• Emergence of conscious awareness of underlying verbal and visual rules over time in moderate closed-head trauma patients

      Loganathan, Suguna; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (2012-12-14)
      The present research was undertaken to investigate the emergence of conscious awareness of underlying verbal and visual rules over time in survivors of moderate, closed-head trauma. A total of 25 adult patients participated in the study and they were measured on implicit and explicit knowledge acquisition of phonics (verbal) and visual rules. The phonics rules governed the pronunciation of 2 types of pseudowords, while the visual rules governed the classification of2 types of pseudoanimals. Participants were given the opportunity to implicitly acquire knowledge about the phonics and visual rules. After completing the implicit acquisition phase, participants were administered a test of implicit knowledge. They were implicitly asked to verbalize the knowledge acquired during the initial phase. Thereafter, a role reversal teaching phase was introduced to measure explicit knowledge of the verbal and visual rules over 10 trials. Then participants were given a posHest of implicit knowledge. This test was a measure of the effectiveness of the role reversal phase to increase explicit awareness of the verbal and visual rules. Subsequently. participants were given the opportunity to explicitly acquire knowledge of a different set of verbal and visual rules. The results indicated that moderate closed-head injured patients: (a) did not require greater trials to reach criterion for the implicit verbal rule learning condition compared to the explicit verbal rule learning condition; (b) required greater tlials to reach criterion for the implicit visual rule learning condition compared to the explicit visual rule learning condition; (c) made more errors to reach criterion in the implicit verbal task compared to the explicit verbal task; (d) made more errors to reach criterion in the implicit visual task compared to the explicit visual task; (e) performances in the implicit acquisition and testing phases of the verbal categorization task were significantly related: (f) were not able to fully repOli more of the rules over trials in the role reversal teaching phase of the implicit verbal condition; (g) seemed to acquire explicit knowledge about the visual rules govel11ing the pseudoanimals over time in the role reversal teaching phase; (h) performed better on the posttest of implicit knowledge for verbal rules compared to the pretest of implicit knowledge for the same rules: (i) conscious awareness of visual rules govel11ing the pseudoanimals did not significantly increase after the exposure to the role reversal teaching phase; (j) explicit test scores of verbal rule learning were significantly higher than thcir scores of verbal rule leal11ing from the implicit testing phase; and (k) explicit test scores of visual rule learning were significantly lower than their implicit visual test scores. The findings of this research provide valuable information worthy of future research pursuits. Offers of suggestions for prospective research are included and discussed.
    • Unveiling Shi’i Religious Identities: Case Studies of Hijab in Culturally Homogeneous Canadian Schools

      Al-Fartousi, May; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-01-24)
      This qualitative case study explored 10 young female Shi’i Muslim Arabic-Canadian students’ experiences associated with wearing the Hijab (headscarf) within their home, community, and predominantly White Canadian public elementary school environments. The study integrated several bodies of scholarly theories in order to examine the data under a set of comprehensive lenses that more fully articulates and theorizes on the diversity of female Shi’i Muslim Canadian students’ experiences. These theories are: identity theories with a focus on religious identity and negative stereotypes associated with Muslims; feminism and the Hijab discourses; research pertaining to Muslims in school settings; and critical race theory. In order to readdress the dearth of information about Shi’is’ experiences in schools, this study provides an in-depth case study analysis in which the methodology strategies included 10 semi-structured in-depth interviews, 2 focus-group meetings, and the incorporation of the researcher’s fieldnotes. Data analysis revealed the following themes corresponding to participants’ experiences and values in their social worlds of home, community, and schools: (a) martyrdom and self-sacrifice as a means for social justice; (b) transformational meaning of the Hijab; (c) intersectionality between culture, religion, and gender; and (d) effects of visits “back home” on participants’ religious identities. Additional themes related to participants’ school experiences included: (a) “us versus them” mentality; (b) religious and complex secular dialogues; (c) absence of Muslim representations in monocultural schools; (d) discrimination; (e) remaining silent versus speaking out; and (f) participants’ strategies for preserving their identities. Recommendations are made to integrate Shi’i Muslim females’ identity within the context of Islam and the West, most notably in relation to: (a) the role of Muslim community in nondiverse settings as a space that advances and nurtures Shi’i Muslim identity; and (b) holistic and culturally responsive teaching that fosters respect of others’ religiosity and spirituality. This study makes new inroads into feminist theorizing by drawing conceptual links between these previously unknown connections such as the impact of the historical female exemplary role model and the ritual stories on the experiences of Muslim females wearing the Hijab.
    • Riffing on a Theme: Faculty Experiences With Service-Learning in a Food Security Research Network in Ontario

