• Tetrathiafulvalene and 2,2'-Bipyridine: Bridging both Worlds in the Pursuit of Novel Molecular Materials

      Gumbau-Brisa, Roger; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2013-04-04)
      The preparation and characterization of two families of building blocks for molecule-based magnetic and conducting materials are described in three projects. In the first project the synthesis and characterization of three bis-imine ligands LI - L3 is reported. Coordination of LI to a series of metal salts afforded the five novel coordination complexes Sn(L4)C4 (I), [Mn(L4)(u-CI)(CI)(EtOH)h (II), [CU(L4)(u-sal) h(CI04)2 (sal = salicylaldehyde anion) (III), [Fe(Ls)2]CI (IV) and [Fe(LI)h(u-O) (V). All complexes have been structurally and magnetically characterized. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that, upon coordination to Lewis acidic metal salts, the imine bonds of LI are susceptible to nucleophilic attack. As a consequence, the coordination complexes (I) - (IV) contain either the cyclised ligand L4 or hydrolysed ligand Ls. In contrast, the dimeric Fe3+ complex (V) comprises two intact ligand LI molecules. In. this complex, the ligand chelates two Fe(III) centres in a bis-bidentate manner through the lone pairs of a phenoxy oxygen and an imine nitrogen atom. Magnetic studies of complexes (II-V) indicate that the dominant interactions between neighbouring metal centres in all of the complexes are antiferromagnetic. In the second project the synthesis and characterization two families of TTF donors, namely the cyano aryl compounds (VI) - (XI) and the his-aryl TTF derivatives (XII) - (XIV) are reported. The crystal structures of compounds (VI), (VII), (IX) and (XII) exhibit regular stacks comprising of neutral donors. The UV -Vis spectra of compounds (VI) - (XIV) present an leT band, indicative of the transfer of electron density from the TTF donors to the aryl acceptor molecules. Chemical oxidation of donors (VI), (VII), (IX) and (XII) with iodine afforded a series of CT salts that where possible have been characterized by single crystal X -ray diffraction. Structural studies showed that the radical cations in these salts are organized in stacks comprising of dimers of oxidized TTF donors. All four salts behave as semiconductors, displaying room temperature conductivities ranging from 1.852 x 10-7 to 9.620 X 10-3 Scm-I. A second series of CT salts were successfully prepared via the technique of electrocrystallization. Following this methodology, single crystals of two CT salts were obtained. The single crystal X-ray structures of both salts are isostructural, displaying stacks formed by trimers of oxidized donors. Variable temperature conductivity measurements carried out on this series of CT salts reveal they also are semiconductors with conductivities ranging from 2.94 x 10-7 to 1.960 X 10-3 S em-I at room temperature. In the third project the synthesis and characterization of a series of MII(hfac)2 coordination complexes of donor ligand (XII) where M2+ = Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ are reported. These complexes crystallize in a head-to-tail arrangement of TTF donor and bipyridine moieties, placing the metal centres and hfac ligands are located outside the stacks. Magnetic studies of the complexes (XV) - (XVIII) indicate that the bulky hfac ligands prevent neighbouring metal centres from assembling in close proximity, and thus they are magnetically isolated.
    • Triarylamminium radical-cation complexes: design and magnetic properties and Base-catalyzed hydrosilylation: mechanism and substrate scope

      Revunova, Kseniya; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-02-20)
      1. Triarylamminium radical-cation complexes. The detailed study of manganese, copper and nickel metal-radical complexes with triarylamminium ligands was conducted. Stable, neutral and pseudo-octahedral coordination monometallic complexes with simple monodentate 2,2`-bipyridine ligand containing a redox-active N,N`-(4,4`-dimethoxydiphenyl-amino) substituent were synthesized and fully characterized. The one-electron oxidation process and formation of persistent radical-cation complexes was observed by cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical measurements. Evans method measurements were performed with radical-cation complexes generated by chemical one-electron oxidation with NOPF6 in acetonitrile. The experimental results indicate ferromagnetic coupling between metal and triarylamminium cation in manganese (II) complex and antiferromagnetic coupling in nickel (II) complex. This data is supported by DFT calculations which also lend weight to the  spin polarization mechanism as an operative model for magnetic exchange coupling. Neutral bimetallic complexes with a new ditopic ligand were synthesized and fully characterized, including magnetic and electrochemical studies. Chemical oxidation of these precursor complexes did not generate radical-cations, but dicationic complexes, which was confirmed by UV-vis and EPR-experiments, as well as varied temperature magnetic measurements. DFT calculations for radical-cation complexes are included. A synthetic pathway for polytopic ligand with multiple redox-active triarylamine sites was developed. The structure of the ligand is presumably suitable for -spin polarization exchange model and allows for production of polymetallic complexes having high spin ground states. 2. Base-catalyzed hydrosilylation. A simple reductive base-catalyzed hydrosilation of aldehydes and ketones was adapted to the use of the cheap, safe, and non-toxic polymethylhydrosiloxane (PMHS) instead of the common PhSiH3 and (EtO)3SiH, which present significant cost and safety concerns, respectively. The conversion of silane into pentacoordinate silicate species upon addition of a base was studied in details for the cases of phenyl silane and PMHS and is believed to be essential for the hydrosilylation process. We discovered that nucleophiles (a base or fluoride-anion) induced the rearrangement of PMHS and TMDS into light silanes: MeSiH3 and Me2SiH2, respectively. The reductive properties of PMHS under basic conditions can be attributed to the formation of methyl silane and its conversion into a silicate species. A procedure for the generation of methyl silane and its use in further efficient reductions of aldehydes and ketones has been developed. The protocol was extended to the selective reduction of esters and tertiary amides into alcohols and aldimines into amines with good isolated yields and reduction of heterocyclic compounds was attempted.
    • The Use of Ipso-dihydrodiols Enzymatically Derived from Benzoic Acid in Enantioselective Synthesis. Appoaches to Total Synthesis of Vinca Alkaloids

      Adams, David; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-07-18)
      The present studies describe our recent progress in target oriented synthesis of complex organic molecules from aromatic precursors. The latest synthetic approaches toward vinca alkaloids are described and include the construction of model substrates for the investigation into Diels-Alder, radical cascade, and tandem Michael addition reactions as possible routes to the family of alkaloids. Also described are the chemoenzymatic syntheses of the natural product (-)-idesolide and unnatural polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines generated from the biotransformation of benzoic acid with Ralstonia eutropha B9.