• A. Discovery of novel reactivity under the Sonogashira reaction conditions B. Synthesis of functionalized BODIPYs and BODIPY-sugar conjugates

      Yalagala, Ravi Shekar; Department of Chemistry
      A. During our attempts to synthesize substituted enediynes, coupling reactions between terminal alkynes and 1,2-cis-dihaloalkenes under the Sonogashira reaction conditions failed to give the corresponding substituted enediynes. Under these conditions, terminal alkynes underwent self-trimerization or tetramerization. In an alternative approach to access substituted enediynes, treatment of alkynes with trisubstituted (Z)-bromoalkenyl-pinacolboronates under Sonogashira coupling conditions was found to give 1,2,4,6-tetrasubstituted benzenes instead of Sonogashira coupled product. The reaction conditions and substrate scopes for these two new reactions were investigated. B. BODIPY core was functionalized with various functional groups such as nitromethyl, nitro, hydroxymethyl, carboxaldehyde by treating 4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-2,6-diethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene with copper (II) nitrate trihydrate under different conditions. Further, BODIPY derivatives with alkyne and azido functional groups were synthesized and conjugated to various glycosides by the Click reaction under the microwave conditions. One of the BODIPY–glycan conjugate was found to form liposome upon rehydration. The photochemical properties of BODIPY in these liposomes were characterized by fluorescent confocal microscopy.
    • Applications of dihydroarenediols to chemoenzymatic synthesis : approaches to total synthesis of morphine alkaloids

      Finn, Kevin J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2006-05-28)
      The present studies describe, as a primary goal, our recent progess toward the synthesis of morphine alkaloids from aromatic precursors. Model substrates were synthesized which allowed investigation into Diels-Alder, radical cascade, and palladium-catalyzed bond-forming reactions as possible routes to the morphine alkaloid skeleton. As a secondary objective, three separate series of aromatic substrates were subjected to whole-cell oxidation with Escherichia coli JM 109 (pDTG601), a recombinant organism over-expressing the enzyme toluene dioxygenase. Included in this study were bromothioanisoles, dibromobenzenes, and cyclopropylbenzene derivatives. The products of oxidation were characterized by chemical conversion to known intermediates. The synthetic utility of one of these bacterial metabolites, derived from oxidation of o-dibromobenezene, was demonstrated by chemical conversion to (-)conduritol E.
    • Approaches towards C-10-hydroxylated analogues of narciclasine

      Ticli, Vincenzo; Department of Chemistry
      Discussed in this thesis is the synthesis of a C10-benzyloxy unnatural derivative of narciclasine. The described approach involves the use of homochiral cyclohexadiene diols, products of the biocatalytic transformation of aromatic compounds, as precursors to ring C, and of highly oxygenated aromatic molecules to construct ring A. The document also reports a detailed account of the protocols studied for the intramolecular formation of ring B. Experimental data and spectral data are provided for the novel compounds.
    • Bis(dialkylamino)cyclopropeneimine Substituted Proton Sponge Derivatives: Synthesis, Theory, and Application

      Belding, Lee; Department of Chemistry
      The work presented herein describes the synthesis, as well as the experimental and theoretical investigation of hitherto unknown cyclopropenimine containing compounds, mostly within the proton sponge backbone. The properties of these molecules are discussed in the context of other proton sponge derivatives reported in the literature. The superbasicity, catalytic activity, and fluorescent nature of these cyclopropenimine derivatives are also investigated and discussed.
    • Chemoenzymatic Formal Total Syntheses of Tetrodotoxin and an Approach to Daphenylline

      Baidilov, Daler; Department of Chemistry
      This thesis describes chemoenzymatic formal total syntheses of tetrodotoxin and a concise synthetic approach to daphenylline. Advanced intermediates for the syntheses of tetrodotoxin reported by the groups of Fukuyama, Alonso, and Sato were prepared. Key steps included toluene dioxygenase-mediated dihydroxylation of either iodobenzene or benzyl acetate and a [4+2] hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition/Kornblum–DeLaMare rearrangement sequence to construct a common enone intermediate. The resulting key enone was transformed into Fukuyama's intermediate in four steps, into Alonso's intermediate in six steps, and into Sato's intermediate in seven steps. Fukuyama’s route employed a highly stereoselective allyl cyanate-to-isocyanate rearrangement to install the nitrogen atom at C8a. This protocol was also successfully applied in designing a synthetic avenue to daphenylline. The ABC tricyclic skeleton of daphenylline was successfully constructed in just eight steps starting from readily available (S)-carvone.
    • Chemoenzymatic synthesis of amaryllidaceae alkaloids and their C-1 analogues : symmetry based approach to total synthesis of thebaine