      Harrison, Barbara; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-04-10)
      While service-learning is often said to be beneficial for all those involved—students, community members, higher education institutions, and faculty members—there are relatively few studies of the attraction to, and effect of, service-learning on faculty members. Existing studies have tended to use a survey design, and to be based in the United States. There is a lack of information on faculty experiences with service-learning in Ontario or Canada. This qualitative case study of faculty experiences with service-learning was framed through an Appreciative Inquiry social constructionist approach. The data were drawn from interviews with 18 faculty members who belong to a Food Security Research Network (FSRN) at a university in northern Ontario, reports submitted by the network, and personal observation of a selection of network-related events. This dissertation study revealed how involvement with service-learning created opportunities for faculty learning and growth. The focus on food security and a commitment to the sustainability of local food production was found to be an ongoing attraction to service-learning and a means to engage in and integrate research and teaching on matters of personal and professional importance to these faculty members. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of the FSRN’s model and the perceived value of a themed, transdisciplinary approach to service-learning. This study highlights promising practices for involving faculty in service-learning and, in keeping with an Appreciative Inquiry approach, depicts a view of faculty work at its best.
    • The Essence of Feeling a Sense of Community: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Inquiry With Middle School Students and Teachers

      Cassidy, Kate J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-04-10)
      In contemporary times, there is a compelling need to understand the nature of positive community relationships that value diverse others. This dissertation is a hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry into the essence of what it means to feel a sense of community. Specifically, I explored this phenomenon from the perspective of middle school teachers and students through the following questions: What meanings do students and teachers ascribe to feeling, experiencing, and developing a sense of community in their classes? To what extent do students’ and teachers’ ideas about feeling a sense of community include the acceptance of individual differences? Together these questions contributed to the overarching question, what is the essence of feeling a sense of community? As the data pool for the research, I used 192 essays and 218 posters from students who had been asked to write or draw about their visions of a positive classroom community where they felt a sense of community. I conducted 9 teacher interviews on the topic as well. My findings revealed one overarching ontology, Being-in-Relation, which outlined a full integration between individuality and community as a “way of being.” I also found five attributes that are present when individuals feel a sense of community: Supporting Others, Dialogue, An Ethic of Respect and Care, Safety, and Healthy Conflict. Contributions from this research include extensions to the literature about community; clarity for those who wish to establish a strong foundation of community relationships within formal and non-formal educational programs; insight that may assist educators, leaders, and policy makers within formal educational systems; and an opportunity to consider the extent to which the findings may point toward broader implications.
    • Inviting Leadership From a Belfast Bedroom: Invitational Leadership in Contemporary Schools

      Browne, Brendan Byrne; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-05-06)
      Educational leadership is challenging, complex, and vitally important to student success. Despite the publication of theories, books, and research on school leadership, a perception of a chasm between theory and practice exists. However, the intentional consideration and implementation of theory can make an enormous impact on practice. This is revealed in this dissertation through the exploration of invitational leadership theory through an autoethnographic study of my leadership journey, as well as the intentionally inviting leadership of Billy Tate, a veteran school principal in Belfast, Northern Ireland. This dissertation uses an amalgamated methodology of interview and observational research embedded within an autoethnography to intimately explore invitational theory in practice through the lens of a new school principal in Southern Ontario and a veteran principal in Belfast. This study provides an intimate understanding of the impact and applicability of invitational educational leadership theory in two unique educational, political, and social contexts and draws conclusions from the consideration of and reflection upon my leadership and Billy Tate’s. This dissertation reveals invitational leadership as a theory of practice that has significantly influenced two very different school leaders and posits that invitational theory is a theory of practice worthy of consideration by educational leaders from around the world.
    • Part Time University Teaching in Ontario: A Self-Study

