• Can poor readers visually recognize words they are unable to read? /

      McNeil, Alan M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      The ability to learn new reading vocabulary was assessed in 30 grade 3 poor readers reading approximately one to two years below grade level; the results of the assessment were compared to the performance abilities of 33 normal readers in grade 3 as obtained from an earlier study that employed the same approach and stimuli. The purpose of the study was to examine the strategies employed by poor readers in the acquisition of new reading vocabulary. Students were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (Mixed Phonics Explicit), or to a control group (Phonics Implicit). Subjects in the Mixed Phonics Explicit groups received explicit letter/sound correspondence training. Subjects in the Phonics Implicit group were asked to re-read the presented pseudo-words, receiving corrective feedback when necessary. The stimuli on which the subjects were trained involved a list of six pseudo-words presented in sentences as surnames. The training involved a teaching and test format on each trial for a total of six trials or until criterion had been reached. The results suggested that both normal and poor readers engage in visual learning and verbal coding when acquiring new reading vocabulary. However, poor readers appear to engage in less verbal coding than normal readers. Between group comparisons showed no difference between poor and normal readers in trials and errors to criterion in the visual recognition memory measure. However, normal readers performed significantly better in reading their visual recognition choices.
    • Cardiovascular health risk profiling of Niagara Region grade 9 students : implications for elementary curriculum /

      Canham, Corey H.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if Ontario's health and physical education curriculum contributes sufficiently to ensure the health of our children and young adults. To determine the curriculum effect, the health risk profile of Niagara Region's grade 9 students was compared to Canada's adolescent population. All subjects completed a "Heart Health Lifestyle" survey and were measured for height, weight, percent body fat, blood pressure, and total cholesterol and performed the 20-metre shuttle run test as part of their physical and health education classes. The Niagara Region grade 9 population had a healthy risk profile. Aerobic power was inversely related, and cholesterol levels were positively associated to body mass index and percent body fat in the whole group analysis. These results indicate that physical education can offer unique and essential aspects allowing individuals a means to learn and control body movements and keep physically fit while providing protection against modern disease. Ontario's health and physical education curriculum does contribute to the health of our children and adolescents; however, there is a need to implement a stronger mandate for daily vigorous physical activity.
    • Career paths of educational administrators

      Harrison, A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      Ten superintendents~ 5 male and 5 female~ were randomly selected from a possible 33 males and 9 females in the Niagara and Hamilton regions. The participants were interviewed through a guided interview process coupled with an accounting of their educational and career histories. They were asked to discuss significant aspects of their careers such as the support they had received from families, from mentors and from involvement in networks. The data collected were then analyzed for similarities and differences both within and between the two gender cohorts. Upon analysis, it was found that the female and male administrators possessed differences in their personal backgrounds as well as their career and educational histories. Differences were also found in the perceived role of mentors, and networks. The ways in which the female administrators experienced their careers were found to be quite different from the ways in which the male administrators experienced their careers.
    • A case study of a high functioning autistic female in a games setting

      Perusin, Adriano.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      This study detennined whether or not a high functioning autistic girl can develop game structure strategies that may allow her to become an active participant in a game or sport environment. This qualitative case study involved the in-depth observation and description of one high functioning autistic student whose experience in a game setting would be studied. The type of case study carried out was a combination of descriptive and evaluative. This experience was investigated through structured, individual programming. Through on-site observation, journal entries, and hands on instruction, I was able to describe what progress the autistic student made in tenns of skill development. The results of the study demonstrated that a high-functioning autistic female has the potential to develop the necessary motor skills to participate in the chosen sport of basketball. The observation results and field notes contributed to a movement profile which described her habits of body. Teaching strategies and frameworks utilized during the study were described and listed. Insights and commentary are further provided. A thorough examination of autism and games programming is provided in the literature review.
    • The challenges and successful strategies of secondary school administrators /

