into college curricula to address changing needs in the employment sector? For each Ontario CAAT which has a financial services program (excluding accounting), their program was reviewed in light of the topics as perceived by professionals in the financial services industry.
    • Developing an Understanding of Cultural Diversity: How an Experience Living in a Multicultural Nation and an Experience Teaching Abroad Contribute to Southern Ontario Teachers' Identities

      Pinheiro, Cristina; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-09-09)
      This is a narrative design study focusing on the understandings that a group of 6 Southern Ontario teachers have of cultural diversity and how these understandings integrated into their development of teacher identity. Given the high culturally diverse population of Canada and its national multicultural values, conducting this study on Canadian pre-service and in-service teachers offers an interesting contribution to the field. In efforts to explore the participants’ understandings, the research examined a teaching abroad experience. The aim was to investigate how these participants gained insight from their experiences with cultural diversity and whether these insights stimulated a greater culturally conscious teacher identity. Narratives provided a description of the lived experiences of these 6 teachers and identified meanings made from these experiences. Participants included 2 pre-service teachers who were in a teacher education program at the time of the interview, and 4 certified teachers who graduated from a teacher education program within the past 5 years. One on one interviews focused on lived experiences within a participant’s home, school community, and teaching abroad. The researcher used grounded theory during the data analysis to assist in identifying themes, and then compared these themes among participants. Overall, this study suggests that even though these participants live in a multicultural nation, experiences varied greatly based on contributing factors such as heritage and exposure to cultural diversity through their home and school life. Despite their varying level of cultural competence, all participants gained insight from their teaching abroad experience, contributing to a teacher identity that considered inclusive practices. This study suggests that there are some important factors to consider when preparing teachers to teach in a multicultural society.
    • Developing and nurturing professional learning communities: principles used by elementary administrators /

      Marshall, Mary J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2007-06-29)
      This study examined the strategies used by elementary school principals to facilitate and nurture the development of professional learning communities (PLC) within their school settings. Using a reputational sample of administrators whose schools were demonstrating observable characteristics of PLCs, this study documented and described the strategies and actions taken by the principals to move their schools forward. Data collection included the use of open-ended interviews as well as observations capturing the means by which the principals addressed the areas of culture, processes, and structures within their school setting. A grounded theory approach to data analysis uncovered 4 guiding principles used by the principals to facilitate the development of the PLCs within their school: (a) protecting the purpose; (b) attending to relationships; (c) sharing the responsibility; and (d) valuing the journey. The guiding principles were used by each administrator to anchor the decisions they made and develop responsive, contextspecific strategies to support the PLC at their school. The results highlighted the complex role of the principal and the supports required to tackle the difficult work of facilitating PLCs.
    • The development of a Flanders Interaction Analysis style instrument for use in educational computer mediated communication research

      Di Petta, Tony; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2012-12-19)
      This paper describes the development and tests the reliability of a process analysis instrument used to study the socio-emotional climate reflected in the computer mediated communication patterns of an on-line graduate level seminar. The process analysis instrument was developed from the Flanders Interaction Analysis model, from which other instructional research coding instruments such as The Verbal Interaction Coding System (VICS) and Hough I s Observational System for Classroom Instruction, both used in traditional fa.c»-to-face classroom research, have evolved. The reliability of the instrument was determined to be a function of the amount of training and practice provided to the raters. With a training and practice period of under two hours average reliability ratings of .70 were achieved with the final iteration of the test instrument. Reliability tests calculated after varying amounts of coder/rater training suggest that the process analysis instrument developed in this study can be readily modified to suit specific research needs or interests. An examination of other research methodologies for studying computer mediated communication is provided and future online research implications are explored.
    • The development of a model for the administration of special programs for the gifted and talented with studies into the implications of such programs

      Leroux, Janice Anne.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
    • The development of self directedness in public health nurses

      Bennett, Catherine L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      This qualitative study examined the perceived thoughts, feelings and experiences of seven public health nurses employed in a southern ontario health department, regarding the initial phase of the introduction of a self-directed orientation program in their place of employment. A desire to understand what factors facilitate public health nurses in the process of becoming self-directed learners was the purpose of this study. Data were gathered by three methods: 1) a standard open-ended interview was conducted by the researcher with each nurse for approximately one hour; 2) personal notes were kept by the researcher throughout the study; and 3) a review of all pertinent health department documents such as typed minutes of meetings and memos which referred to the introduction of the self-directed learning model was conducted. The meaning of the experience for the nurses provided some insights into what does and does not facilitate public health nurses in the process of becoming self-directed learners. Implications and recommendations for program planners, nurse administrators, facilitators of learning and researchers evolved from the findings of this study.
    • The development, assessment, and implementation of an evaluation of the EMPOWER Program at shelters for abused women /