      Collins, Jonathan A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      Described herein is the chemoenzymatic total synthesis of several Amaryllidaceae constituents and their unnatural C-I analogues. A new approach to pancratistatin and related compounds will be discussed along with the completed total synthesis of 7 -deoxypancratistatin and trans-dihydrolycoricidine. Evaluation of all new C-l analogues as cancer cell growth inhibitory agents is described. The enzymatic oxidation of dibromobenzenes by Escherichia coli 1M 109 (pDTG60 1) is presented along with conversion of their metabolites to (-)-conduritol E. Investigation into the steric and functional factors governing the enzymatic dihydroxylation of various benzoates by the same organism is also discussed. The synthetic utility of these metabolites is demonstrated through their conversion to pseudo-sugars, aminocyclitols, and complex bicyclic ring systems. The current work on the total synthesis of some morphine alkaloids is also presented. Highlighted will be the synthesis of several model systems related to the efficient total synthesis of thebaine.
    • Chemoenzymatic Total Synthesis of ent-Oxycodone

      Makarova, Mariia; Department of Chemistry
      This thesis describes the approach towards chemoenzymatic total synthesis of ent-dihydroisocodeine and chemoenzymatic total synthesis of ent-oxycodone as well as the development of a new method for the preparation of rearranged allylic isocyanates. The synthesis of ent-dihydroisocodeine started from phenethyl acetate and included a microbial oxidation of phenethyl acetate by E. coli JM109 (pDTG601A), a Mitsunobu reaction to the couple A- and C-rings, Heck cyclization to construct the E-ring and Henry reaction to introduce the nitrogen functionality as key steps. The construction of the B-ring proved to be challenging and neither radical cyclization nor attempts to perform photochemistry or nucleophilic opening of an epoxide gave any positive results. The chemoenzymatic total synthesis of ent-oxycodone was accomplished starting from phenethyl acetate in 23 steps. The tricyclic intermediate was furnished in the same manner as described above. The olefin to ketone conversion and a double Henry reaction allowed the construction of the B-ring. Unfortunately, it was established that the resulting hydroxyl group at C14 and amino group at C9 were of the undesired trans stereochemistry. To complete the morphine skeleton the transformation of the side chain at C13 to an N-methyl-p-toluenesufonamide via Mitsunobu reaction as well as the elimination of the amino group at C9 via formation of an N-oxide were performed. Subsequent radical cyclization of the side chain at the C9 position formed the last D-ring. The silyl ether deprotection followed by oxidation provided ent-oxycodone. The other approach to construct the D-ring was based on the formation of a lactone and the elimination of the amino group via an N-oxide. The nitrogen functionality was reinstalled using sodium azide and was accompanied by the introduction of the C10 hydroxyl group. Reduction of the azide and subsequent formation of the amide allowed access to the core skeleton of the target compound. The removal of the C10 hydroxyl group accomplished the synthesis. The last project involved the development of a new method for the preparation of rearranged allylic isocyanates from allylic alcohols using 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium as the source of electrophilic cyanide. Experimental and spectral data are provided for all the compounds.
    • Chemoenzymatic Total Synthesis of Morphine alkaloids: Synthesis of Dihydrocodeine and Hydrocodone via a Double Claisen Strategy and ent-Hydromorphone via an Oxidative Dearomatization/intramolecular [4+2] Cycloaddition

      Varghese, Vimal; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2015-01-15)
      This thesis describes the chemoenzymatic synthesis of three morphine alkaloids. The total synthesis of dihydrocodeine and hydrocodone was accomplished starting from bromobenzene in 16 and 17 steps, respectively. The key steps included a microbial oxidation of bromobenzene by E. coli JM109 (pDTG601A), a Kazmaier-Claisen rearrangement of glycinate ester to generate C-9 and C-14 stereo centers, a Johnson-Claisen rearrangement to set the C-13 quaternary center, and a C-10/C-11 ring closure via a Friedel-Crafts reaction. In addition, the total synthesis of ent-hydromorphone starting from β-bromoethylbenzene in 12 steps is also described. The key reactions included the enzymatic dihydroxylation of β-bromoethylbenzene to the corresponding cis-cyclohexadienediol, a Mitsunobu reaction, and an oxidative dearomatization followed by an intramolecular [4+2] cycloaddition.
    • Design of Redox-active Ligands: In Pursuit of Stable Radicals, their Complexes, and Assembly of Paramagnetic Coordination Clusters.