      Brochu, Yvan.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      This study presents information gathered during personal interviews in the area of challenges that administrators have faced in their careers, and the strategies they have found to be successful in meeting those challenges. This research is a qualitative study, using an inductive approach. Five participants were chosen, based on convenience sampling, with semi-structured interviews that were audio recorded. The theoretical research found that school violence and stafS'school morale were key challenges facing administrators, with a variety of approaches suggested to foster success in meeting those challenges. Some of these approaches included knowledge, team work, an ethic of care, and having a school vision. From the interviews it became clear that the challenges administrators faced included those posed by students, including disciplinary issues, those posed by adults and those posed by government changes in education. In regards to strategies for success, the interviews revealed three key concepts that were emphasized as vital. These were the assets of craft knowledge (experience), collegiality, and the use of other professional resources and educators.
    • Changes in education and student-centred learning as related to senior secondary school English

      Gounden, Cyril M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      The main purpose of this thesis is to t r ace broadly the educational changes in the past two decades showing a shift of emphasis from a teacher-directed, content-centred philosophy of teaching to a self-directed, student-centred mode of learning. The major justification for an Independent or an Individualized Learning programme with emphasis on "the response to literature approach" is 2 to produce the independent learner. Comprehensive r eading and t he use of t he ERIC system reveal widespread educational thought and practice related t o Individualization and Independent Study as a really democratic way of learning with freedom, independence and responsibility.
    • Changing roles of nurse educators employed in acute and chronic care settings : the impact of professional and statutory mandates in Ontario at four sites of one hospital corporation /

      Phillips, Lori-Ann.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      The role of the hospital-employed nurse educator is evolving. Factors influencing this change include the introduction of standards for nurse educators by the College of Nurses of Ontario (CNO), a change in the way nurses are educated, the emergence of nursing as a profession, and hospital restructuring as a result of budgetary constraints. Two of these influencing factors: the introduction of the updated Standards of Practice for Registered Nurses and Registered Practical Nurses (1996) and hospital restructuring occurred over the last 7 years at several hospitals in southern Ontario. Current literature as well as the Standards of Practice (1996) were utilized to examine the current roles and responsibilities of nurse educators and subsequently develop a questionnaire to study the impact of these influencing factors on the role of the nurse educator. This questionnaire was piloted and revised before its distribution at 4 hospitals in southern Ontario. Twenty-five of the 41 surveys (61%) distributed were returned for analysis. The data reflected that the Standards of Practice had a positive influence on the role of the nurse educator, while hospital restructuring had a negative impact. In addition, many of the roles and responsibilities identified in the literature were indeed part of the current role of nurse educators, as well as several responsibilities not captured in the literature. The predictions for the future of this role in its current state were not positive given the financial status of the health care system as well as the lack of clarity for the role and the current level ofjob satisfaction among practicing nurse educators. However, a list of recommendations were generated which, if implemented, could add clarity to the role and improve job satisfaction. This could enhance the retention of current nurse educators and the possibility of recruiting competent nurse educators to the role in the future.
    • Charting the territory : how female artist/teachers balance their artistic practice with their institutional responsibilities as teachers /

      Murao, Grace S.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      This r\.~et.lrch examined ho\\' ~ight \\'omen artists \\'ho t~ach at the uni versity and college level, balance thcir artistic practic~ and their institu tional responsibilities as tcachers. This thesis reprt.~ents the culmination of \\'ork for my second graduate degree. For my first degrCt! on th~ grad uat~ level, I concentratoo on d~veloping my artistic practice. This ~Iaster's Degree in Education is no k~ important to m~. In pursuing studies in the field of education I \\'anted to understand my rol~ as both an educator and an artist and in the process I uncovered the interplay of race, class, and gender at \\'ork in th~ classroom. Coming from a \\'orking-class, immigrant background \\'here higher education \vas vie\\'cd as a stepping stone that \"ould enable my siblings and me a greater spectrum of opportunities, I \\'as at last able to understand my o\\'n educational experiences, more clearly. I discovered ho\\' d\.~ply I internalized the racism, sexism and class discrimination, I submitted to in my history as a student. Becoming a\\'are about the social forc\.~ at "'ork \\'ithin my day to day life has provided me \\'ith instruments \\'hich I can usc to examine and respond to these inequities as I confront them in th~ future. This \,'ork exists as a serk'S of responses and further av~nues for investigation on some themes I first began to explor~, albeit very tentati\'~ly, during my first incarnation as a graduate student and so though the h\'o bound volum~s rna-\' one da.v sit si.d~ b\' s id~ on the bookshelf, th~\-' exist in the context of my life as a set of brackets surrounding a series of qUl'Stions about being a \\'Onlan, a teachcr and an artist.
    • Childlessness in a child-centered environment : the experiences of voluntarily childless female teachers /

