• Changes in education and student-centred learning as related to senior secondary school English

      Gounden, Cyril M.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      The main purpose of this thesis is to t r ace broadly the educational changes in the past two decades showing a shift of emphasis from a teacher-directed, content-centred philosophy of teaching to a self-directed, student-centred mode of learning. The major justification for an Independent or an Individualized Learning programme with emphasis on "the response to literature approach" is 2 to produce the independent learner. Comprehensive r eading and t he use of t he ERIC system reveal widespread educational thought and practice related t o Individualization and Independent Study as a really democratic way of learning with freedom, independence and responsibility.
    • The effect of schooling on student self-concept /|nRonald S. Cowley. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont. : s. n.],

      Cowley, Ronald S.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      The following research paper was a study into change in student academic and general self-concept with increase in grade level and age# The majority of literature found by this researcher dealt with self-concept and its relationship to achievement and interactions with others, Review, then, was in these two areas-particularily within the academic setting, but outside of it as well. It wrs hypothesized that there would be a decrease in both academic and general student self-concept with increase in grade level and age. Self-Appraisal inventories, measuring general and academic selfconcept, and Inferential Self-Reports, measuring only academic selfconcept, were the instruments used* Subjects were students, Trade 1 to 13, and ranging in age from 5 to 21„ Although al] Self-Appraisal inventories and all Self-1?eports were very similar, they differed according to three Grade levels: Primary (Grades 1 to 3)> Intermediate (Grades L to 8), and Secondary (Grades 9 to 13) • Students in the Primary division received only their respective Self-Appraisal inventory, while others v/ere administered both inventories designed for their grade level. Scores on the inventories were computed to percents and then mean percents were arrived at for epch grade, each of the three grade levels, each age, and each of three age intervals. In all of these instances Spearman1 s rank order coefficients (!lpff) were calculated and significance, at the *05 level, was determined by referring to a table of critical values for one-tailed tests* Similarily fftff scores were computed, but only for individual grades and ages, and significance was determined at the *0b level* In only one instance, the General Dimension for individual grades, was significance of overall decrease found* Consequently the hypotheses put forth did not gain support* The fltff scores, however, revealed some isolated significant changes for the Academic Dimension, which were generally decreases in mean percents from the last grade of one level to the first grade of the next* For age mean percents, significant changes generally took place at early (5 or 6) and late (20 or 21) ages* A number of reasons for the results were presented and were generally based upon the studentfs encounters, or lack of encounters, with achievement or success* No definite conclusions, relevant to the hypotheses stated^ could be made, although a number of isolated ones were drawn on the basis of significant fltff scores* As well, mention was made of the possible trends or tendencies that were revealed by the results, but that could not, or were not, proven significant by "t's11 or "p's"* Teaching methods stressing improvement in academic, as well as socially related, situations, were recommended and a model teaching approach was presented in Appendix B#
    • A study of the role of the elementary school principal

      Rivers, Robert Geoffrey.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
    • Concept analysis in social studies

      Callan, Arnold W.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      This project was undertaken because of a need to analyse concepts in social science more specifically and sequence them more carefully in a social science program. Concepts have been identified vaguely on many curriculum documents or left in isolation from each other when they are specifically identified. The project's aim was to identify a method for analysing concepts and sequencing their teaching on some rational basis. Once the method for analysing concepts was identified a questionnaire was designed and administered to a random sample of students at the grade three, five and eight levels. The questionnaire attempted to measure their comprehension of specific social science concepts at several levels which became progressively more complex. The major hypothesis was that there would be a direct correlation between age and achievement on the questionnaire. The raw scores were seriated and correlated with the ages of the students using the rankdifference- squared method. For the majority of areas tested it was found that there was a significant correlation between age and achievement on the questionnaire. Variation in the correlation coefficients generated suggests that comprehension of social science concepts is not simply a function of age but is probably a function of several inter-related factors such as reading ability, skill in Basic Thinking Skills and age. Thirty students completed each test. There were three tests in the questionnaire.
    • The development of a model for the administration of special programs for the gifted and talented with studies into the implications of such programs

