• Becoming a Queer Teacher: Perceptions of Queer Teacher Candidates in Initial Teacher Education Programs

      Fleet, Courtenay; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This study used narrative inquiry to explore the experiences of queer teacher candidates during their Initial Teacher Education Programs (ITEP) in Ontario. The study sought to further investigate: (a) stories teacher candidates tell about being queer in ITEPs; (b) how queer teacher candidates respond to social bias and stereotypes in the learning community; and (c) if and how queer teacher candidates’ narratives can inform teacher education reform. Through interviews and lettered correspondence, the participants and I share stories of being queer in ITEPs. The study examined our stories using Clandinin and Connelly’s (2000) 3 commonplaces of temporality, sociality, and place, as well as, Ciuffetelli Parker’s (2013, 2014) 3-R narrative elements of narrative reveal, narrative revelation, and narrative reformation. Four themes emerged: the complexity of the queer teacher candidates’ experience; the separation of personal and professional identity; silencing; and shame. These poignant narratives contribute to the literature by providing a context for teacher education programs and researchers to reconsider teacher education reform.
    • Books on the border land : a Mennonite woman's memoir of reading and remembering the sacred

      Klassen-Dueck, Pam; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      This arts-based thesis, written from my perspective as a Manitoba Mennonite woman and English Language Arts educator, is a memoir of books and reading. As a voracious reader, I am dismayed by the general perception of literacy in public schools as being a set of measureable tasks, and I have found that reading, in particular, has become divorced from its traditional link to life-giving and sacred things. In this thesis, I used life writing to share some of my reading history to illustrate, in part, the degree to which books may enrich our lives by helping us understand the past, present, and future - but only if we allow them to do so.
    • Breaking the silence : exploring the workplace experiences of six women with learning disabilities

      Augustin, Melissa L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2012-07-04)
      In the current economic climate, employees are expected to upgrade their skills in order to remain productive and competitive in the workplace, and many women with learning disabilities! may feel doubly challenged when dealing with such expectations. Although the number of people with reported learning disabilities who enter the workforce is expected to increase, a dearth of research focuses on work-related experiences of women with learning disabilities; consequently, employers and educators often are unaware ofthe obstacles and demands facing such individuals. This qualitative narrative study sheds light on the work experiences of women with diagnosed or suspected learning disabilities. The study used semistructured interviews to explore their perspectives and reflections on learnlng in order to: (a) raise awareness of the needs of women with learning disabilities, (b) enhance their opportunities to learn in the workplace, and (c) draw attention to the need for improvement of inclusiveness in the workplace, especially for hidden disabilities. Study findings reveal that participants' learning was influenced by work relationships, the learning environments, self-determination, and taking personal responsibility. Moreover, the main accommodation requested was to have supportive and understanding work relationships and environments. Recommendations are made for future research and workplace improvements, most notably that no employees should be left behind through an employee-centered approach.
    • Bullying in the Same-Sex Friendships of Young Adolescent Girls: A Qualitative Study

      Stiller, Sajah; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-03-26)
      This qualitative, narrative study explored the bullying experiences of young adolescent girls within their same-sex dyadic and group friendships. The participants were 5 female students, ages 11 and 12 years old, from 1 private, religious school in southern Ontario. Each girl participated in an audiotaped, 30-minute, personal interview based on an unstructured interview protocol. Interview transcripts were analyzed for bullying behaviors using Marini and Dane's (2008) subtypes of bullying, including the form, function, and involvement in bullying. Interview transcripts were also analyzed for common and emerging themes using aspects of L. M., Brown and Gilligan's (1992) "Listener's Guide." The findings of this study suggested that within their same-sex friendships girls assume the roles of all participants in bullying, including bullies, victims, bystanders, and bully-victims. The findings also suggested that bullying behaviors within young adolescent girls' same-sex friendships are mainly indirect in their mode of attack and that they are both proactive and reactive. The bully behaviors identified in this study were used to inform the major themes or salient features within the dynamics of girls' same-sex friendships also identified. These themes included acceptance, intimacy, negotiation, inclusion/exclusion, moral character judgements, and power. The findings of this study will be used to inform current theory, personal and professional practice, as well as future research.
    • Business leadership in the classroom