      Regehr, Kimberly L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-07-14)
      The development, assessment, and implementation of a program evaluation instrument was carried out to evaluate the impact and efficacy of the EMPOWER Program. This intervention was created to educate residents at a shelter for abused women with an anticipated outcome of prevention. Participants included the staff and residents at 2 shelters in Southern Ontario. Client pre, post and follow-up measures were obtained and analyzed statistically and using keyword content analysis. A single staff measure was obtained and summarized using keyword content analysis. Qualitative results were suggestive of important change in participants. All women in the post and follow-up measures believed their participation in the EMPOWER Program provided them with the knowledge, skills, and confidence to avoid abusive relationships in the fliture. This transformational impact was repeatedly expressed in both resident and staff feedback. Limitations of this research, as well as suggestions for future study were discussed.
    • Developmental patterns of individiuals within a sensory-based learning environment in art education : insights emerging from a case study /

      Nevitt, Richard B.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      My research permitted me to reexamine my recent evaluations of the Leaf Project given to the Foundation Year students during the fall semester of 1997. My personal description of the drawing curriculum formed part of the matrix of the Foundation Core Studies at the Ontario College of Art and Design. Research was based on the random selection of 1 8 students distributed over six of my teaching groups. The entire process included a representation of all grade levels. The intent of the research was to provide a pattern of alternative insights that could provide a more meaningful method of evaluation for visual learners in an art education setting. Visual methods of learning are indeed complex and involve the interplay of many sensory modalities of input. Using a qualitative method of research analysis, a series of queries were proposed into a structured matrix grid for seeking out possible and emerging patterns of learning. The grid provided for interrelated visual and linguistic analysis with emphasis in reflection and interconnectedness. Sensory-based modes of learning are currently being studied and discussed amongst educators as alternative approaches to learning. As patterns emerged from the research, it became apparent that a paradigm for evaluation would have to be a progressive profile of the learning that would take into account many of the different and evolving learning processes of the individual. A broader review of the student's entire development within the Foundation Year Program would have to have a shared evaluation through a cross section of representative faculty in the program. The results from the research were never intended to be conclusive. We realized from the start that sensory-based learning is a difficult process to evaluate from traditional standards used in education. The potential of such a process of inquiry permits the researcher to ask for a set of queries that might provide for a deeper form of evaluation unique to the students and their related learning environment. Only in this context can qualitative methods be used to profile their learning experiences in an expressive and meaningful manner.
    • Deviance of syntax in oral languages and oral reading behavior

      Bordan, Ziona S.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      The major hypothesis of this paper is that any deviance in syntax present in oral language will be evident in oral r eading behaviour. Using Lee and Canter's Developmental i 1 Sentence Scoring technique (1971) and Y. Goodman and Burke's Reading Miscue Inventory (1972) linguistic competence was established in t hree male children. ages 10 to 11. patterns of strengths and weaknesses in reading were determined. and the relationships t hat were established, were examined. Results of the study i ndicate that oral language behaviour is closely tied to oral r eading behaviour. This type of approach can be used as a basis for a diagnosis of a reading difficulty and then a prescription for language and reading skills.
    • Dialogue journal writing: a tool for critical reflection in the adult ESL learner

      Gifford, Pamela J. Barkwell.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      This study attempted to determine whether or not dialogue journal writing encouraged critical reflection in the adult ESL (English as a Second Language) learner. According to research in adult education and anecdotal evidence, the process ofdialogue journal writing can facilitate critical reflection in the adult learner. However, little research has been conducted to examine whether or not journal writing can facilitate critical reflection in the second language learner. As a result, ten low-intermediate level adult ESL students from Brock University's Intensive English Language Programme participated in a dialogue journal writing programme in their writing class. The participants wrote journal entries over a 10-week period, and were interviewed once throughout the process to determine their perceptions ofthe journal writing experience. They also were observed by the researcher throughout the journal writing sessions to establish whether any behaviours or intrusions might affect the participants' writing processes. After the content ofthe journals and the interviews, and the observations made by the researcher were analysed, it was confirmed that, for these participants, dialogue journal writing did not necessarily encourage critical reflection. Moreover, the participants' perceptions ofjournal writing were that it helped them to practise the syntax, vocabulary, and rhetorical patterns ofEnglish; nevertheless, it did not foster critical reflection or thinking.
    • Displaced women professionals: an exploration of perceived learning processes during workplace transition /