      Leroux, Janice Anne.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
    • The relationship between creativity and moral judgment

      McLaren, P. L.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      A sample of 50 male and female subjects ranging in age from 12 to 73 were divided into three groups according to the scale of maturity of moral judgment developed by Lawrence Kohlberg. Subjects were also tested on a measure of creativity developed by Torrance after the formulations of Guilford in order to test the hypothesis that the re^- lationship between creativity and maturity of moral judgment is curvilinear. Researchers have failed to develop any working hypothesis concerning the relationship between creativity and moral judgment or postulate any consistent theoretical framework concerning the possible relationship between these two constructs. The empirical investigation involved a scientific testing of a random selection of elementary subjects9 high school adolescents, and creative adults. Tests included Kohlberg8s Moral dilemmas and Guilford's Product Improvement Task. A trend analysis was conducted to reveal whether or not a curvilinear relationship existed between the independent variable (Moral Maturity Stages) and the de~ pe dent variable (creativity performance under each level). Curvilinear trends were observed in two out of four creativity subscales but were not statistically significant. It was concluded that these contradictory findings were due to the relatively small number of subjects tested, the narrow range or moral judgment scores, and the limited conception of creativity defined by the creativity measure used (The Product Improvement Task). It was suggested that an instrument assessing an identity status would be most useful as well as a creativity measure better suited for a theory of creativity essentially developmental in perspective.
    • Verbal ability, previous practice and load on short-term memory as determiners of differences in a complex learning task: an experimental study

      Gorham, R. G.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      Traditional psychometric theory and practice classify people according to broad ability dimensions but do not examine how these mental processes occur. Hunt and Lansman (1975) proposed a 'distributed memory' model of cognitive processes with emphasis on how to describe individual differences based on the assumption that each individual possesses the same components. It is in the quality of these components ~hat individual differences arise. Carroll (1974) expands Hunt's model to include a production system (after Newell and Simon, 1973) and a response system. He developed a framework of factor analytic (FA) factors for : the purpose of describing how individual differences may arise from them. This scheme is to be used in the analysis of psychometric tes ts . Recent advances in the field of information processing are examined and include. 1) Hunt's development of differences between subjects designated as high or low verbal , 2) Miller's pursuit of the magic number seven, plus or minus two, 3) Ferguson's examination of transfer and abilities and, 4) Brown's discoveries concerning strategy teaching and retardates . In order to examine possible sources of individual differences arising from cognitive tasks, traditional psychometric tests were searched for a suitable perceptual task which could be varied slightly and administered to gauge learning effects produced by controlling independent variables. It also had to be suitable for analysis using Carroll's f ramework . The Coding Task (a symbol substitution test) found i n the Performance Scale of the WISe was chosen. Two experiments were devised to test the following hypotheses. 1) High verbals should be able to complete significantly more items on the Symbol Substitution Task than low verbals (Hunt, Lansman, 1975). 2) Having previous practice on a task, where strategies involved in the task may be identified, increases the amount of output on a similar task (Carroll, 1974). J) There should be a sUbstantial decrease in the amount of output as the load on STM is increased (Miller, 1956) . 4) Repeated measures should produce an increase in output over trials and where individual differences in previously acquired abilities are involved, these should differentiate individuals over trials (Ferguson, 1956). S) Teaching slow learners a rehearsal strategy would improve their learning such that their learning would resemble that of normals on the ,:same task. (Brown, 1974). In the first experiment 60 subjects were d.ivided·into high and low verbal, further divided randomly into a practice group and nonpractice group. Five subjects in each group were assigned randomly to work on a five, seven and nine digit code throughout the experiment. The practice group was given three trials of two minutes each on the practice code (designed to eliminate transfer effects due to symbol similarity) and then three trials of two minutes each on the actual SST task . The nonpractice group was given three trials of two minutes each on the same actual SST task . Results were analyzed using a four-way analysis of variance . In the second experiment 18 slow learners were divided randomly into two groups. one group receiving a planned strategy practioe, the other receiving random practice. Both groups worked on the actual code to be used later in the actual task. Within each group subjects were randomly assigned to work on a five, seven or nine digit code throughout. Both practice and actual tests consisted on three trials of two minutes each. Results were analyzed using a three-way analysis of variance . It was found in t he first experiment that 1) high or low verbal ability by itself did not produce significantly different results. However, when in interaction with the other independent variables, a difference in performance was noted . 2) The previous practice variable was significant over all segments of the experiment. Those who received previo.us practice were able to score significantly higher than those without it. J) Increasing the size of the load on STM severely restricts performance. 4) The effect of repeated trials proved to be beneficial. Generally, gains were made on each successive trial within each group. S) In the second experiment, slow learners who were allowed to practice randomly performed better on the actual task than subjeots who were taught the code by means of a planned strategy. Upon analysis using the Carroll scheme, individual differences were noted in the ability to develop strategies of storing, searching and retrieving items from STM, and in adopting necessary rehearsals for retention in STM. While these strategies may benef it some it was found that for others they may be harmful . Temporal aspects and perceptual speed were also found to be sources of variance within individuals . Generally it was found that the largest single factor i nfluencing learning on this task was the repeated measures . What e~ables gains to be made, varies with individuals . There are environmental factors, specific abilities, strategy development, previous learning, amount of load on STM , perceptual and temporal parameters which influence learning and these have serious implications for educational programs .
    • A speculative systems model of the dynamic interaction among students, faculty and administration in the community college, with particular reference to intrinsic motivation and the teacher-administrator interface