      MacRae, John Donald.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      This action research assesses a framework that assists business educators in promoting leadership within a classroom. It is designed to better prepare students to assume leadership and fill the "leadership gap" in business. Two classes of 2nd-year community college business students participated in running and managing their own business community as teams of sales professionals by developing and practicing their own individual leadership for 28 weeks during their sales courses. The intent was to assess the development of leadership resulting from the implementation of the "Business Leadership in the Classroom" framework. This framework balances leadership principles to simulate a business environment with the practical elements of a learning community under the facilitation of an experienced business educator. The action research approach was used to assess and adjust approaches to business leadership on a continuous basis throughout the research. Data were collected from 61 students based on journals, surveys, peer group reviews, and my (facilitator) reflective journal.The findings reveal that both individual and collective business leadership views and practical skills developed over time. A business leadership mind-set evolved that ranged from a general awareness of the importance of leadership, to a conscious and deliberate use of individual leadership. Areas important in building a progression of leadership included: leadership teams, membership roles, weekly leadership teams, peer feedback, and activity-based learning. Emerging themes included leadership, leadership style, teamwork, as well as influence and motivation. The research framework was effective in supporting the development of business leadership but required some adjustments. These included increased structure and feedback mechanisms. Interpretation of the findings demonstrates the importance of real-world practical education in the classroom. Results show how focusing on a single mind-set such as business leadership, can result in enormous individual growth and development. When business students are encouraged to act as real businesspeople, managing their own learning, the results are effective in preparing them for the business world. All participants expressed their leadership in different ways based on personality and individual strengths. There was an overwhelming and, in some cases, passionate interest in leadership. The use of action research with a range of data collection methods provides a way to measure and track individual student learning and to generate adjustments to the research framework design and learning approaches. The findings generate implications and recommendations to continue this research further. Key recommendations center around how to ensure leadership development is sustained, including improved approaches to heighten the real-world feel of the classroom. Specifically, the use of leadership goals and action plans for each individual participant and an active use of outside business resource people as contacts for participants is recommended.
    • Can poor readers visually recognize words they are unable to read? /

      McNeil, Alan M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      The ability to learn new reading vocabulary was assessed in 30 grade 3 poor readers reading approximately one to two years below grade level; the results of the assessment were compared to the performance abilities of 33 normal readers in grade 3 as obtained from an earlier study that employed the same approach and stimuli. The purpose of the study was to examine the strategies employed by poor readers in the acquisition of new reading vocabulary. Students were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (Mixed Phonics Explicit), or to a control group (Phonics Implicit). Subjects in the Mixed Phonics Explicit groups received explicit letter/sound correspondence training. Subjects in the Phonics Implicit group were asked to re-read the presented pseudo-words, receiving corrective feedback when necessary. The stimuli on which the subjects were trained involved a list of six pseudo-words presented in sentences as surnames. The training involved a teaching and test format on each trial for a total of six trials or until criterion had been reached. The results suggested that both normal and poor readers engage in visual learning and verbal coding when acquiring new reading vocabulary. However, poor readers appear to engage in less verbal coding than normal readers. Between group comparisons showed no difference between poor and normal readers in trials and errors to criterion in the visual recognition memory measure. However, normal readers performed significantly better in reading their visual recognition choices.
    • Cardiovascular health risk profiling of Niagara Region grade 9 students : implications for elementary curriculum /

      Canham, Corey H.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2004-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if Ontario's health and physical education curriculum contributes sufficiently to ensure the health of our children and young adults. To determine the curriculum effect, the health risk profile of Niagara Region's grade 9 students was compared to Canada's adolescent population. All subjects completed a "Heart Health Lifestyle" survey and were measured for height, weight, percent body fat, blood pressure, and total cholesterol and performed the 20-metre shuttle run test as part of their physical and health education classes. The Niagara Region grade 9 population had a healthy risk profile. Aerobic power was inversely related, and cholesterol levels were positively associated to body mass index and percent body fat in the whole group analysis. These results indicate that physical education can offer unique and essential aspects allowing individuals a means to learn and control body movements and keep physically fit while providing protection against modern disease. Ontario's health and physical education curriculum does contribute to the health of our children and adolescents; however, there is a need to implement a stronger mandate for daily vigorous physical activity.
    • Career paths of educational administrators