      Balan, B. N.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-06-04)
      This study focused on obtaining a deeper understanding of the perceived learning of female professionals during workplace transition. The women's lived experiences were explored through a feminist interpretive lens (Bloom, 1998). The study also drew upon concepts from adult learning such as barriers and facilitating factors to learning, resistance, transformative learning, and multiple ways of knowing. Five women participated in a 1 -hour interview and a focus group activity. The findings are presented under the 2 broad themes of perceived learning and factors affecting learning. The most common theme of perceived learning was participants' experience of increased self-knowledge. Additionally, while learning was thought of as a struggle, it provided either an opportunity for a reexamination of goals or a reexamination of self. Reflection by participants seemed to follow two orientations and other types of perceived learning included experiential, formal, and informal learning. In the broad theme of factors affecting learning, contradictions and conflict emerged through the examination of participants' multiple subjectivities, and within their naming of many factors as both facilitating factors and barriers to learning. The factors affecting learning themes included personal relationships, professional communities, selfesteem, attitude and emotion, the gendered experience of transition, time, and finances. The final theme explored participants' view of work and their orientations to the future. A proposed model of learning during workplace transition is presented (Figure 1 ) and the findings discussed within this proposed model's framework. Additional developmental theories of women (Josselson, 1987; Levinson & Levinson, 1996), communities of practice theories (Wenger, 1998), and career resilience theories (Pulley, 1995) are discussed within the context of the proposed model. Implications to practice for career counsellors, people going through workplace transition, human resource managers and career coaches were explored. Additionally implications to theory and future areas of research are also discussed.
    • A district school board's induction program for new administrators: a study of the effectiveness of the mentoring component

      Khilji, Erik; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-01-02)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the mentoring component of a large school board's induction program for new school administrators. A mixed methodology was implemented. The data were collected through an e-mail questionnaire, a focus group interview, and one-on-one semistructured interviews with new school administrators and mentors who participated in the induction program within the last 2 years. The results of this study provide evidence that there are some limitations to the mentoring component of this school board such as an inconsistent matching process of mentors and proteges across the school board; the lack of time and training of mentors; the lack of communication between mentors and proteges; and unclear expectations of the mentoring program. Modifications of the program are needed in order to nurture and develop new principals and new vice-principals in their roles. Recommendations are made to enhance the mentoring program. With the large number of new administrators arriving in the school system over the last few years and the large number of retirements expected by the end of the decade, an effective mentoring program will provide support for new principals and vice-principals and serve as an incentive to entice aspiring leaders into the administrative role.
    • Diversity Discourse and the Ontario Educator: The Understandings of Race and Whiteness Among New White Ontario Teachers

      Landry, Autumn; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      As a recent teacher education graduate, I have been left with more questions than answers about how to create and maintain an equitable and antioppressive classroom. These complicated questions of equity laid the groundwork for this study, which explored how new teachers understood diversity, specifically whiteness, and how they connected these perceptions to their course-related experiences in their teacher education program. Using a qualitative approach, this study problematized the lack of critical discussions around diversity taking place in Ontario teacher education courses. Through purposive, homogenous sampling, 7 new Ontario educators participated in a semistructured interview that focused on their experiences as teacher candidates and new teachers and their understandings and ideas regarding diversity, race, and more specifically, whiteness. The findings suggest that the greater Canadian discourse surrounding multiculturalism impacts the everyday diversity talk of the participants, and that problematic ideas of acceptance and tolerance are common. The findings also show a strong discomfort and unfamiliarity among the participants with the terms whiteness and white privilege. Finally, the results also revealed that new teachers have limited experience in their teacher education to discuss and learn about diversity, particularly critical discussions about race and privilege. Through this investigation, I aimed to bring attention to the necessity of having these critical, albeit difficult, discussions around diversity and whiteness in order to support new, predominately white, teachers.
    • Diversity in the fitness industry : a cross-case comparison /