      Rees, Linda J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      In the literature on voluntary childlessness there is a lack of research on the types of occupations held by women who choose not to mother and how their fertility choice influences their occupational experiences. At the same time, the experience ofwomen with regard to the childfree choice has not been adequately addressed in contemporary feminist literature. In the field of education, much has been written about the association between mothering and teaching. Thus, childfree teachers become particularly interesting since they made seemingly paradoxical choices in that they chose not to bear and rear children yet they chose an occupation in which they are surrounded by and responsible for the daily care of many children. To gain an understanding of the work-related experiences of childfree women, in-depth interviews were conducted with 7 voluntarily childless female elementary school teachers from Southern Ontario. In addition, a focus group interview in which 3 of the 7 childfree teachers participated was conducted. Findings revealed that these women's "choice" to be childless was the result of complex circumstances and multiple motivations. Also, despite their decision to forgo the traditional female role of mother, these women held surprisingly conventional beliefs with regard to family and gender roles. In addition, these childfree women at times identified themselves as mother-like when teaching, yet at other times distanced themselves as teachers from mothers. Finally, results showed that these women experienced both direct and indirect pronatalist pressures outside as well as inside the workplace as a result of their childfree status.
    • Children's Bullying Experiences and Self-Worth Perceptions in a Private School

      Papp, Barbara; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-03-05)
      This study explored children's bullying experiences (as bully, victim, and bystander) and their self-worth perceptions in a private school in Ontario, Canada. Forty students from 12 different countries participated in a mixed methodology (both quantitative and qualitative) research design using a self-report questionnaire. Students reported involvement in bullying as a bully, victim, and bystander. The overall results reveal a pattern across the three roles where the degree of bullying observed as a bystander is the highest (57%) followed by the experiences as a victim (29%) and that performed as bully (21%). The bystanders reported direct bullying being witnessed, bullies reported indirect bullying interventions as being used, and victims of bullying reported indirect bullying being the most common type of bullying they experienced. Decreased feeling of self-worth is reported in the qualitative research data in regards to bullying. Boarding students reported issues regarding personal safety, need for social relationships, self-worth, and unacceptability of bullying. Implications for practice for the private school are discussed, focusing on the outcome of this study.
    • A classroom-based investigation of reciprocal teaching at the grade seven level

      Cowan, Anne E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1989-07-09)
      This study assessed the effectiveness of a reciprocal teaching program as a method of teaching reading comprehension, using narrative text material in a t.ypical grade seven classroom. In order to determine the effectiveness of the reciprocal teaching program, this method was compared to two other reading instruction approaches that, unlike rcciprocal teaching, did not include social interaction components. Two intact grade scven classes, and a grade seven teacher, participated in this study. Students were appropriately assigned to three treatment groups by reading achievement level as determined from a norm-referenced test. Training proceeded for a five week intervention period during regularly scheduled English periods. Throughout the program curriculum-based tests were administered. These tests were designed to assess comprehension in two distinct ways; namely, character analysis components as they relate to narrative text, and strategy use components as they contribute to student understanding of narrative and expository text. Pre, post, and maintenance tests were administered to measure overall training effects. Moreover, during intervention, training probes were administered in the last period of each week to evaluate treatment group performance. AU curriculum-based tests were coded and comparisons of pre, post, maintenance tests and training probes were presented in graph form. Results showed that the reciprocal group achieved some improvement in reading comprehension scores in the strategy use component of the tests. No improvements were observed for the character analysis components of the curriculum-based tests and the norm-referenced tests. At pre and post intervention, interviews requiring students to respond to questions that addressed metacomprehension awareness of study strategies were administered. The intelviews were coded and comparisons were made between the two intelVicws. No significant improvements were observed regarding student awareness of ten identified study strategies . This study indicated that reciprocal teaching is a viable approach that can be utilized to help students acquire more effective comprehension strategies. However, the maximum utility of the technique when administered to a population of grade seven students performing at average to above average levels of reading achievement has yet to be determined. In order to explore this issue, the refinement of training materials and curriculum-based measurements need to be explored. As well, this study revealed that reciprocal teaching placed heavier demands on the classroom teacher when compared to other reading instruction methods. This may suggest that innovative and intensive teacher training techniques are required before it is feasible to use this method in the classroom.
    • Co-operative education and the development of self-esteem, an internal locus of control and work habits