      Harrison, A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      Ten superintendents~ 5 male and 5 female~ were randomly selected from a possible 33 males and 9 females in the Niagara and Hamilton regions. The participants were interviewed through a guided interview process coupled with an accounting of their educational and career histories. They were asked to discuss significant aspects of their careers such as the support they had received from families, from mentors and from involvement in networks. The data collected were then analyzed for similarities and differences both within and between the two gender cohorts. Upon analysis, it was found that the female and male administrators possessed differences in their personal backgrounds as well as their career and educational histories. Differences were also found in the perceived role of mentors, and networks. The ways in which the female administrators experienced their careers were found to be quite different from the ways in which the male administrators experienced their careers.
    • A case study of a high functioning autistic female in a games setting

      Perusin, Adriano.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      This study detennined whether or not a high functioning autistic girl can develop game structure strategies that may allow her to become an active participant in a game or sport environment. This qualitative case study involved the in-depth observation and description of one high functioning autistic student whose experience in a game setting would be studied. The type of case study carried out was a combination of descriptive and evaluative. This experience was investigated through structured, individual programming. Through on-site observation, journal entries, and hands on instruction, I was able to describe what progress the autistic student made in tenns of skill development. The results of the study demonstrated that a high-functioning autistic female has the potential to develop the necessary motor skills to participate in the chosen sport of basketball. The observation results and field notes contributed to a movement profile which described her habits of body. Teaching strategies and frameworks utilized during the study were described and listed. Insights and commentary are further provided. A thorough examination of autism and games programming is provided in the literature review.
    • The challenges and successful strategies of secondary school administrators /

      Brochu, Yvan.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      This study presents information gathered during personal interviews in the area of challenges that administrators have faced in their careers, and the strategies they have found to be successful in meeting those challenges. This research is a qualitative study, using an inductive approach. Five participants were chosen, based on convenience sampling, with semi-structured interviews that were audio recorded. The theoretical research found that school violence and stafS'school morale were key challenges facing administrators, with a variety of approaches suggested to foster success in meeting those challenges. Some of these approaches included knowledge, team work, an ethic of care, and having a school vision. From the interviews it became clear that the challenges administrators faced included those posed by students, including disciplinary issues, those posed by adults and those posed by government changes in education. In regards to strategies for success, the interviews revealed three key concepts that were emphasized as vital. These were the assets of craft knowledge (experience), collegiality, and the use of other professional resources and educators.
    • Changes in education and student-centred learning as related to senior secondary school English

      Gounden, Cyril M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      The main purpose of this thesis is to t r ace broadly the educational changes in the past two decades showing a shift of emphasis from a teacher-directed, content-centred philosophy of teaching to a self-directed, student-centred mode of learning. The major justification for an Independent or an Individualized Learning programme with emphasis on "the response to literature approach" is 2 to produce the independent learner. Comprehensive r eading and t he use of t he ERIC system reveal widespread educational thought and practice related t o Individualization and Independent Study as a really democratic way of learning with freedom, independence and responsibility.
    • Changing roles of nurse educators employed in acute and chronic care settings : the impact of professional and statutory mandates in Ontario at four sites of one hospital corporation /