      Hawes, D. E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      This cross-case study explored the extent to which two fitness facilities were accommodating diversity with respect to age, ethnicity, gender, social class, sex-role socialization, and persons with a disability among both members and staflf. The sites were purposely chosen in a large city and a smaller city in order to provide as representative an example as possible of health clubs within a small sample population. The interview participants were selected by a combination of stratified, typical case, and snowball sampling strategies. . , .. , The intent of the exploration was a two-fold examination of diversity issues within both the membership and the staff of the organization. Data were collected and analysis was done using a triangulation method involving personal interviews, observations, and facility documentation. The results ofthe study showed that the members and staff at each facility were rather homogeneous in ethnicity, age, social class, physical ability, and physical appearance. From a membership standpoint, the environment of the sites presented the impression of being affordable only to the middle- and upper-middle classes, unwelcoming to the older, less fit, or overweight participant, economically exclusive for youth, and nonaccommodating for people with a disability. With respect to staff, the findings indicated that the fitness facilities purported to be team-oriented in theory, but were hierarchical in practice, with the major decision making being made by the male executives. The paper concludes with the recommendation that students must be given a practical toolkit for dealing with these issues in their postsecondary courses.
    • Drama in education : deconstructing the role of movement in text

      McQueen-Fuentes, Glenys.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2005-11-04)
      The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative textual analysis on the role of movement in 3 texts in Drama in Education in Canada. As the subject is holistic and encourages creative, active participation, movement was expected to appear, even inadvertently, in both theory and practice. It was hoped that guidelines for the use of movement within Drama in Education would emerge from the texts and that these guidelines would serve as models for others to use. A total of 26 Drama in Education experts in Canada were each asked to list the 10 most important texts in the field. Those who answered were assigned numbers and charted according to age, gender, and geography. An objective colleague helped narrow the group to 16 participants. A frequency count was used, assigning 10 points to the first text on each list, and descending to 1 point for the tenth text listed. Based on the highest number of points calculated, the 5 most frequently used texts were identified. These were compared to ascertain the widest representation ofthe authors' geographic location and gender, as well as differences in theory and practice. The final selection included 3 texts that represented differing approaches in their presentation and discussion of Drama in Education theories and practices. Analysis involved applying 5 levels of commitment to determine if,how, why, when, and with what results movement was explicitly or implicitly addressed in the 3 texts. Analysis resulted in several unexpected surprises around each of the 3 texts. The study also provided suggestions for extending and clarifying the role of movement in teaching and learning in general, as well as for Drama in Education in particular.
    • The dual role of students with behavioural problems: an analysis of their experiences as bullies and victims /

      Lacharite, Monique.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2008-06-01)
      The present study examined the bullying experiences of a group of students, age 10-14 years, identified as having behaviour problems. A total often students participated in a series of mixed methodology activities, including self-report questionnaires, story telling exercises, and interview style joumaling. The main research questions were related to the prevalence of bully/victims and the type of bullying experiences in this population. Questionnaires gathered information about their involvement in bullying, as well as about psychological risk factors including normative beliefs about antisocial acts, impulsivity, problem solving, and coping strategies. Journal questions expanded on these themes and allowed students to explain their personal experiences as bullies and victims as well as provide suggestions for intervention. The overall results indicated that all of the ten students in this sample have participated in bullying as both a bully and a victim. This high prevalence of bully/victim involvement in students from behavioural classrooms is in sharp contrast with the general population where the prevalence is about 33%. In addition, a common thread was found that indicated that these students who participated in this study demonstrate characteristics of emotionally dysregulated reactive bullies. Theoretical implication and educational practices are discussed.
    • Early Adolescents' Perceptions and Attitudes Towards Gender Representations in Video Games

      Liu, Helen; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This study investigated adolescents’ perception and attitudes towards gender representation in video game covers, and the degree to which these depictions may influence their notions on gender and identification. Seventeen participants ranging from ages 12 and 13 from an independent boarding and day school in Ontario participated in semi-structured interviews to explore this topic. Data were analyzed using a qualitative approach. The study’s conceptual framework encompassed social cognitive theory, gender schema theory, and cultivation theory. Findings suggest that gender representation in video games does influence the majority of participants’ notions of gender; however, there are differences between how males and females approach, interpret, and respond to this type of media. Findings also showcased that evidence of implicit bias was detected in both male and female participants, demonstrated through inconsistencies in their responses. Finally, the findings revealed a significant lack of identification from the majority of participants with video game characters, as many participants were able to clearly distinguish between simulated and real-life experiences. Through this investigation, the present study aimed to precipitate awareness and to provide better understanding about gender and identity in relation to video game playing.
    • Early childhood pedagogical practice within a cultural kaleidoscope