      Wettlaufer, Helen E. B.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1989-07-09)
      This study compared approximately 50 grade 12 students studying In th~ co-operative education mode with approximately 50 grade 12 students studying in a traditional English course. Measures of self-esteem, locus of control and work habits were compared before and at the conclusion of one semester's involvement in the different programs. Using Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory, the students who had chosen to study in the co-operative education mode scored significantly higher than the students in the traditional course. At the end of the semester, the co-operative education students' scores remained significantly higher than the English students'. Although the test showed no sjgnifi~ant changes in self-esteem. anecdotal reports indicated that co-operative education students had increased self-esteem over the semester. No significant differences in locus of control were observed between the two groups at any time. Significant differences in work habits were observed. While both groups had the same number of absences and the same marks before taking these courses, students who were involved in co-operative education had significantly fewer absences and significantly higher marks than the students studying in the traditional course. Anecdotal reports also indicated an improv~ment in work habits for students who had been involved in co-operative education. Recommendations of the study are for further research to determine more exactly how self-esteem and work habits develop in co-operative education students. Also. students. parents, teachers. and administrators need to be made aware of the success of this program.
    • Cognitive coaching : a multiple case study /

      Yust, Jennifer.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the application of Cognitive Coaching as a school-based professional development program to improve instructional thought and decision making as well as to enhance staff perceptions, coUegiality and school culture. This topic emerged from personal and professional issues related to the role ofthe reflective practitioner in improving the quality of education, yet cognizant of the fact that little professional development was available to train teachers to become reflective. This case study, positioned within the interpretive sciences, focused on three teachers and how their experiences with cognitive coaching affected their teaching practices. Their knowledge, understanding and use of the four stages of instructional thought (preactive, interactive, reflective and projective) were tested before and at the end of eight coaching cycles, and again after two months to determine whether they had continued to use the reflective process. They were also assessed on whether their attitude towards peer coaching had changed, whether their feelings about teaching had become more positive and whether their professional dialogue had increased. Three methods of data collection were selected to assess growth: interviews, observations and joumaling. Analysis primarily consisted of coding and organizing data according to emerging themes. Although the professed aim of cognitive coaching was to teach the process in order that the teachers would become self-analytical and self-modifying, this study found that the value of the coaching, after trust had been established in both the coach and the process, was in the dialoguing and the time set aside to do it. Once the coaching stopped providing the time to dialogue, to examine one's meanings and beliefs, so did the critical self-reflection. As a result ofthe cognitive coaching experience though, all participants grew in their feelings of efficacy, craftsmanship, flexibility, consciousness and interdependence. The actual and potential significance ofthis study was discussed according to implications for teacher supervision, professional development, school culture, further areas of research and to my personal growth and development.
    • A cognitive schematic paradigm for expository essay writing in secondary schools

      Duffy, Mary Cipolla.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      The methodology outlined in this study for teaching exposit ory writing to advanced (five year phase) grade eleven students is based on the assumption that writing as a problem solving strategy is a high level cognitive skill . In adhering to this assumption, a cognitively based schematic organizer known as a cross-classification chart was tested for its effectiveness a t the planning stage of the writing process . Results were not significant in any of the three components that were evaluated; however , a post- hoc analysis undertaken because of recorded observed data indicated a significant difference in the mean score on the Organization component for the treatment subgroup using the cross- classification organizer . Furthermore, the treatment group's positive response from the attitude survey towards planning writing is encouraging enough that replication and extension of the application of schema theory to wri ting should be pursued in cross-section and longitud i nal studies.
    • Collaboration to Support ESL Instruction