      Bonanno, Nico Matteo; Department of Chemistry
      This thesis describes the design, synthesis, properties, and coordination chemistry of redoxactive ligands. This thesis also explores new ways of expanding our ligand systems, in order to improve their binding capacities. We accomplished this by utilizing familiar redox-active moieties and structures to those published previously in our group, but with enhanced topological capacities and predictable structural outcomes. Chapter 1 begins with a general outline of the fundamental principles that govern organic radicals including; their reactivity, their properties and applications, and how these can be applied to the design of ligands for polynuclear assembly. Chapter 2 starts with a brief overview of arylazo ligands and the synthesis of a new hydrazone substituted phenalenol ligand (2.1). In the following section (2.2) we use this ligand to produce homoleptic ligand mixed-valence complexes featuring trivalent cobalt and iron metals. The chapter is concluded (2.3) with the synthesis of a new ditopic aryl-azo ligand and its cobalt coordination chemistry involving a neutral tetra-radical/tetra-nuclear molecular grid featuring valence tautomerism. Chapter 3 begins with the design and synthesis of a new ditopic diamino phenol ligand, which was found to oxidize to a neutral stable phenoxyl radical (3.1-3.2). The solution properties, which include reversible pi-dimerization of this stable radical are also described (3.3), and later the substitution chemistry of this new ligand is explored (3.4). In chapter 4, we describe the coordination chemistry of this new ditopic aminophenol ligand, which includes assembly into several coordination clusters involving copper (4.2), iron (4.3), nickel (4.4), and zinc (4.5). These coordination clusters feature the ligand in a variety of oxidation states; including rare examples of dianion “aminyl” radical clusters. In chapter 5, we begin with a description of a new synthetic derivative which can be used for the construction of larger tetratopic or asymmetric diamino phenol ligands. In 5.2 we describe the synthesis of a tetratopic aminophenol ligand along with its reactivity and aerial oxidation to a tri-phenoxyl radical. In 5.3, we conclude the thesis with the use of an asymmetric diamino phenol ligand and it’s Cu(II/III) coordination chemistry, which displayed unique reactivity with molecular oxygen.
    • A DFT Guided/Experimental Approach to Asymmetric Allylation and Phase-Transfer Catalysis

      Mirabdolbaghi, Roya; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-09-10)
      The Dudding group is interested in the application of Density Functional Theory (DFT) in developing asymmetric methodologies, and thus the focus of this dissertation will be on the integration of these approaches. Several interrelated subsets of computer aided design and implementation in catalysis have been addressed during the course of these studies. The first of the aims rested upon the advancement of methodologies for the synthesis of biological active C(1)-chiral 3-methylene-indan-1-ols, which in practice lead to the use of a sequential asymmetric Yamamoto-Sakurai-Hosomi allylation/Mizoroki Heck reaction sequence. An important aspect of this work was the utilization of ortho-substituted arylaldehyde reagents which are known to be a problematic class of substrates for existing asymmetric allylation approaches. The second phase of my research program lead to the further development of asymmetric allylation methods using o-arylaldehyde substrates for synthesis of chiral C(3)-substituted phthalides. Apart from the de novo design of these chemistries in silico, which notably utilized water-tolerant, inexpensive, and relatively environmental benign indium metal, this work represented the first computational study of a stereoselective indium-mediated process. Following from these discoveries was the advent of a related, yet catalytic, Ag(I)-catalyzed approach for preparing C(3)-substituted phthalides that from a practical standpoint was complementary in many ways. Not only did this new methodology build upon my earlier work with the integrated (experimental/computational) use of the Ag(I)-catalyzed asymmetric methods in synthesis, it provided fundamental insight arrived at through DFT calculations, regarding the Yamamoto-Sakurai-Hosomi allylation. The development of ligands for unprecedented asymmetric Lewis base catalysis, especially asymmetric allylations using silver and indium metals, followed as a natural extension from these earlier discoveries. To this end, forthcoming as well was the advancement of a family of disubstituted (N-cyclopropenium guanidine/N-imidazoliumyl substituted cyclopropenylimine) nitrogen adducts that has provided fundamental insight into chemical bonding and offered an unprecedented class of phase transfer catalysts (PTC) having far-reaching potential. Salient features of these disubstituted nitrogen species is unprecedented finding of a cyclopropenium based C-H•••πaryl interaction, as well, the presence of a highly dissociated anion projected them to serve as a catalyst promoting fluorination reactions. Attracted by the timely development of these disubstituted nitrogen adducts my last studies as a PhD scholar has addressed the utility of one of the synthesized disubstituted nitrogen adducts as a valuable catalyst for benzylation of the Schiff base N-diphenyl methylene glycine ethyl ester. Additionally, the catalyst was applied for benzylic fluorination, emerging from this exploration was successful fluorination of benzyl bromide and its derivatives in high yields. A notable feature of this protocol is column-free purification of the product and recovery of the catalyst to use in a further reaction sequence.
    • Diastereoselective Synthesis of Planar Chiral N-Substituted Ferrocenes Derived from Epimeric Imidazolones and their Application to Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Quinolines