      Cope Watson, Georgann; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-09-06)
      This qualitative self-study explored the disappointment I felt as a part-time university teacher in a mid-sized, primarily undergraduate Ontario university, where I experienced difficulty integrating my beliefs about teaching into my practice of teaching. The purpose of this qualitative study was to inquire into why it was difficult for me, representative of a part-time university teacher in a mid-sized, primarily undergraduate university, to enact the critical pedagogical practices I espoused in my teaching philosophy. The secondary purpose was to apply the findings of the study to reframe my university teaching practice in a way that met my need to enact my beliefs about university teaching while complying with the broader geo-political conditions of part-time university teaching in Ontario (Loughran, 2006; Russell & Loughran, 2007). This study is grounded in the sociological theoretical framework of critical pedagogy (Freire, 1970; Giroux, 1988, 2010; McLaren, 2003) and the methodological framework of The Self-Study of Teacher Education Practices (S-STEP). This study combined the methods of Brookfield’s (1995; 2002) critically reflective practice and Cole and Knowles (2000) practice of reflexive inquiry with Creswell’s (2005) methods of thematic analysis to answer the research question: Why is it difficult for me to enact my beliefs about university teaching as a part-time teacher in an Ontario university? Findings suggest the geo-political contexts of part-time university teaching work can impact a teacher’s ability to enact his/her beliefs about teaching within his/her practice of teaching.
    • Ojibwe Elders' Experiences of Peace: To Teach Our Well-Being With the Earth

      Lafleur, Gail Sarah; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2013-11-15)
      This research focuses on exploring the Anishinaabek/Ojibwe worldview founded upon the spiritual relationship with Mother Earth as the Anishinaabek view of peace to teach our well-being with earth. This research explores the experiences of four 21st century traditional Anishinaabek elders through describing their ways of knowing and of being as it relates to the Anishinaabek worldview of respect and peace with nature. This respect for Mother Earth and respecting earth’s way−akii-bimaadizi is articulated and shared regarding elders’ experiences of teaching our well-being with earth−Akinomaage mino akii-ayaa and is based upon Anishinaabek spirituality. This research details the Anishinaabek worldview from the elders’ shared experiences of earth as teacher and elder. Ten themes emerged from the data. These themes included (a) going back to our original gifts and instructions/building your sacred bundle/sharing your sacred bundle, (b) wisdom−nbwaakaawin: connecting the dots/original instructions/medicine−mshkiki/environmental consciousness, (c) sacred teachings/learning from the elders, (d) relationships/honoring elders/eldership, (e) political experiences and awareness, (f) a way of being in Anishinaabek research, (g) survival, (h) peace is our worldview demonstrated, (i) be aware of colonialistic thinking, (j) Akinomaage: earth as context. The researcher also shares her reflections as a researcher and as an Anishinaabekwe: Ojibwe woman.
    • Teachers Without Borders: Exploring Experiences, Transitions, and Identities of Refugee Women Teachers from Yugoslavia

      Ratkovic, Snezana; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-03-20)
      Prior to September 11 2011, Canada was recognized as a leading advocate of international refugee protection and the third largest settlement country in the world. University educated refugees were admitted to the country in part on the basis of their education, but once in Canada their credentials were often ignored. The purpose of this study was to explore, through a transnational feminist lens, immigrant and settlement experiences of refugee female teachers from Yugoslavia who immigrated to Canada during and after the Yugoslav wars; to document the ways in which socially constructed categories such as gender, race, and refugee status have influenced their post-exile experiences and identities; and to identify the government's role in creating conditions where the women were either able or unable to continue in their profession. In this study, I employed both a transnational feminist methodology and narrative inquiry. The analysis process included an emphasis on the storying stories model, poetic transcription, and concentric storying. The women’s voices are represented in various forms throughout the document including individual and collective narratives. Each narrative contributed to a detailed picture of immigration and settlement processes as women spoke of continuing their education, knowing or learning the official language, and contributing to Canadian society and the economy. The findings challenge the image of a victimized and submissive refugee woman, and bring to the centre of discourse the image of the refugee woman as a skilled professional who often remains un- or underemployed in her new country. The dissertation makes an important contribution to an underdeveloped area in the research literature, and has the potential to inform immigration, settlement, and teacher education policies and practices in Canada and elsewhere.
    • Metaphorical Interpretation: Measuring and Facilitating Growth.