      Vintan, Ana; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Collaboration in English as a Second Language (ESL) education holds potential for consistency and efficiency in pedagogical planning for English Language Learners (ELLs), and supports ELLs’ needs through targeted instructional strategies. This study sought to investigate these processes of collaboration, and was guided by three research questions: (a) How do ESL teachers describe collaboration to provide support for ELLs? (b) What opportunities do ESL teachers have for collaboration, and how are ESL teachers supported in creating a collaborative environment? (c) How do ESL teachers collaborate with in-school teams of educators to use instructional resources (digital and/or non-digital) to promote oral and written language instruction with ELLs? The research adopted a case study approach to explore how ESL teachers collaborate with educational professionals within ESL education. Qualitative data included classroom observations while ESL teachers collaborated with teachers and other educational professionals in the classroom. Semi-structured interviews explored how ESL teachers described collaboration within ESL education, opportunities ESL teachers had for collaboration, how ELS teachers are professionally supported to integrate resources (digital and/or non-digital) within classroom instruction, as well as teachers’ understandings and apprehensions about using technology to support literacy instruction for ELLs. Overall, the findings indicate that ESL teacher participants expressed a desire to collaborate, and took initial steps to facilitate collaboration with educational professionals, but expressed that the current educational climate does not provide sufficient resources for deep-rooted and authentic collaboration. Informal collaboration occurred more frequently than formal or scheduled collaboration.
    • Collaborative learning in a Japanese as a foreign language classroom /

      Iwata-Consul, Sonomi.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-05-19)
      This study examined the influence of training on Asian learners' beliefs, interaction, and attitudes during collaborative learning (CL) and explored the processes of their CL in pairs. The literature contains few studies on the effect of collaborative training in language learning. In addition, it shows gaps between SLA theory and practice resulting from learners' cultural differences. Although second/subsequent language acquisition (SLA) theory assumes that CL contributes to language learning, implementing CL in a multicultural classroom is often considered to be unsuccessful by teachers. The research questions designed to address this gap explore: (a) the extent to which tra~ng affects Asian learners' attitudes towards and interaction during CL; (b) how Asian learners accomplish collaborative tasks in pairs. In the quasi-experimental research design, the learners in the treatment group received special training in CL for 5 weeks while the learners in the comparison group did not receive similar training. Data were collected from 45 McMaster University students through pre- and posttests, pre- and postintervention questionnaires, student information, and informal classroom observations. To detennine the influence of training, the frequency of communication units (c-units), Language Related Episodes (LREs), Collaborative Dialogue (CD) from audio-taped data, and the fmal draft scores were compared between pre- and posttests. The learners' pre- and postintervention questionnaires were also compared. Transcripts from audio-taped data, students' information, their responses and comments from questionnaires, and informal observations served to investigate the processes of Asian learners' CL. Overall, this study found that training had significant influence on the frequency of c-units and CD, and considerable impact on the draft scores, although little influence on the frequency of LREs was observed. The results from the questionnaires in the treatment group showed positive changes in the learners' beliefs on pair work after training. On the other hand, analyses of the transcription data showed that the learners did not conduct enough discussion for a resolution of problems with peers. In conclusion, results suggested the need for teacher intervention, a longer period of collaborative training, and an implementation of self-evaluation into the course grade to encourage the learners to succeed in collaborative learning.
    • Collaborative reflection : supporting one practitioner's development of online learning communities /

      Simmons, Nicola.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-05-21)
      This is a study of one participant's reflective practice as she worked to develop online communities in a face-to-face science course. Her process of reflective practice was examined in order to address factors that influenced her learning path, and the benefits and challenges of collaborative action research. These research goals were pursued using a collaborative action research methodology, initially chosen for its close match with Schon's (1983) model of reflective practice. The participant's learning fit vnth Mezirow's (1991) model of transformative learning. She began with beliefs that matched her goals, and she demonstrated significant learning in three areas. First, she demonstrated instrumental learning around the constraints of workload and time, and achieving online learning community indicators. Second, she demonstrated communicative learning that helped her to see her own needs for feedback and communication more clearly, and how other process partners had been a support to her. Third, her emancipatory learning saw her revisiting and questioning her goals. It was through the reflective conversation during the planned meetings and the researcher's reframing and interrogation of that reflection that the participant was able to clarify and extend her thinking, and in so doing, critically reflect on her practice as she worked to develop online learning communities. In this way, the collaborative action research methodology was an embodiment of co-constructivism through collaborative reflective practice. Schon's (1983) model of reflective practice positions a lone practitioners moving through cycles ofplan-act-observe-reflect. The results fi"om this study suggest that collaboration is an important piece of the reflective practice model.
    • Collective learning within nursing clinical groups /