      John, Joshni; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2015-03-02)
      This thesis describes the synthesis and use of an N-substituted ferrocene bearing a proline-derived chiral directing group and diastereoselective lithiation-electrophile quench of the pro-Sp hydrogen of the ferrocene to give planar chiral products in >95:5 dr. The auxiliary group is found to be stable to lithium bases of types RLi and R2NLi giving the same diastereoselectivity. The anti- epimer of the previously mentioned syn auxiliary induces lithiation of pro Rp rather than pro Sp hydrogen in >95:5 dr. Upon electrophile quench and elimination, the enantiomer of the syn-derived planar chiral imidazolone is obtained. Hence, this method provides a practical way to prepare planar chiral enantiomers in this series without the use of a more expensive D-proline derived starting material. The syn and anti epimers have β, γ-stereogenic centers and the origin of stereoselectivity in lithiation appears to be driven by the conformational bias exerted by the β-silyloxy moiety in each chiral auxiliary. In the thesis, this conclusion is supported using insensitivity of lithiation selectivity to the bulkiness of the base, comparison of enantiomers, deuteration experiments, nOe difference studies and computational modeling of the ground states and lithiation transition states for both substrates. The products are then converted to ligand precursors to make iridium and rhodium complexes. Among them, one of the cationic iridium complex is found to be effective in the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2-substituted quinolines with enantioselectivities up to 80% at pressures as low as 5 atm.
    • Dynamic DNA Nanotechnology for Probing Single Nucleotide Variants and DNA Modifications

      Wang, Guan; Department of Chemistry
      In the last decades, various DNA hybridization probes have been developed that attempt to conquer the challenge of single-nucleotide-variants (SNVs) detection. Even though a powerful toolbox including the toehold-exchange reaction, the dynamic ‘sink’ design, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been built, it still faces practical problems. For example, the natural DNA is usually in double-stranded form whereas most hybridization probes aim for single-stranded targets; the concentration of extracted DNA samples is totally unknown thus may lay outside the optimal design of probes/primers. To achieve ultra-high sensitivity and specificity, expensive and sophisticated machines such as digital droplet PCR and next-generation-sequencing may be inapplicable in rural areas. Therefore, the quantitative PCR method is still the gold standard for clinical tests. Thus motivated, my PhD career was mainly focused on the fundamental understanding of the challenges in SNVs discrimination and developing robust, versatile, and user-friendly probes/strategies. In this thesis, Chapter 1 provides a general introduction of dynamic DNA nanotechnology and its representative applications in discriminating SNVs. Chapter 2 to 4 describe three completed projects that aim to understand the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of strand displacement reactions and to circumvent the challenges of discriminating SNVs through finely tuned probes/assays.
    • Electron Transfer Involving the Phylloquinone (A1) Cofactor of Photosystem I Examined with Time Resolved Absorbance and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