      Tremblay, R. Brent.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      The challenge the community college faces in helping meet the needs of the living open system of society is examined in this study. It is postulated that internalization student outcomes are required by society to reduce entropy and remain self-renewing. Such behavior is characterized as having an intrinsically motivated energy source and displays the seeking and conquering of challenge, the development of reflective knowledge and skill, full use of all capabilities, internal control, growth orientation, high self-esteem, relativistic thinking and competence. The development of a conceptual systems model that suggests how transactions among students, faculty and administration might occur to best meet the needs of internalization outcomes in students, and intrinsic motivation in faculty is a major purpose of this study. It is a speculative model that is based on a synthesis of a wide variety of variables. Empirical evidence, theoretical considerations, and speculative ideas are gathered together from researchers and theoretici.ans who are working on separate answers to questions of intrinsic motivation, internal control and environments that encourage their development. The model considers the effect administrators·have on faculty anq the corresponding effect faculty may have on students. The major concentration is on the administrator--teacher interface.For administrators the model may serve as a guide in planning effective transactions, and establishing system goals. The teacher is offered a means to coordinate actions toward a specific overall objective, and the administrator, teacher and researcher are invited to use the model to experiment, innovate, verify the assumptions on which the model is based, and raise additional hypotheses. Goals and history of the community colleges in Ontario are examined against current problems, previous progress and open system thinking. The nature of the person as a five part system is explored with emphasis on intrinsic motivation. The nature, operation, conceptualization, and value of this internal energy source is reviewed in detail. The current state of society, education and management theory are considered and the value of intrinsically motivating teaching tasks together with "system four" leadership style are featured. Evidence is reviewed that suggests intrinsically motivated faculty are needed, and "system four" leadership style is the kind of interaction-influence system needed to nurture intrinsic motivation in faculty.
    • The physical environment and organizational behavior

      Pecyna, Henrietta.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Research into organizational behaviour has indicated that there is an inevitable conflict between the needs of the individual and organizational demands. Psychologists have given insights into basic individual needs and contend that satisfaction of these needs constitutes a motivating force which enhances desired behavioural patterns. Behaviouralists have suggested that a basic and pervasive individual need is the culturally determined need for privacy. Anthropologists and environmental psychologists have shown that man's spatial behaviour is observable and predictable and that changes in the physical environment or the way it is perceived are accompanied by concommitant changes in behaviour. Research findings from each of the disciplines have been reviewed in an attempt to show that the physical environment is a significant factor in satisfying the needs of the individual organizational member, hence, a significant influence on organizational behaviour. A model has been generated to show the relationship between the physical setting and behaviour and to underscore the importance of making provisions within the physical setting for the attainment of a culturally determined optimal level of privacy. The physical setting, by providing for this need, becomes a significant factor in reducing the conflict between the individual and the organization and makes for acceptable role behaviour and the fulfilment of organizational goals.
    • A comparison of life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and happiness using demographic variables

