• The effect of schooling on student self-concept /|nRonald S. Cowley. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont. : s. n.],

      Cowley, Ronald S.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      The following research paper was a study into change in student academic and general self-concept with increase in grade level and age# The majority of literature found by this researcher dealt with self-concept and its relationship to achievement and interactions with others, Review, then, was in these two areas-particularily within the academic setting, but outside of it as well. It wrs hypothesized that there would be a decrease in both academic and general student self-concept with increase in grade level and age. Self-Appraisal inventories, measuring general and academic selfconcept, and Inferential Self-Reports, measuring only academic selfconcept, were the instruments used* Subjects were students, Trade 1 to 13, and ranging in age from 5 to 21„ Although al] Self-Appraisal inventories and all Self-1?eports were very similar, they differed according to three Grade levels: Primary (Grades 1 to 3)> Intermediate (Grades L to 8), and Secondary (Grades 9 to 13) • Students in the Primary division received only their respective Self-Appraisal inventory, while others v/ere administered both inventories designed for their grade level. Scores on the inventories were computed to percents and then mean percents were arrived at for epch grade, each of the three grade levels, each age, and each of three age intervals. In all of these instances Spearman1 s rank order coefficients (!lpff) were calculated and significance, at the *05 level, was determined by referring to a table of critical values for one-tailed tests* Similarily fftff scores were computed, but only for individual grades and ages, and significance was determined at the *0b level* In only one instance, the General Dimension for individual grades, was significance of overall decrease found* Consequently the hypotheses put forth did not gain support* The fltff scores, however, revealed some isolated significant changes for the Academic Dimension, which were generally decreases in mean percents from the last grade of one level to the first grade of the next* For age mean percents, significant changes generally took place at early (5 or 6) and late (20 or 21) ages* A number of reasons for the results were presented and were generally based upon the studentfs encounters, or lack of encounters, with achievement or success* No definite conclusions, relevant to the hypotheses stated^ could be made, although a number of isolated ones were drawn on the basis of significant fltff scores* As well, mention was made of the possible trends or tendencies that were revealed by the results, but that could not, or were not, proven significant by "t's11 or "p's"* Teaching methods stressing improvement in academic, as well as socially related, situations, were recommended and a model teaching approach was presented in Appendix B#
    • Explicit/implicit training of cooperative learning with junior elementary students /

      Mitchell, Susan C.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      This experimental study examined the effects of cooperative learning and expliciUimpliGit instruction on student achievement and attitudes toward working in cooperative groups. Specifically, fourth- and fifth-grade students (n=48) were randomly assigned to two conditions: cooperative learning with explicit instruction and cooperative learning with implicit instruction. All participants were given initial training either explicitly or implicitly in cooperative learning procedures via 10 one-hour sessions. Following the instruction period, all students participated in completing a group project related to a famous artists unit. It was hypothesized that the explicit instruction training would enhance students' scores on the famous artists test and the group projects, as well as improve students' attitudes toward cooperative learning. Although the explicit training group did not achieve significantly higher scores on the famous artists test, significant differences were found in group project results between the explicit and implicit groups. The explicit group also exhibited more favourable and positive attitudes toward cooperative learning. The findings of this study demonstrate that combining cooperative learning with explicit instruction is an effective classroom strategy and a useful practice for presenting and learning new information, as well as working in groups with success.
    • An investigation of adolescent constructs of stress and academic achievement /

      Burgess, Sherri T.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      The present study was a phenomenological investigation of adolescent constructs of stress and academic achievement. The study utilised a modified version of George Kelly's Repertory Grid Technique to provide direct insight into adolescent stress and academic achievement. The premise of the study was that only students who exhibited extreme cases of stress and academic achievement levels would be examined. The investigation identified and examined the adolescents who exhibited these extremes and explored the underlying constructs that defined these differences. It was expected that if adolescents were able to identify the stressors in their lives, how these stressors affect their lives, and how these stressors affect their academic performance, then suggestions could be made to help students to better cope with stress and to improve their academic achievement level. Further, based on the results of the study, the pedagogical implications for classroom research are provided. Phenomenological inquiries, using modified, and less complex versions of the repertory grid, can be conducted pre-, mid-, and postacademic terms, to determine and to monitor the stressors and the academic performance of the students in a classroom. Specific assessments for individual students will help teachers to better exercise their knowledge and understanding of the realm of teaching and learning strategies (e.g., Gardiner's Multiple Intelligences) that exist.