      Phillips, Lori-Ann.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      The role of the hospital-employed nurse educator is evolving. Factors influencing this change include the introduction of standards for nurse educators by the College of Nurses of Ontario (CNO), a change in the way nurses are educated, the emergence of nursing as a profession, and hospital restructuring as a result of budgetary constraints. Two of these influencing factors: the introduction of the updated Standards of Practice for Registered Nurses and Registered Practical Nurses (1996) and hospital restructuring occurred over the last 7 years at several hospitals in southern Ontario. Current literature as well as the Standards of Practice (1996) were utilized to examine the current roles and responsibilities of nurse educators and subsequently develop a questionnaire to study the impact of these influencing factors on the role of the nurse educator. This questionnaire was piloted and revised before its distribution at 4 hospitals in southern Ontario. Twenty-five of the 41 surveys (61%) distributed were returned for analysis. The data reflected that the Standards of Practice had a positive influence on the role of the nurse educator, while hospital restructuring had a negative impact. In addition, many of the roles and responsibilities identified in the literature were indeed part of the current role of nurse educators, as well as several responsibilities not captured in the literature. The predictions for the future of this role in its current state were not positive given the financial status of the health care system as well as the lack of clarity for the role and the current level ofjob satisfaction among practicing nurse educators. However, a list of recommendations were generated which, if implemented, could add clarity to the role and improve job satisfaction. This could enhance the retention of current nurse educators and the possibility of recruiting competent nurse educators to the role in the future.
    • Charting the territory : how female artist/teachers balance their artistic practice with their institutional responsibilities as teachers /

      Murao, Grace S.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      This r\.~et.lrch examined ho\\' ~ight \\'omen artists \\'ho t~ach at the uni versity and college level, balance thcir artistic practic~ and their institu tional responsibilities as tcachers. This thesis reprt.~ents the culmination of \\'ork for my second graduate degree. For my first degrCt! on th~ grad uat~ level, I concentratoo on d~veloping my artistic practice. This ~Iaster's Degree in Education is no k~ important to m~. In pursuing studies in the field of education I \\'anted to understand my rol~ as both an educator and an artist and in the process I uncovered the interplay of race, class, and gender at \\'ork in th~ classroom. Coming from a \\'orking-class, immigrant background \\'here higher education \vas vie\\'cd as a stepping stone that \"ould enable my siblings and me a greater spectrum of opportunities, I \\'as at last able to understand my o\\'n educational experiences, more clearly. I discovered ho\\' d\.~ply I internalized the racism, sexism and class discrimination, I submitted to in my history as a student. Becoming a\\'are about the social forc\.~ at "'ork \\'ithin my day to day life has provided me \\'ith instruments \\'hich I can usc to examine and respond to these inequities as I confront them in th~ future. This \,'ork exists as a serk'S of responses and further av~nues for investigation on some themes I first began to explor~, albeit very tentati\'~ly, during my first incarnation as a graduate student and so though the h\'o bound volum~s rna-\' one da.v sit si.d~ b\' s id~ on the bookshelf, th~\-' exist in the context of my life as a set of brackets surrounding a series of qUl'Stions about being a \\'Onlan, a teachcr and an artist.
    • Childlessness in a child-centered environment : the experiences of voluntarily childless female teachers /

      Rees, Linda J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      In the literature on voluntary childlessness there is a lack of research on the types of occupations held by women who choose not to mother and how their fertility choice influences their occupational experiences. At the same time, the experience ofwomen with regard to the childfree choice has not been adequately addressed in contemporary feminist literature. In the field of education, much has been written about the association between mothering and teaching. Thus, childfree teachers become particularly interesting since they made seemingly paradoxical choices in that they chose not to bear and rear children yet they chose an occupation in which they are surrounded by and responsible for the daily care of many children. To gain an understanding of the work-related experiences of childfree women, in-depth interviews were conducted with 7 voluntarily childless female elementary school teachers from Southern Ontario. In addition, a focus group interview in which 3 of the 7 childfree teachers participated was conducted. Findings revealed that these women's "choice" to be childless was the result of complex circumstances and multiple motivations. Also, despite their decision to forgo the traditional female role of mother, these women held surprisingly conventional beliefs with regard to family and gender roles. In addition, these childfree women at times identified themselves as mother-like when teaching, yet at other times distanced themselves as teachers from mothers. Finally, results showed that these women experienced both direct and indirect pronatalist pressures outside as well as inside the workplace as a result of their childfree status.
    • Children's Bullying Experiences and Self-Worth Perceptions in a Private School