      Barrett, Ian C.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      This study examined the interrelationships among life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and happiness and the selected demographic variables of income, age, marital status, education, sex, job tenure, job title, type of school, and location of employment. Survey data were collected from 1,993 elementary, high school, and community college teachers in the southern Ontario area, representing ten public school boards, three Roman Catholic school boards and three community colleges. Several theories were utilized in developing thirteen hypotheses and eleven experimental hypotheses. A thorough review of the literature (to January, 1980) was undertaken and major conclusions noted. Hoppock's (1935) Job Satisfaction Measure, Gurin, Veroff, and Feld's (1960) Happiness Scale, and Converse and Robinson's (1965) Life Satisfaction Scale were used as the instrument. Chi-square analysis was employed as the statistical method. Indicative of the findings: the level of education taught was significantly related to all three organizational variables, sex was unrelated to life satisfaction though positively related to job satisfaction, and income was found not to be related to either happiness or life satisfaction. A minority of findings were contrary to hypothesized relationships. Specifically, age was found to be unrelated to any of the three organizational variables, and educational achievement was not significantly related to happiness. A model was developed to illustrate the interrelationships of the organizational and demographic variables. This model was designed specifically to reflect teacher attitudes, though it may have reasonable application for other relatively homogeneous groups of employees such as nurses, engineers, or social workers.
    • A contingency model of job satisfaction

      DeRose, Marlene V. Watt.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      The present research study was designed to test a contingency model of job satisfaction based on participation in decision making as the antecedent variable and job involvement as the intervening variable. The instruments used to measure the variables were the participation in decision making scale developed by Siegel and Ruh (1973), the job involvement scale by Lodahl and Kejner (1965) and the job satisfaction construct derived from Hoppock (1935). The findings indicate that statistically significant correlations do exist for the 1995 educators surveyed in this study. Educators who reported high levels of participation in decision making consistently reported high levels of job involvement (p!: 0.001). Also, teachers reporting high levels of job involvement consistently scored high on their levels of job satis faction (p!: 0.001). All major hypotheses were sUPFOrted by the data. Through exploratory hypotheses, the study attempted to develop statements of relationships between criteria of job satisfaction and sex and marital status of employees in the system. The hypotheses received only minimal support, but the results did highlight the impracticability of attempting to develop any such relationships without using definite personality and situational variables as moderators. Differences between male and female socialization, sex discrimination and multiplicity of roles are briefly discussed as possible explanations for the reported findings.
    • An educator's perspective of Dr. Feingold's K-P (Kaiser- Permanents) elimination diet for hyperkinetic children and others

      Campbell, Joannes.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      Do evaluation of the literature and a regional observational report support Dr. Feingold's claim that the K-P (Kaiser-Permanente) elimination diet improves the behaviours of hyperkinetic children, and others? Dr. Feingold suggests that some hyperkinetic children, and other children as well, are genetically predisposed to intolerance of food additives, particularly food colours and flavours. He claims that the K-P diet, that eliminates salicylates and artificial food colours and flavours, improves the hyperkinetic child's behaviour, muscle co-ordination, and scholastic performance. Public acceptance of the K-P diet has outstripped acceptance in the medical and scientific communities. Evaluation of available data and additional studies are needed to arrive at a conclusion of acceptance or rejection of the K-P diet for hyperkinetic children and others. My interest in the K-P elimination diet for hyperkinetic children is educational. My experience as an elementary school teacher in special education and in the classroom from K-8 has taught me that attentiveness is crucial to learning. Hyperkinesis appears to impair a child's ability to attend. Learning problems appear, followed by behavioural and social problems. l If we accept the possibility of a relationship between diet and attentiveness, and attentiveness and school behaviours, then the diet-behaviour link could be of lay importance. For instance, if a diet such as the K-P diet could do what is claimed, substantial benefits could accrue to the child. One could, for example, improve a child's behaviours. One could identify attending disturbances early in the child's education, possibly minimizing, or eliminating future difficulties in school. Finally, the greatest benefit may be the fulfillment of the basic goal of our Ontario schools, that the eh~ld-,lIla1p.evelop happily and competently within our educational framework. 2 This thesis reports evidence from the literature and from a regional observational investigation to determine the possibility of a link between the behaviours of children and Dr. Feingold's K-P elimination diet. The literature research examines (1) Dr. Feingold's concept of H-LD, (2) his K-P elimination diet, and (3) the response from three sectors, medicine, science, and the public. The regional investigation examines the observed behaviours of nine children in Regional Niagara during a nine-month period on the K-P diet.
    • An examination of the effects of locus of control on perceptions of core job dimensions and job satisfaction