      Kassam, Tamiza A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2002-05-19)
      This qualitative study examined collective learning within nursing clinical groups. Specifically, it explored the influence of the individual on the group and the impact of the group on the individual. The study was organized using the concepts from Debbie Kilgore's theory of collective learning (1999). The sample consisted of 1 8 second-year university nursing students and 3 clinical instructors. Data were collected via individual interviews with each participant and researcher's observations during a group conference. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using key concepts from Kilgore's framework. Several interesting findings emerged. Overall, it appeared that individual components and group components contributed to the quality and quantity of collective learning that occurred in the groups. Individually, each person's past group experiences, personality, culture, and gender influenced how that individual acted in the group, their roles, and how much influence they had over group decisions. Moreover, the situation which seemed to cause the greatest sense of helplessness and loss of control was when one of their group members was breaking a norm. They were unable to deal with such situations constructively. Also, the amount of sense of worthiness (respect) and sense of agency (control) the member felt within the group had an impact on the person's role in group decisions. Finally, it seemed that students felt more connected with their peers within the clinical setting when they were close with them on a personal and social level. With respect to the group elements, it seemed that the instructors' values and way of being were instrumental in shaping the group's identity. In group 2, there were clear examples of group consciousness and the students' need to go along with the majority viewpoint, even when it was contrary to their own beliefs. Finally, the common goal of passing clinical and dealing with the fears of being in the clinical setting brought solidarity among the group members, and there seemed to be a high level of positive interdependence among them. From the discussion and analysis of the findings, recommendations were given on how to improve the learning within clinical groups.
    • Colorism: An Understanding of the Multiplicity of Voices Among Black Women and How Their Experiences Inform Their Postsecondary Lives

      Campbell, Hyacinth; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      In my M.Ed. program, I reflected on and applied a social and cultural lens to my experiences with colorism. Through this process of reflection and my review of anti-racist literature I began to question how the hegemonic discourses of race and racism reinforced a Black-White binary. These questions led me to explore Black women’s often intricate and complex experiences with colorism that are not always talked about. Using a qualitative narrative inquiry to this study, I explored six racialized Black female student’s experience with colorism to understand how colorism informed their lives on campus. By means of purposeful convenience sampling, I heard about their understanding of colorism, experiences as Black women, how colorism informed their experience in the academy, and explored the implications for postsecondary. The theoretical framework that guided my research was Critical Race Theory (CRT). A semi-structured one-on-one interview approach was used to prepare general questions to guide the discussion. The findings revealed that participants learned about colorism at an early age. Apart from skin tone, phenotypic features were attached to their experience with colorism. The findings also showed that some participants conflated colorism and racism and connected their understanding of or experiences with colorism with dominant ideology. Finally, the results also revealed ways in which the participants resisted the multiple issues that intersected and had implications in their daily lives. Some issues included the harmful stereotypes affixed to Black women and how the messages they received informed their choices and reinforced some of the negative images about Black women’s hair. I aimed to bring awareness to the intricacies of colorism and the ways in which the participants used their agency to push back and resist colorism.
    • Community Care Access Centre accountability reforms: executive director perceptions /

      Hecimovich, Cathy.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2005-06-04)
      The purpose of this study was to explore how four purposefully selected executive directors of Community Care Access Centres (CCACs) understood the idea of accountability, and how they viewed the accountability reforms that had been imposed on their sector of health care over the previous three years. Data were collected through personal interviews and a reflective journal. An analysis of key documents and the reflective journal informed the data analysis. The findings suggest that executive directors perceive that accountability relationships have shifted since reforms have been implemented. They noted that CCACs have become more accountable to the provincial government at the expense of accountability to the local community. From their perspective, the demand for greater standardization and bureaucratization has left fewer opportunities to adapt programs to meet particular community needs and has slowed the ability to respond quickly to community inquiries and concerns.