      Papp, Barbara; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2013-03-05)
      This study explored children's bullying experiences (as bully, victim, and bystander) and their self-worth perceptions in a private school in Ontario, Canada. Forty students from 12 different countries participated in a mixed methodology (both quantitative and qualitative) research design using a self-report questionnaire. Students reported involvement in bullying as a bully, victim, and bystander. The overall results reveal a pattern across the three roles where the degree of bullying observed as a bystander is the highest (57%) followed by the experiences as a victim (29%) and that performed as bully (21%). The bystanders reported direct bullying being witnessed, bullies reported indirect bullying interventions as being used, and victims of bullying reported indirect bullying being the most common type of bullying they experienced. Decreased feeling of self-worth is reported in the qualitative research data in regards to bullying. Boarding students reported issues regarding personal safety, need for social relationships, self-worth, and unacceptability of bullying. Implications for practice for the private school are discussed, focusing on the outcome of this study.
    • A classroom-based investigation of reciprocal teaching at the grade seven level

      Cowan, Anne E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1989-07-09)
      This study assessed the effectiveness of a reciprocal teaching program as a method of teaching reading comprehension, using narrative text material in a t.ypical grade seven classroom. In order to determine the effectiveness of the reciprocal teaching program, this method was compared to two other reading instruction approaches that, unlike rcciprocal teaching, did not include social interaction components. Two intact grade scven classes, and a grade seven teacher, participated in this study. Students were appropriately assigned to three treatment groups by reading achievement level as determined from a norm-referenced test. Training proceeded for a five week intervention period during regularly scheduled English periods. Throughout the program curriculum-based tests were administered. These tests were designed to assess comprehension in two distinct ways; namely, character analysis components as they relate to narrative text, and strategy use components as they contribute to student understanding of narrative and expository text. Pre, post, and maintenance tests were administered to measure overall training effects. Moreover, during intervention, training probes were administered in the last period of each week to evaluate treatment group performance. AU curriculum-based tests were coded and comparisons of pre, post, maintenance tests and training probes were presented in graph form. Results showed that the reciprocal group achieved some improvement in reading comprehension scores in the strategy use component of the tests. No improvements were observed for the character analysis components of the curriculum-based tests and the norm-referenced tests. At pre and post intervention, interviews requiring students to respond to questions that addressed metacomprehension awareness of study strategies were administered. The intelviews were coded and comparisons were made between the two intelVicws. No significant improvements were observed regarding student awareness of ten identified study strategies . This study indicated that reciprocal teaching is a viable approach that can be utilized to help students acquire more effective comprehension strategies. However, the maximum utility of the technique when administered to a population of grade seven students performing at average to above average levels of reading achievement has yet to be determined. In order to explore this issue, the refinement of training materials and curriculum-based measurements need to be explored. As well, this study revealed that reciprocal teaching placed heavier demands on the classroom teacher when compared to other reading instruction methods. This may suggest that innovative and intensive teacher training techniques are required before it is feasible to use this method in the classroom.
    • Co-operative education and the development of self-esteem, an internal locus of control and work habits

      Wettlaufer, Helen E. B.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1989-07-09)
      This study compared approximately 50 grade 12 students studying In th~ co-operative education mode with approximately 50 grade 12 students studying in a traditional English course. Measures of self-esteem, locus of control and work habits were compared before and at the conclusion of one semester's involvement in the different programs. Using Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory, the students who had chosen to study in the co-operative education mode scored significantly higher than the students in the traditional course. At the end of the semester, the co-operative education students' scores remained significantly higher than the English students'. Although the test showed no sjgnifi~ant changes in self-esteem. anecdotal reports indicated that co-operative education students had increased self-esteem over the semester. No significant differences in locus of control were observed between the two groups at any time. Significant differences in work habits were observed. While both groups had the same number of absences and the same marks before taking these courses, students who were involved in co-operative education had significantly fewer absences and significantly higher marks than the students studying in the traditional course. Anecdotal reports also indicated an improv~ment in work habits for students who had been involved in co-operative education. Recommendations of the study are for further research to determine more exactly how self-esteem and work habits develop in co-operative education students. Also. students. parents, teachers. and administrators need to be made aware of the success of this program.
    • Cognitive coaching : a multiple case study /