      Tieche, Lois E.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      This study examined the moderating effects of locus of control on core job dimensions (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback) and job satisfaction. Survey data were collected from 1995 educators in Southern Ontario. When core job dimensions were perceived to be high, job satisfaction scores were high. The converse relationship was also true; when core job dimensions were perceived to be low, job satisfaction scores were also low. As well, the investigation explored the effect of educators' locus of control of reinforcement on the relationship between core job dimensions and job satisfaction. Internals (N = 483-486) perceived more skill variety, more task identity, more task significance, more autonomy, more feedback and greater job satisfaction than externals (N = 626-629). However, contrary to expectation, the correlations between specific core job dimensions namely autonomy and feedback, were not systematically greater for internals compared to externals. In addition the findings reported here suggest some appropriate directions and strategies for measuring and increasing job satisfaction among teachers.
    • Deviance of syntax in oral languages and oral reading behavior

      Bordan, Ziona S.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      The major hypothesis of this paper is that any deviance in syntax present in oral language will be evident in oral r eading behaviour. Using Lee and Canter's Developmental i 1 Sentence Scoring technique (1971) and Y. Goodman and Burke's Reading Miscue Inventory (1972) linguistic competence was established in t hree male children. ages 10 to 11. patterns of strengths and weaknesses in reading were determined. and the relationships t hat were established, were examined. Results of the study i ndicate that oral language behaviour is closely tied to oral r eading behaviour. This type of approach can be used as a basis for a diagnosis of a reading difficulty and then a prescription for language and reading skills.
    • Project Business: a quasi-experimental study of co- operative interaction between schools and industry

      Schutz, Alice O.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1981-07-09)
      This project is a quasi-experimental study involving eight classrooms in two senior elementary schools in St. Catharines, Ontario which received a Project Business Program and were pre- and post-tested to determine the growth of knowledge acquisition in the area of business concepts. Four classrooms received a Project Business treatment while four classrooms acted as a control. The Project Business Program is sponsored by Junior Achievement of Canada; it occurred during a twelveweek period, February to May 1981, and is run by business consultants who, through Action, Dialogue and Career Exploration, teach children about economics and business related topics. The consultants were matched with teacher co-ordinators in whose classrooms they taught and with whom they discussed field trips, students, lesson planning, etc. The statistical analysis of pre- and post-test means revealed a significant statistical growth in the area of knowledge acquisition on the part of those students who received the Project Business Program. This confirms that Project Business makes a difference. A search of the literature appears to advocate economic programs like Project Business, whfch are broadly based, relevant and processoriented. This program recommends itself as a model for other areas of co-operative curricular interactions and as a bridge to future trends and as a result several fruitful areas of research are suggested.
    • Thinking skills in the language arts : an application of cognitive schema theory to the narrative writing process /