      Kennerly, Catharine Ann; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-07-14)
      Abstract A total of 378 grade 9 students participated in this study to address the problem that although metaphorical literacy and thought are expected and necessary for success in junior and senior high school and beyond, metaphorical concepts and thought are not required to be explicitly taught to these students. The students were from 20 different classes from 4 levels: English language learners (ELL), school to work (SSTW), applied, and academic. All were from 7 secondary schools within a board in southern Ontario. Nine classes made up the control group and 11 classes made up the treatment group. All classes were given 3 pretests and the posttest. The treatment group was given Socratic lessons and direct instruction on metaphorical thought and expressions during 1 semester and in conjunction with their other classroom material. The pretest scores (TOLD, Peabody, preproverbs concrete, and preproverbs abstract) did not reveal any effect of gender, but the academic students had higher scores than the applied students. The SSTW student results are more variable: (a) for the TOLD test, SSTW scores were between those of the academic and applied students; (b) for Peabody scores, SSTW students’ scores are the same as academic and are greater than applied; (c) for preproverbs concrete and preproverbs abstract, the SSTW scores are not different from the applied scores. The postproverbs concrete and postproverbs abstract scores for the treatment groups also showed no effect of gender but revealed that all students who received the treatment did better on their post scores. The positive changes of the treatment group illustrate a measured movement from literal understanding to abstract understanding using direct Socratic instruction and proverbs as a medium.
    • Mobile Books: Effect of Engagement on Students’ Motivation and Cognitive Strategy Use

      Ciampa, Katia; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-09-02)
      This mixed methods research explores the role of reading engagement in 30 grade 1 students’ motivation to read mobile electronic storybooks (eBooks) and cognitive strategies used during eBook reading. Data collection comprised motivation and parent questionnaires, behavioural observation checklists, cognitive strategies rubric, and teacher interviews. Students’ emotional engagement with and enjoyment of mobile eBooks corresponded to 4 motivational aspects of intrinsic motivation: curiosity, control, choice, and challenge. Post-intervention results indicated that most student participants enjoyed answering eBook comprehension questions and preferred eBooks to print books; by the end of the study, all had access to a mobile device at home. A majority of participants were actively engaged during mobile eBook reading sessions and persisted in answering embedded eBook comprehension questions, which together reflected students’ behavioural engagement and time-on-task during mobile reading. Students’ off-task behaviours related to iPads’ accessibility features and inherent reader-friendliness. All participants successfully answered evaluative questions requiring them to activate prior knowledge, and experienced higher levels of difficulty with making personal connections. The study highlights the importance of making school-based literacy practices relevant to students’ outside worlds, and discusses implications for teacher educators, administrators, curriculum developers, and eBook and other digital developers concerning the need for greater collaboration in order to more closely align technology resources with national curriculum expectations.
    • Raising Creativity: Exploring How Creativity Can be Nurtured in Educational Contexts

      Zak, Rebecca; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-09-09)
      The question of how we can encourage creative capacities in young people has never been more relevant than it is today (Pink, 2006; Robinson as cited in TEDtalksDirector, 2007; Eisner as cited in VanderbiltUniversity, 2009). While the world is rapidly evolving, education has the great challenge of adapting to keep up. Scholars say that to meet the needs of 21st century learners, pedagogy must focus on fostering creative skills to enable students to manage in a future we cannot yet envision (Robinson as cited in TEDtalksDirector, 2007). Further, research demonstrates that creativity thrives with autonomy, support, and without judgment (Amabile, 1996; Codack [Zak], 2010; Harrington, Block, & Block, 1987; Holt, 1989; Kohn, 1993). So how well are schools doing in this regard? How do alternative models of education nurture or neglect creativity, and how can this inform teaching practice all around? In other words, ultimately, how can we nurture creativity in education? This documentary explores these questions from a scholarly art-based perspective. Artist/researcher/teacher Rebecca Zak builds on her experience in the art studio, academia, and the art classroom to investigate the various philosophies and strategies that diverse educational models implement to illuminate the possibilities for educational and paradigmatic transformation. The Raising Creativity documentary project consists of multiple parts across multiple platforms. There are five videos in the series that answer the why, who, how, what, and now what about creativity in education respectively (i.e., why is this topic important, who has spoken/written on this topic already, how will this issue be investigated this time, what was observed during the inquiry, and now what will this mean going forward?). There is also a self-reflexive blog that addresses certain aspects of the topic in greater depth (located here, on this website) and in the context of Rebecca's lived experience to complement the video format. Together, all video and blog artifacts housed on this website function as a polyptych, wherein the pieces can stand alone individually yet are intended to work together and fulfill the dissertation requirements for Rebecca's doctorate degree in education in reimagined ways.
    • A Mixed-Method Study of Educator Knowledge and Practice Related to Student Socio-moral Development

