• Dialogue journal writing: a tool for critical reflection in the adult ESL learner

      Gifford, Pamela J. Barkwell.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      This study attempted to determine whether or not dialogue journal writing encouraged critical reflection in the adult ESL (English as a Second Language) learner. According to research in adult education and anecdotal evidence, the process ofdialogue journal writing can facilitate critical reflection in the adult learner. However, little research has been conducted to examine whether or not journal writing can facilitate critical reflection in the second language learner. As a result, ten low-intermediate level adult ESL students from Brock University's Intensive English Language Programme participated in a dialogue journal writing programme in their writing class. The participants wrote journal entries over a 10-week period, and were interviewed once throughout the process to determine their perceptions ofthe journal writing experience. They also were observed by the researcher throughout the journal writing sessions to establish whether any behaviours or intrusions might affect the participants' writing processes. After the content ofthe journals and the interviews, and the observations made by the researcher were analysed, it was confirmed that, for these participants, dialogue journal writing did not necessarily encourage critical reflection. Moreover, the participants' perceptions ofjournal writing were that it helped them to practise the syntax, vocabulary, and rhetorical patterns ofEnglish; nevertheless, it did not foster critical reflection or thinking.
    • Preadjunct questions as a learning strategy for older adults

      Smith, Barbara A.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      This study investigated the effectiveness of comprehension level preadjunct questions as a learning strategy for older adults in a classroom setting. Fifty-five adults from 55 to 70 years of age were randomly assigned to two groups, the preadjunct question group and a no-question control group. They viewed a video on high blood pressure and completed a recall posttest immediately after viewing the video and again seven days tater. Results demonstrated that there was no significant difference between groups. However, the no-question control group obtained a higher mean score on both the immediate and delayed recall tests than did the preadjunct question group. Nevertheless, significant differences in posttest scores were found related to educational levels and prior knowledge about high blood pressure. Results obtained were explained in terms of resource theory of cognitive aging.
    • The transformation of teachers: an adult learning approach

      Fernandes, Carolann.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      The study focused on the teacher as an adult learner rather than an instructor. A sample of three hundred and three elementary school teachers completed a two-part Likert survey questionnaire. The instrument was developed by the researcher in an attempt to operationalize Mezirow's Theory of Perspective Transformation. The four sub-scales collected information about teachers as they perceived themselves as adult learners and the way they conceptualize critical SelfReflection, Meaning perspectives and New Insights (Mezirow, 1978, 1981, 1989, 1990) within a framework of Mezirow's concept of Transformative Learning. Survey research methodology was used. Frequency distributions, means, and standard deviation were calculated. Reliability analysis and Pearson 'r' correlations established the internal consistency of items It Cross tabulations to describe differences in responses across demographic valuables were computed. The survey results indicated that teachers perceived themselves as self-directed learners. The findings support the need for a better understanding of the teacher as an adult learner so that teacher inservice programs and teacher supervision and evaluation can provide a viable learning alternative to the existing models used in practice.