      Corby, Marjorie Sessions.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1983-06-01)
      A cognitively based instructional program for narrative writing was developed. The effects of using cognitively based schematic planning organizers at the pre-writing stage were evaluated using subjects from the Primary, Junior and Intermediate divisions. Results indicate that the use of organizers based on problem solving significantly improved the organization and the overall quality of narrative writing for students in grades 3, 6 and 7. The magnitude of the improvement of the treatment group over the control group performance in Organization ranged from 10.7% to 22.9%. Statistical and observational data indicate many implications for further research into the cognitive basis for writing and reading; for the improvement and evaluation of school writing programs; for the design of school curricula; and for the inservice education for teachers of writing.
    • A method of evaluating psychomotor tooth preparation skills in preclinical dental programs

      Osadetz, Carl.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1983-07-09)
      Preclinical and clinical tooth important and significant aspect of preparation is an a dental student's education. The associated procedures rely heavily on the development of particular psychomotor skills. The most common format of instruction and evaluation in tooth preparation at many Dental Faculties, emphasizes the product (tooth preparation) and associates performance with characteristics of this product. This integrated study examines which skills should be developed and how a course of instruction can best be structured to develop the necessary skills. The skills which are identified are those necessary for tooth preparation are selected from a psychomotor taxonomy. The purpose of evaluating these skills is identified. Behavioral objectives are set for student performance and the advisability of establishing standards of performance is examined. After reviewing studies related to learning strategy for dental psychomotor the most suitable tasks as well as articles on instructor effectiveness a model is proposed. A pilot project at the University of Toronto, based on this proposed model is described. The paper concludes wi th a discussion of the implications of this proposed model.
    • Anxiety and learning / response behaviour in the context of intellectual problem solving by young children

      Howarth, Leslie Douglas.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1983-07-09)
      Twenty-eight grade four students were ca.tegorized as either high or low anxious subjects as per Gillis' Child Anxiety Scale (a self-report general measure). In determining impulsivity in their response tendencies, via Kagan's Ma.tching Familiar Figures Test, a significant difference between the two groups was not found to exist. Training procedures (verbal labelling plus rehearsal strategies) were introduced in modification of their learning behaviour on a visual sequential memory task. Significantly more reflective memory recall behaviour was noted by both groups as a result. Furthermore, transfer of the reflective quality of this learning strategy produced significantly less impulsive response behaviour for high and low anxious subjects with respect to response latency and for low anxious subjects with respect to response accuracy.
    • What Motivates Registered Nurses to Participate in Continuing Education Activities

      Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1983-07-09)
      Abstract The study was undertaken to identify what motivates registered nurses to participate in continuing education activities. The primary questions were whether basic nursing education, employment status, clinical area, and position, as well as readiness for selfdirected learning influenced Canadian nurses' motivational orientations when deciding to participate in continuing education activities. Other individual differences (e.g., age) were also examined. The sample included 142 registered nurses employed at an urban community hospital. Three instruments were used for data collection: the Education Participation Scale, the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale, and a nursing survey consisting of demographic questions. Basic nursing education and employment status did not effect motivational orientation or self-directed learning readiness. Clinical area and level of position significantly influenced nurses' decisions to participate in continuing education activities. Motivational orientation had a significant relationship with selfdirected learning readiness. Implications for practice as a result of this study involves program planning and delivery. The identification of the motivational orientations of participants may assist in the development and delivery of continuing education programs that are beneficial, relevant, and address the identified learning needs of participants. Implications for future research also exist in relation to studying different groups of nurses, for example, registered nursing assistants, and investigating related issues, for example, what are the deterrents to participation in continuing education?
    • A cognitive schematic paradigm for expository essay writing in secondary schools

      Duffy, Mary Cipolla.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      The methodology outlined in this study for teaching exposit ory writing to advanced (five year phase) grade eleven students is based on the assumption that writing as a problem solving strategy is a high level cognitive skill . In adhering to this assumption, a cognitively based schematic organizer known as a cross-classification chart was tested for its effectiveness a t the planning stage of the writing process . Results were not significant in any of the three components that were evaluated; however , a post- hoc analysis undertaken because of recorded observed data indicated a significant difference in the mean score on the Organization component for the treatment subgroup using the cross- classification organizer . Furthermore, the treatment group's positive response from the attitude survey towards planning writing is encouraging enough that replication and extension of the application of schema theory to wri ting should be pursued in cross-section and longitud i nal studies.