• Applications of dihydroarenediols to chemoenzymatic synthesis : approaches to total synthesis of morphine alkaloids

      Finn, Kevin J.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2006-05-28)
      The present studies describe, as a primary goal, our recent progess toward the synthesis of morphine alkaloids from aromatic precursors. Model substrates were synthesized which allowed investigation into Diels-Alder, radical cascade, and palladium-catalyzed bond-forming reactions as possible routes to the morphine alkaloid skeleton. As a secondary objective, three separate series of aromatic substrates were subjected to whole-cell oxidation with Escherichia coli JM 109 (pDTG601), a recombinant organism over-expressing the enzyme toluene dioxygenase. Included in this study were bromothioanisoles, dibromobenzenes, and cyclopropylbenzene derivatives. The products of oxidation were characterized by chemical conversion to known intermediates. The synthetic utility of one of these bacterial metabolites, derived from oxidation of o-dibromobenezene, was demonstrated by chemical conversion to (-)conduritol E.
    • Chemoenzymatic synthesis of amaryllidaceae alkaloids and their C-1 analogues : symmetry based approach to total synthesis of thebaine

      Collins, Jonathan A.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      Described herein is the chemoenzymatic total synthesis of several Amaryllidaceae constituents and their unnatural C-I analogues. A new approach to pancratistatin and related compounds will be discussed along with the completed total synthesis of 7 -deoxypancratistatin and trans-dihydrolycoricidine. Evaluation of all new C-l analogues as cancer cell growth inhibitory agents is described. The enzymatic oxidation of dibromobenzenes by Escherichia coli 1M 109 (pDTG60 1) is presented along with conversion of their metabolites to (-)-conduritol E. Investigation into the steric and functional factors governing the enzymatic dihydroxylation of various benzoates by the same organism is also discussed. The synthetic utility of these metabolites is demonstrated through their conversion to pseudo-sugars, aminocyclitols, and complex bicyclic ring systems. The current work on the total synthesis of some morphine alkaloids is also presented. Highlighted will be the synthesis of several model systems related to the efficient total synthesis of thebaine.
    • Spin labile conducting metallopolymers : a new architecture for hybrid multifunctional materials

      Djukic, Brandon; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      The synthesis of 3-ethynylthienyl- (2.07), 3-ethynylterthienyl- (2.19) substituted qsal [qsalH = N-(8-quinolyl)salicylaldimine] and 3,3' -diethynyl-2,2' -bithienyl bridging bisqsal (5.06) ligands are described along with the preparation and characterization of eight cationic iron(III) complexes containing these ligands with a selection of counteranions [(2.07) with: SCN- (2.08), PF6- (2.09), and CI04- (2.10); (2.19) with PF6 - (2.20); (5.06) with: cr (5.07), SeN- (5.08), PF6- (5.09), and CI04- (5.10)]. Spin-crossover is observed in the solid state for (2.08) - (2.10) and (5.07) - (5.10), including a ve ry rare S = 5/2 to 3/2 spin-crossover in complex (2.09). The unusal reduction of complex (2.10) produces a high-spin iron(I1) complex (2.12). Six iron(II) complexes that are derived from thienyl analogues of bispicen [bispicen = bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-diamine] [2,5-thienyl substituents = H- (3.11), Phenyl- (3.12), 2- thienyl (3.13) or N-phenyl-2-pyridinalimine ligands [2,5-phenyl substituents = diphenyl (3.23), di(2-thienyl) (3.24), 4-phenyl substituent = 3-thienyl (3.25)] are reported Complexes (3.11), (3.23) and (3.25) display thermal spin-crossover in the solid state and (3.12) remains high-spin at all temperatures. Complex (3.13) rearranges to form an iron(II) complex (3.14) with temperature dependent magnetic properties be s t described as a one-dimensional ferromagnetic chain, with interchain antiferromagnetic interactions and/or ZFS dominant at low temperatures. Magnetic succeptibility and Mossbauer data for complex (3.24) display a temperature dependent mixture of spin isomers. The preparation and characterization of two cobalt(II) complexes containing 3- ethynylthienyl- (4.04) and 3-ethynylterhienyl- (4.06) substituted bipyridine ligands [(4.05): [Co(dbsqh(4.04)]; (4.07): [Co(dbsq)2(4.06)]] [dbsq = 3,5-dbsq=3,5-di-tert-butylI ,2-semiquinonate] are reported. Complexes (4.05) and (4.07) exhibit thermal valence tautomerism in the solid state and in solution. Self assembly of complex (2.10) into polymeric spheres (6.11) afforded the first spincrossover, polydisperse, micro- to nanoscale material of its kind. . Complexes (2.20), (3.24) and (4.07) also form polymers through electrochemical synthesis to produce hybrid metaUopolymer films (6.12), (6.15) and (6.16), respectively. The films have been characterized by EDX, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements demonstrate that spin lability is operative in the polymers and conductivity measurements confirm the electron transport properties. Polymer (6.15) has a persistent oxidized state that shows a significant decrease in electrical resistance.
    • Stereoselective synthesis of substituted hexahydro-3a,4a-diazacyclopentaphenanthren-4-ones and aminoferrocenes