      Rizzo, Kelly Joelle; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-09-22)
      The purpose of this study was to explore elementary educators’ knowledge of moral development, how this knowledge relates to their beliefs and sense of efficacy pertaining to character education practices and the socio-moral reasoning of their students. It was hypothesized that educators’ beliefs and practices related to character education would reflect their pedagogy rather than knowledge of moral development theory. It was further hypothesized that there would be differences in student socio-moral reasoning specifically the beliefs and desires that guide actions would differ based on grade and gender. This mixed-method study employing self-report questionnaires, open response vignettes, and semi-structured educator interviews yielded quantitative and qualitative data. Findings indicated socio-moral reasoning of students differed according to grade (age) and gender. Knowledge of moral development theory was found to vary among participants however some practices employed by educators did align with a social cognitive approach to moral development. Significant variables identified consistently among educator and student participants included, autonomy, social competence, sense of school community, and supportiveness. These variables, in conjunction with a sense of fairness, have been identified elsewhere as foundational to moral development (Nucci, 2009), and intrinsic motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000) and are relevant to educators working to develop student socio-moral reasoning as an aspect of character.
    • Perceptions of Adolescent Males and Their Parents as to Factors That Influence the Young Men's Academic Performance

      Tierney, Patrick J.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2014-12-10)
      Postsecondary enrolments of young males has been declining since the mid-1980s. The decline can be attributed, at least in part, to boys and young men being unable to compete for a fixed number of available places in institutions of higher learning, whether in community college or university. This inability to compete stems from their academic performance in secondary school. This study interviewed adolescent males and their parents as to their perceptions of a number of factors that may contribute to their academic performance. Those factors included noncognitive skills, dimensions of character, perceptions of teachers, general attitudes towards school, and likes and dislikes on a range of course subjects. One of the most important findings was that only one of the seven adolescent male participants was considering a future career that would require a university degree. Other findings showed the young men's noncognitive skills were weak, particularly in relation to time management skills and their unwillingness to ask for help with schoolwork and homework. Most of the young men expressed a dislike for mathematics beyond high school, a subject key to the study, of the natural sciences, engineering, technology, and business. Recommendations include school reforms both inside the classroom and beyond. Additionally, a framework using project management theory and practice has been proposed to improve noncognitive skills, dimensions of character, and executive function.
    • Relationship Building with Aboriginal Elders in the Publicly Funded Secondary School Classroom: A Study of Ethical Space from an Aboriginal Persepective

      Longboat, Catherine; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2015-01-06)
      This is a current story of ethical space in education that is often neglected in the design of educational experiences for Aboriginal students. This story is told through an Aboriginal lens rooted in the structured Two Row Wampum Belt relational agreement between Aboriginal peoples and Settlers. Through ethnographic narrative based on an extensive literature review, individual in-depth interviews, and a personal journal, this study documents the processes of acceptance, silence, complications, and then rejection to position Aboriginal Elders as inclusive bodies of knowledge in publicly funded secondary school classrooms. Aboriginal Elders are valued as Knowledge Holders, as Aboriginal teachers, guides, and mentors. Yet, the complexities of colonial rights, politics, and policies continue to intrude deeply into the lives of Aboriginal peoples to cause silence, confusion, and struggle rather than an evolution of new knowledge amongst two co-existing solitudes under the original terms of the Two Row Wampum Belt. The study was delayed and then came to an end when the school boards and local schools scrutinized its operating policies and unresolved funding issues. This study demonstrated that despite the Two Row Wampum Belt agreement that promised a co- existent relationship between Aboriginal peoples and Settlers, the strategy of inviting Aboriginal Elders to work alongside teachers in the classroom was viewed as being in conflict with the Settler’s institutional/educational objectivities, and, as such, was denied to Aboriginal students.
    • Conceptions of Quality and Approaches to Quality Assurance in Ontario’s Universities