      Kazim, Farah; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-01-02)
      Research strongly suggests that efforts to create effective classroom environments for young children from diverse cultural backgrounds should be based in part on knowledge about the role that culture plays in shaping children's learning opportunities and experiences. An equally important consideration in child development and learning is that of developmentally appropriate practice which recognizes that each child is unique and has individual personality characteristics, learning styles, experiences, and a particular family background, all of which impact the child's age-related emerging mental abilities and developmental milestones. This research endeavour was a qualitative, ethnographic case study which explored issues of early childhood education and developmentally appropriate practice as well as the strategies that teachers used to promote cultural awareness and relevance. The study was based on a single instance in action, that of a specific senior kindergarten class at a private school in Trinidad and Tobago, consistent with the need to assess the scope and adequacy of early education in a culturally diverse population of children. The study focussed on data from in-depth interviews, unobtrusive observations and recorded field notes, studied reflections from a researcher diary, and items from 3 selected subscales of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (Revised Edition). The data consistently supported a teaching practice that encouraged self-reflection and cultural awareness, resulting in a holistic model of education which was both developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive. Further, the observed pedagogical practice suggested a fully inclusive, contemporary model of multicultural learning based on a common, shared understanding and profound knowledge of all the cultures.
    • Early Education Foundation: Portuguese Canadian Mothers' Preferences and Choices

      Rodrigues, Laudalina; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-04-11)
      The purpose of this study was to explore Portuguese-Canadian mothers' preferences and choices regarding their children's early care and education. The findings revealed that Portuguese-Canadian mothers value early care and education and are conscious of their role in their children's lives. Regardless of the type of care setting, the participants' responses revealed that the caregiver's care, emotion, and responsiveness are most important. More than developing "savvy" children, we need to nourish "happy" children. The study's participants include 9 Portuguese Canadian mothers without any assumption of a hyphenated identity and who have moved away from their immigrant parents' script. They embraced the vision of their children's success and cultivated their vast potential. Their responses revealed that the family, culture, and traditions are important factors in their child's academic and social growth and played a critical role in establishing the foundations for learning. The research study findings showed that the field of early care and education is undergoing a paradigm shift and that other practices, ideologies, and theories are surfacing. This study aimed to help develop a new grounded theory that contributes to a better understanding of this arena. The present findings reveal important issues for further discussion and lay a theoretical and empirical framework for future research in early education and care.
    • Educating for Community Resilience: How the Work of Thomas Homer-Dixon and JohnDewey's Pattern of Inquiry Can Help Us Prepare for the Ecological and Social Challenges of the 21st Century

      Sarbu, Mihai B.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-04-15)
      Scientists have overwhelmingly concluded that global warming occurs as a consequence of human activities and that climate change, combined with the depletion of resources, could have catastrophic consequences for the human civilization later this century. However, in political circles and in the public sphere these conclusions are not taken seriously, or they are laid aside for future generations to deal with; at the same time, significant efforts are being deployed to discredit the scientific evidence. In this thesis I have studied the positions of climate scientists as well as those of climate change deniers, and I also examined how their points of view are likely to impact the interests and habits of corporations and citizens. The work of Thomas Homer-Dixon was used as an important source for analyzing the complex interaction between our natural, economic, and social systems, and John Dewey's pattern of inquiry provided the theoretical foundation for an analysis of the current crisis and its possible solutions. No concerted action to deal with climate change has yet been taken by the leaders of the Western world; I corroborated data from four reliable sources (Hansen, 2009; IPCC, 2007; Lynas, 2007; Steffen, 2011) regarding several development scenarios and their likely consequences on greenhouse gas emissions, and I concluded that a future temperature increase of more than 2°C appears now as unavoidable. In the light of this conclusion I argue that education for increasing the resilience of smaller communities is a realistic alternative that can offer some hope in dealing with the challenges ahead.