      Mula, Samuel Jr.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2015-01-23)
      The dependence of the electron transfer (ET) rate on the Photosystem I (PSI) cofactor phylloquinone (A1) is studied by time-resolved absorbance and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Two active branches (A and B) of electron transfer converge to the FX cofactor from the A1A and A1B quinone. The work described in Chapter 5 investigates the single hydrogen bond from the amino acid residue PsaA-L722 backbone nitrogen to A1A for its effect on the electron transfer rate to FX. Room temperature transient EPR measurements show an increase in the rate for the A1A- to FX for the PsaA-L722T mutant and an increased hyperfine coupling to the 2-methyl group of A1A when compared to wild type. The Arrhenius plot of the A1A- to FX ET in the PsaA-L722T mutant suggests that the increased rate is probably the result of a slight change in the electronic coupling between A1A- and FX. The reasons for the non-Arrhenius behavior are discussed. The work discussed in Chapter 6 investigates the directionality of ET at low temperature by blocking ET to the iron-sulfur clusters FX, FA and FB in the menB deletion mutant strain of Synechocyctis sp. PCC 6803, which is unable to synthesize phylloquinone, by incorporating the high midpoint potential (49 mV vs SHE) 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (Cl2NQ) into the A1A and A1B binding sites. Various EPR spectroscopic techniques were implemented to differentiate between the spectral features created from A and B- branch electron transfer. The implications of this result for the directionality of electron transfer in PS I are discussed. The work discussed in Chapter 7 was done to study the dependence of the heterogeneous ET at low temperature on A1 midpoint potential. The menB PSI mutant contains plastiquinone-9 in the A1 binding site. The solution midpoint potential of the quinone measures 100 mV more positive then wild-type phylloquinone. The irreversible ET to the terminal acceptors FA and FB at low temperature is not controlled by the forward step from A1 to FX as expected due to the thermodynamic differences of the A1 cofactor in the two active branches A and B. Alternatives for the ET heterogeneity are discussed.
    • Enzymatic Studies of Bromocyclohexadienediols & Semi-synthesis of Narciclasine Analogues

      Goulart Stollmaier, Juana; Department of Chemistry
      This thesis describes two projects: • cis-Diene bromo diol obtained from the microbial oxidation of bromobenzene was used as a substrate for lipase-catalyzed acylation and epoxidation reactions. The model studies showed that the regiochemistry of the acylation is solvent dependent. The chemoenzymatic epoxidation followed the expected regiochemistry when compared to the chemical epoxidation with m-CPBA, but with the unexpected formation of bromoconduritol-C, an important intermediate whose electrochemical reduction led to the short synthesis of (-)-conduritol-C. • A detailed description is given to the studies of conversion of natural narciclasine to its C-1 enol derivative, followed by the attempted conversion of this material to its triflate, in order to conduct cross-coupling at the C-1 position. However, it resulted in a triflate at C-6 that was successfully coupled with several functionalities. All compounds were fully deprotected and subjected to evaluation of biological activity. Only one derivative showed moderate activity as compared to those of narciclasine and pancratistatin. Spectral and physical data are provided for all new compounds.
    • Half-sandwich Complexes of Ruthenium Supported by N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands: Synthesis and Application to Catalysis

      Mai, Van Hung; Department of Chemistry
      This thesis presents the preparation and catalytic reactivity of novel half-sandwich ruthenium complexes supported by N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) ligands. The cationic half-sandwich ruthenium complexes [Cp(IPr)Ru(CH3CN)2]+ show interesting reactivities toward the transfer hydrogenation of different unsaturated substrates, such as ketones, olefins, N-heterocycles, and nitriles. Kinetic studies disclose that a neutral trishydride ruthenium complex is actually involved in the catalytic cycle, playing the role as a resting state. Further investigations on the sub-class of trishydride ruthenium complexes bearing NHC ligands (Cp'(NHC)RuH3) reveal that these complexes have an unusual and great catalytic performance toward the hydrodefluorination (HDF) of fluorinated aromatic and aliphatic compounds. The combined kinetic studies, cross-over experiments and rate law analysis suggest an unusual mechanistic pathway for the Cp*(IPr)RuH3 catalyzed HDF. This study is one of the rare examples where isopropanol is employed as a reducing agent for the metal-mediated HDF reaction. A class of silyl dihydride ruthenium complexes, derived from Cp(IPr)RuH3 are prepared. These silyl hydrido derivatives are great compounds for the study of the inter ligand hypervalent interaction (IHI), an interesting phenomenon for many non-classical silane complexes. This study also suggests that the replacement of phosphines by their isolobally analogous NHC ligands result in stronger IHI interactions in the corresponding compounds. Another type of non-classical interaction was systematically scrutinized in a ii series of new cationic and neutral silane sigma complexes of ruthenium bearing different silyl moieties. These new NHC-supported ruthenium complexes allow for direct comparation with the known phosphine analogues, which reveals interplay of steric and electronic factors on the extent of Si-H complexation to metal and the extent of additional interligand interactions between Ru-Cl and chlorosilane ligand. Finally, new trishydride ruthenium complexes bearing NHC ligands (Cp'(NHC)RuH3) catalyze the H/D exchange reaction of various N-heterocycle substrates; their catalytic performance can be considered as one of the mildest, and most efficient approaches.
    • Half-sandwich Complexes of Ruthenium; Synthesis and Application to Catalysis