      Goff, Lori-Ann; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2015-02-13)
      Many international, political, and economic influences led to increased demands for development of new quality assurance systems for universities. Like many policies and processes that aim to assure quality, Ontario’s Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) did not define quality. This study sought to explore conceptions of quality and approaches to quality assurance used within Ontario’s universities. A document analysis of the QAF’s rationale and structure suggested that quality was conceived primarily as fitness for purpose, while suggested indicators represented an exceptional conception of quality. Ontario universities perpetuated such confusion by adopting the framework without customizing it to their institutional conceptions of quality. Drawing upon phenomenographic traditions, a qualitative investigation was conducted to better understand various conceptions of quality held by university administrators and to appreciate ways in which they implemented the QAF. Three main approaches to quality assurance were identified: (a) Defending Quality, characterized by conceptions of quality as exceptional, which focuses on administrative accountability and uses a hands-off strategy to defend traditional notions of quality inputs and resources; (b) Demonstrating Quality, characterized by conceptions of quality as fitness for purpose and value for money, which focuses on accountability to students and uses centralized engaged strategies to demonstrate how programs meet current priorities and intended outcomes; and (c) Enhancing Quality, characterized by conceptions of quality as transformation, which focuses on reflection and learning experience and uses engaged strategies to find new ways of improving learning and teaching. The development of a campus culture that values the institution’s function in student learning and quality teaching would benefit from Enhancing Quality approaches to quality assurance. This would require holistic consideration of the beliefs held by members of the institution, a clear articulation of the institution’s conceptions of quality, and a critical analysis of how these conceptions align with institutional practices and policies.
    • Investigating the Relationships Between Teacher Identity Norms and Collaboration

      Weston, Deborah PA; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      The purpose of this study was to investigate how teacher identity norms relate to teacher collaboration among the practices of elementary teachers in Ontario. Using quantitative research methods, the data indicated two clusters of teacher identity norms. The norm cluster of innovation, interdependence, and cooperation showed positive correlations with collaboration and the norm cluster of conservatism, individualism, and competition showed negative correlations with collaboration. The two clusters of norms also correlated with each other. The data showed that teachers highly valued collaboration as part of their teaching practice but did not always experience it in their school setting. The analysis suggested that if schools reinforce norms of innovation, interdependence, and cooperation, collaboration will be nurtured. Further, the data showed that if norms of conservatism, individualism, and competition are continued in school cultures, then collaboration will not be sustained. As a broad educational reform agenda, teacher collaboration is used (a) to support school cultures, (b) to change teaching practices, and (c) to implement policy-based initiatives. This research is expected to benefit teachers in its capacity to inform policy makers concerning the highly complex nature of teacher collaboration and some of the factors that impact it. With an understanding of the relationships between teacher identity norms and collaboration, it may be possible for policy makers to provide appropriate support structures that reinforce collaboration in teachers' practices as well as predict potential levels of collaboration within school cultures.
    • University Faculty Members’ Understanding of Their Role: Identity, Power, and Silence

      Kumar, Rahul; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This qualitative study was conducted to explore tenured faculty members’ understandings of their roles as professors. Tenure is an institutional means to enact academic freedom, which allows tenured faculty members to investigate topics of their choosing free from external influence. Academic freedom also enables faculty members to be public intellectuals who shape and critique social policies and make knowledge assertions. In effect, the faculty members are institutionally protected to speak truth to power. Purposeful sampling of 9 participants from 2 universities yielded 3 major themes: professorial identity (shaped by such factors as career stage, university culture, and faculty affiliation), professorial power (powers that participants experienced as well as the ways in which they exercised power), and professorial silencing (as a response to fiscal realities coupled with numerous governance issues). While participants were cognizant of the powers that affected their freedoms, they were less aware of the ways in which their position afforded them powers. Subtle but more potent forms of power were at play for tenured professors, but the participants saw themselves as having to work within institutional and financial constraints that limited their freedom to speak out on controversial issues. Faculty members were, thus, silenced and at times chose to self-silence. The context of the present-day university, governance models, and the financial issues affecting universities and departments worked in concert to silence this critical voice in society.
    • Augmented Video Self-Modeling as an Intervention Technique for Young Children with Selective Mutism: An Explanatory Sequential Study