      Yust, Jennifer.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the application of Cognitive Coaching as a school-based professional development program to improve instructional thought and decision making as well as to enhance staff perceptions, coUegiality and school culture. This topic emerged from personal and professional issues related to the role ofthe reflective practitioner in improving the quality of education, yet cognizant of the fact that little professional development was available to train teachers to become reflective. This case study, positioned within the interpretive sciences, focused on three teachers and how their experiences with cognitive coaching affected their teaching practices. Their knowledge, understanding and use of the four stages of instructional thought (preactive, interactive, reflective and projective) were tested before and at the end of eight coaching cycles, and again after two months to determine whether they had continued to use the reflective process. They were also assessed on whether their attitude towards peer coaching had changed, whether their feelings about teaching had become more positive and whether their professional dialogue had increased. Three methods of data collection were selected to assess growth: interviews, observations and joumaling. Analysis primarily consisted of coding and organizing data according to emerging themes. Although the professed aim of cognitive coaching was to teach the process in order that the teachers would become self-analytical and self-modifying, this study found that the value of the coaching, after trust had been established in both the coach and the process, was in the dialoguing and the time set aside to do it. Once the coaching stopped providing the time to dialogue, to examine one's meanings and beliefs, so did the critical self-reflection. As a result ofthe cognitive coaching experience though, all participants grew in their feelings of efficacy, craftsmanship, flexibility, consciousness and interdependence. The actual and potential significance ofthis study was discussed according to implications for teacher supervision, professional development, school culture, further areas of research and to my personal growth and development.
    • A cognitive schematic paradigm for expository essay writing in secondary schools

      Duffy, Mary Cipolla.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      The methodology outlined in this study for teaching exposit ory writing to advanced (five year phase) grade eleven students is based on the assumption that writing as a problem solving strategy is a high level cognitive skill . In adhering to this assumption, a cognitively based schematic organizer known as a cross-classification chart was tested for its effectiveness a t the planning stage of the writing process . Results were not significant in any of the three components that were evaluated; however , a post- hoc analysis undertaken because of recorded observed data indicated a significant difference in the mean score on the Organization component for the treatment subgroup using the cross- classification organizer . Furthermore, the treatment group's positive response from the attitude survey towards planning writing is encouraging enough that replication and extension of the application of schema theory to wri ting should be pursued in cross-section and longitud i nal studies.
    • Collaboration to Support ESL Instruction

      Vintan, Ana; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Collaboration in English as a Second Language (ESL) education holds potential for consistency and efficiency in pedagogical planning for English Language Learners (ELLs), and supports ELLs’ needs through targeted instructional strategies. This study sought to investigate these processes of collaboration, and was guided by three research questions: (a) How do ESL teachers describe collaboration to provide support for ELLs? (b) What opportunities do ESL teachers have for collaboration, and how are ESL teachers supported in creating a collaborative environment? (c) How do ESL teachers collaborate with in-school teams of educators to use instructional resources (digital and/or non-digital) to promote oral and written language instruction with ELLs? The research adopted a case study approach to explore how ESL teachers collaborate with educational professionals within ESL education. Qualitative data included classroom observations while ESL teachers collaborated with teachers and other educational professionals in the classroom. Semi-structured interviews explored how ESL teachers described collaboration within ESL education, opportunities ESL teachers had for collaboration, how ELS teachers are professionally supported to integrate resources (digital and/or non-digital) within classroom instruction, as well as teachers’ understandings and apprehensions about using technology to support literacy instruction for ELLs. Overall, the findings indicate that ESL teacher participants expressed a desire to collaborate, and took initial steps to facilitate collaboration with educational professionals, but expressed that the current educational climate does not provide sufficient resources for deep-rooted and authentic collaboration. Informal collaboration occurred more frequently than formal or scheduled collaboration.