      Lee, Sun Hwa; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-09-15)
      This thesis describes syntheses and catalytic reactivity of several half-sandwich complexes of ruthenium. The neutral ruthenium trihydride complex, Cp(PPri3)RuH3(1), can efficiently catalyse the H/D exchange reaction between various organic substrates and deuterium sources, such as benzene-d6. Moreover, the H/D exchange reactions of polar substrates were also observed in D2O, which is the most attractive deuterium source due to its low cost and low toxicity. Importantly, the H/D exchange under catalytic conditions was achieved not only in aromatic compounds but also in substituted liphatic compounds. Interestingly, in the case of alkanes and alkyl chains, highly selective deuterium incorporation in the terminal methyl positions was observed. It was discovered that the methylene units are engaged in exchange only if the molecule contains a donating functional group, such as O-and N-donors, C=C double bonds, arenes and CH3. The cationic half-sandwich ruthenium complex [Cp(PPri3)Ru(CH3CN)2]+(2) catalyses the chemoselective mono-addition of HSiMe2Ph to pyridine derivatives to selectively give the 1,4-regiospecific, N-silylated products. An ionic hydrosilylation mechanismis suggested based on the experiments. To support this mechanistic proposal, kinetic studies under catalytic conditions were performed. Also, the 1,4-regioselective mono-hydrosilylation of nitrogen containing compounds such as phenanthroline, quinoline and acridine can be achieved with the related Cp*complex [Cp*(phen)Ru(CH3CN)]+(3) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and HSiMe2Ph under mild conditions. The cationic ruthenium complex 2 can also be used as an efficient catalyst for transfer hydrogenation of various organic substrates including carbonyls, imines, nitriles and esters. Secondary alcohols, amines, N-isopropylidene amines and ether compounds can be obtained in moderate to high yields. In addition, other ruthenium complexes, 1,3 and [Cp*(PPri3)Ru(CH3CN)2]+(4), can catalyse transfer hydrogenation of carbonyls although the reactions were sluggish compared to the ones of 2. The possible intermediate, Cp(PPri3)Ru(CH3CN)(H), was characterized by NMR at low temperature and the kinetic studies for the transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone were performed. Recently, chemoselective reduction of acid chlorides to aldehydes catalysed by the complex 2 was reported. To extend the catalytic reactivity of 2, reduction of iminoyl chlorides, which can be readily obtained from secondary amides, to the corresponding imines and aldehydes was investigated. Various substituted iminoyl chlorides were converted into the imines and aldehydes under mild conditions and several products were isolated with moderate yields.
    • Half-sandwich silane complexes of ruthenium and iron : synthesis, structure and application to catalysis