      Bork, Poling Marianne; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      This mixed methods study examined efficacy of augmented video self-modeling (VSM) as an intervention technique for young children with selective mutism (SM). Participants included 3 children aged 8 (including a set of twins) and their parents and classroom teachers. The first, quantitative phase was guided by Kehle, Madaus, Baratta, and Bray (1998), who proposed using augmented VSM as an intervention package comprising a combination of video self-modeling, stimulus fading, and reinforcement behavioural techniques. The second, qualitative phase was to identify participants’ experience and perspective on augmented VSM, and to examine contexts and individual cases of SM and results obtained from the first phase of the study. Parents, teachers, and the researcher conducted a comprehensive assessment of participants’ verbal behaviour across multiple settings and throughout baseline, intervention, post-intervention, and 1-month follow-up. Interviews with open-ended questions elicited perspectives of parents and teachers, while close-ended post-intervention questionnaires with the children revealed individual experience with the intervention. Statistical analyses indicated participants’ verbal communicative behaviour increased significantly during post-intervention, and their progress was maintained at 1-month follow-up. Communication scores increased significantly for all children. All parents and teachers rated the intervention as effective, with one parent further commenting that intervention results exceeded her expectations. A recent meeting with the school board’s Speech Language Pathologist revealed the 3 participants are speaking freely inside the school, and that the twins are indistinguishable from other children 1 year post-study. Limitations of the study and future research implication and direction are discussed.
    • A Case Study of Doctoral Research Assistantships: Access and Experiences of Full-Time and Part-Time Education Students

      Niemczyk, Ewelina; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      Graduate students’ development as researchers is a key objective in higher education. Research assistantships provide distinctive spaces where graduate students can be nurtured and shaped as novice researchers as they develop theoretical and methodological knowledge. However, few scholars have investigated graduate student research assistants’ experiences and the ways these experiences are influenced by institutional regulations, informal practices, and social relations. The purpose of this case-within-a-case study was to explore the research assistantship experiences of full-time and part-time doctoral students in Education at an Ontario university. I present separate subcases for full-time and part-time students, and an overarching case of research assistantships in one program at a specific period of time. The main question was how do institutional regulations, informal practices, and social relations influence full-time and part-time doctoral students’ access to and experiences within research assistantships. My objective was to draw from interviews and documents to acquire a thorough understanding of the organizational characteristics of research assistantships (i.e., structures of access, distribution, and coordination of participation) to explore the ways institutional regulations, informal practices, and social relations promote, prevent, or limit full-time and part-time students’ legitimate peripheral participation in research assistantships. Although I devoted particular attention to the ways students’ full-time and part-time status shaped their decisions, relationships, and experiences, I was conscious that other factors such as gender, age, and cultural background may have also influenced doctoral research assistant experiences.
    • Understanding the Intersection of Reformed Faith and Dutch Immigrant Culture in Ontario Independent Christian Schools: Principals’ Experiences and Perspectives

      Teeuwsen, Philip; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
      In the aftermath of World War II, a wave of Dutch Reformed immigrants arrived in Ontario, many of whom joined the Christian Reformed Church. Following familiar cultural patterns, history, and their Reformed Christian faith, these immigrants settled in Ontario with remarkable institutional completeness (Breton, 1964). They quickly established independent, parent-operated Christian schools across Ontario. The primary purpose of the schools was to educate children through a comprehensive biblically based school program, yet this religious purpose often intersected with a Dutch immigrant ethnic culture. Van Dijk (2001) states that “the schools were the most important organization in maintaining the religious and ethnic identity of Calvinists” (p. 66). In this qualitative study I explore the intersection of Reformed faith and Dutch Canadian immigrant ethnic culture in Christian schools through the experiential and professional lens of eight retired principals. Employing a theoretical framework informed by Berger’s (1967) Sacred Canopy, I suggest that the intersection of faith and culture was experienced in the schools and was embodied by the schools themselves. Findings point to this intersection being located in the participants’ experience of (a) Dutchness, (b) the struggle for Christian education, (c) the ties that bound the school community together, and (d) the cloud of witnesses that founded and continues to support and encourage the Christian school community. The study offers insight into a Dutch Reformed immigrant group’s experience carving out a niche for themselves on the educational landscape in Ontario. This study also offers suggestions on how Christian schools can broaden their canopy and become more ethnically and denominationally diverse in the future.