      Gutsulyak, Dmitry V.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2012-04-04)
      The present thesis describes syntheses, structural studies, and catalytic reactivity of new non-classical silane complexes of ruthenium and iron. The ruthenium complexes CpRu(PPri3)CI(T]2-HSiR3) (1) (SiR3 = SiCh (a), SiClzMe (b), SiCIMe2 (c), SiH2Ph (d), SiMe2Ph (e» were prepared by reactions of the new unsaturated complex CpRu(PPri3)CI with silanes. According to NMR studies and X-ray analyses, the complexes la-c exhibit unusual simultaneous Si··· H and Si··· CI-Ru interactions. The complex CpRu(PPri3)CI was also used for the preparation of the first examples of late transition metal agostic silylamido complexes CpRu(PPri3)(N(T]2-HSiMe2)R) (2) (R= Ar or But), which were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The iron complexes CpFe(PMePri2)H2(SiR3) (3) (SiR3 = SiCh (a), SiClzMe (b), SiCIMe2 (c), SiH2Ph (d), SiMe2Ph (e» were synthesized by the reaction of the new borohydride iron complex CpFe(PMePri2)(B~) with silanes in the presence NEt3. The complexes 3 exhibit unprecedented two simultaneous and equivalent Si··· H interactions, which was confirmed by X-ray analyses and DFT calculations. A series of cationic ruthenium complexes [CpRu(PR3)(CH3CN)(112-HSiR'3)]BAF (PR3 = PPri 3 (4), PPh3 (5); SiR'3 = SiCh (a), SiClzMe (b), SiClMe2 (c), SiH2Ph (d), SiMe2Ph (e» was obtained by substitution of one of the labile acetonitrile ligands in [CpRu(PR3)(CH3CNh]BAF with sHanes. Analogous complexes [TpRu(PR3)(CH3CN)(T]2 -HSiR' 3)]BAF (5) were obtained by the reaction of TpRu(PR3)(CH3CN)CI with LiBAF in the presence of silanes. The complexes 4-5 were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and the observed coupling constants J(Si-H) allowed us to estimate the extent of Si-H bond activation in these compounds. The catalytic activity in hydrosilylation reactions of all of the above complexes was examined. The most promising results were achieved with the cationic ruthenium precatalyst [CpRu(PPri3)(CH3CN)2t (6). Complex 6 shows good to excellent catalytic activity in the hydrosilylation of carbonyls, dehydrogenative coupling of silanes with alcohols, amines, acids, and reduction of acid chlorides. We also discovered very selective reduction of nitriles and pyridines into the corresponding N-silyl imines and l,4-dihydropyridines, respectively, at room temperature with the possibility of catalyst recycling. These chemoselective catalytic methods have no analogues in the literature. The reactions were proposed to proceed via an ionic mechanism with intermediate formation of the silane a-complexes 4.
    • High-Nuclearity Lanthanide(III) Complexes as Single-Molecule Magnets and Luminescent Materials

      Mazarakioti, Eleni; Department of Chemistry
      The employment of the bridging/chelating Schiff base ligands, N-salicylidene-o-aminophenol (saphH2), N-salicylidene-o-aminocyclohexanol (sachH2) and N-salicylidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (sacbH2), in lanthanide (LnIII) cluster chemistry has afforded four families of polynuclear and dinuclear complexes with new structural motifs, and interesting magnetic and optical properties. Chapter 1 deals with most of the fundamental aspects within the areas of polynuclear metal complexes, molecular magnetism and optics as these are applied to 4f-metal based systems, while the research results are reported in Chapters 2, 3 and 4. In the first project (Chapter 2), the coordination chemistry of the organic chelating/bridging ligand, N-salicylidene-o-aminophenol (saphH2) in lanthanide cluster chemistry was investigated. The general LnIII/X-/saphH2/base reaction system has led to a family of (NHEt3)[Ln7(OH)2(saph)10(Me2CO)2] (Ln = Gd (1); Tb (2); Dy (3)) clusters with a new core topology that comprises two {Ln4} butterflies sharing a common metal vertex. The {DyIII7} analogue exhibits slow magnetization relaxation, whereas all heptanuclear compounds show ligand-centered blue-green emissions. The second project of this thesis, which is discussed in Chapter 3, comprises the first use of the Schiff base ligand N-salicylidene-2-aminocyclohexanol (sachH2; mixture of cis- and trans-analogue) in metal cluster chemistry which has afforded a new family of [Ln7(OH)6(CO3)3(sach)3(sachH)3(MeOH)6] (Ln = Gd (4); Tb (5); Dy (6)) clusters with ideal D3h point group symmetry and metal-centered trigonal prismatic topology. Solid-state and solution studies revealed single-molecule magnetism (SMM) and photoluminescence behaviors. Moreover, in order to investigate the steric and stereoisomerism effects of the ligand on the chemical and structural identity of the {Ln7} clusters, the pure trans-analogue of the sachH2 ligand was utilized. As a result, a new family of octanuclear [Ln8(OH)4(CO3)2(trans-sach)8(EtOH)4] (Ln = Gd (7); Tb (8); Dy (9); Eu (10)) clusters were obtained, while the solid-state studies revealed SMM behavior and lanthanide-centered emissions. In the last chapter of this thesis (Chapter 4), the Schiff base ligand N-salicylidene-2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (sacbH2) was introduced for a first time in lanthanide cluster chemistry. This has afforded a family of dinuclear [Ln2(NO3)4(sacbH)2(H2O)2(MeCN)2] compounds (Ln = Gd (11); Tb (12); Dy (13)) with the Dy-analogue exhibiting SMM behaviour with a high-energy barrier for the magnetization reversal and interesting magnetization dynamics. All research-based Chapters (Chapters 2-4) are divided into subsections in order to facilitate the understanding of the research concepts by the familiar and non-familiar readers and contextualize the messages, goals and conclusions of each individual project. I felt it prudent to always begin with a short preface of the work that summarizes the most important aspects of the specific project, followed by the complete experimental part and discussion of the results, and finishing up with conclusions and some future perspectives.
    • High-Nuclearity Metal Complexes and Single-Molecule Magnets from the Employment of Oximato- and Alkoxido-based Ligands

      Giannopoulos, Dimosthenis; Department of Chemistry
      The employment of 2-pyrrolyloximes, pyridine-2,6-diketones and 3-hydroxy-2-naphthohydroxamic acid in homometallic 3d- and heterometallic 3d/4f-metal cluster chemistry has yielded new families of Fe, Mn and Mn/Dy clusters. These complexes were shown to possess interesting structural motifs and single-molecule magnetism (SMM) behaviour. The introductory chapter discusses the fundamentals of molecular magnetism, polynuclear metal complexes, as well as the approaches used for the synthesis of new polynuclear metal complexes and the selection criteria for the chelating/bridging ligands. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 report the results of the current thesis. In Chapter 2, the synthesis and characterization of a family of complexes resulting from the employment of 2-pyrrolyloximes in high-nuclearity transition metal cluster chemistry is reported. Complexes {Fe10} (1) and {Fe12} (2) are two of the highest nuclearity iron clusters containing an oximate ligand, while complex 3 is a barrel-like {Mn25Na} complex that exhibits SMM behaviour. Although there are previously reported examples of discrete {Mn25} barrel-like SMMs, complex 3 is the highest nuclearity Mn cluster organized into a 1D polymer through chelation with diamagnetic metal centers. Chapter 3 includes the synthesis and characterization of new Mn complexes featuring ligands that result from the metal-assisted reactivity of pyridyl- and pyrazine-based diketones. Complexes {Mn6} (4) and {Mn10} (5) are the highest nuclearity Mn clusters containing any form of the ligand 2,6-di-(2-pyridylcarbonyl)pyridine [(py)CO(py)CO(py)]. Despite the large number of {Mn6} and {Mn10} complexes reported in the literature, both complexes 4 and 5 possess unique topologies in their respective oxidation state levels. Complex {Mn3Na2} (6) possesses a iii unique metal stoichiometry and is the only compound containing any form of the ligand pyridine-2,6-diylbis(pyrazine-2-ylmethanone) [(pz)CO(py)CO(pz)]. More interestingly, complex 6 contains the first {MnIII3(μ3-O2−)}7+ triangular core where the Mn centers are solely bridged by an oxido group, essentially being a unique ‘edge-naked’ equilateral triangle. In Chapter 4, the synthesis and characterization of complexes bearing the ligand 3-hydroxy-2-naphthohydroxamic acid are presented. The {Mn10} complexes 7 and 8 are the highest nuclearity 3d-metal and the first homometallic Mn clusters containing the hydroxime form of the ligand. Both compounds possess unique metal topologies, which are affected by the nature of the carboxylate ligand present in the reaction mixture, and they behave as SMMs. The use of 3-hydroxy-2-naphthohydroxamic acid in Mn/Dy cluster chemistry has afforded the {Mn4Dy} complexes 9 and 10, as well as a family of {Mn8Dy2} complexes (11 and 12). These compounds are the first Mn/Dy complexes containing this particular hydroxime ligand and they also possess unique metal stoichiometries and topologies. The reported heterometallic products resulted from our efforts to deliberately replace the divalent Mn atoms located in 7 and 8 with DyIII as a means of enhancing the magnetic properties of the former. Complexes 11 and 12 were found to be single-molecule magnets.