      Zaifman, Joshua David; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      This thesis explored the development of several methodologies for the stereoselective construction of ligand frameworks and some of their applications. The first segment concerns the application of an enantioselective lithiation at an Sp3_ hybridized position adjacent to nitrogen by means of the widely used and typically highly effective enantioselective lithiation with ( -)-sparteine. This investigation was intended to develop a method to install chirality into a system that would be converted into a family of diaminoylidenes for use as phosphine mimics in transition metal catalysis or as nucleophilic reagents. Molecular modeling of the system revealed some key interactions between the substrate and (-)-sparteine that provided general insight into the diamine's mode of action and should lend some predictive value to its future applications. The second portion focuses on the development of methods to access 1,2- disubstituted aminoferrocenes, an underexplored class of metallocenes possessing planar chirality. Two routes were examined involving a diastereoselective and an enantioselective pathway, where the latter method made use of the first BF3-mediated lithiation-substitution to install planar chirality. Key derivatives such as 1,2- aminophosphines, made readily accessible by the new route, were evaluated as ligands for Pd(II), Pt(II) and Ir(I). These complexes show activity in a number of transformations with both achiral and prochiral substrates. Optimization experiments were conducted to prepare enantiomerically enriched 2-substituted-I-aminoferrocenes by direct asymmetric lithiation of BF3-coordinated tertiary aminoferrocenes. A predictive computational model describing the transition state of this reaction was developed in collaboration with Professor Travis Dudding's group (Department of Chemistry, Brock University). The predicted stereochemistry of the process was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis of a 2-phosphino-l-dimethylaminoferrocene derivative. Enantiomerically pure samples of the aminophosphine ligands derived from this new process have given promising preliminary results in the enantioselective hydrogenation of prochiral alkenes and warrant further stUdy in metal-mediated catalysis.
    • Molybdenum (IV) imido silylamido and hydride complexes : stoichiometric and catalytic reactivity, mechanistic aspects of hydrosilation reactions

      Khalimon, Andrey Y.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      This thesis describes the synthesis, structural studies, and stoichiometric and catalytic reactivity of novel Mo(IV) imido silylamide (R'N)Mo(R2)(173_RIN-SiR32-H)(PMe3)n (1: Rl = tBu, Ar', Ar; R2 = Cl; R32 = Me2, MePh, MeCl, Ph2, HPh; n = 2; 2: R' = Ar, R2 = SiH2Ph, n = 1) and hydride complexes (ArN)Mo(H)(R)(PMe3)3 (R = Cl (3), SiH2Ph (4». Compounds of type 1 were generated from (R'N)Mo(PMe3)n(L) (5: R' = tBu, Ar', Ar; L = PMe3, r/- C2H4) and chlorohydrosilanes by the imido/silane coupling approach, recently discovered in our group. The mechanism of the reaction of 5 with HSiCh to give (ArN)MoClz(PMe3)3 (8) was studied by VT NMR, which revealed the intermediacy of (ArN)MCh(172 -ArN=SiHCl)(PMe3)z (9). The imido/silyl coupling methodology was transferred to the reactions of 5 with chlorine-free hydrosilanes. This approach allowed for the isolation of a novel ,B-agostic compound (ArN)Mo(SiHzPh)(173 -NAr-SiHPhH)(PMe3) (10). The latter was found to be active in a variety of hydrosilation processes, including the rare monoaddition of PhSiH3 to benzonitrile. Stoichiometric reactions of 11 with unsaturated compounds appear to proceed via the silanimine intermediate (ArN)M(17z-ArN=SiHPh)(PMe3) (12) and, in the case of olefins and nitriles, give products of Si-C coupling, such as (ArN)Mo(R)(173 -NAr-SiHPh-CH=CHR')(PMe3) (13: R = Et, R' = H; 14: R = H, R' = Ph) and (ArN)Mo(172-NAr-SiHPh-CHR=N)(PMe3) (15). Compound 13 was also subjected to catalysis showing much improved activity in the hydrosilation of carbonyls and alkenes. Hydride complexes 3 and 4 were prepared starting from (ArN)MoCh(PMe3)3 (8). Both hydride species catalyze a diversity of hydrosilation processes that proceed via initial substrate activation but not silane addition. The proposed mechanism is supported by stoichiometric reactions of 3 and 4, kinetic NMR studies, and DFf calculations for the hydrosilation of benzaldehyde and acetone mediated by 4.
    • Half-sandwich silane complexes of ruthenium and iron : synthesis, structure and application to catalysis

      Gutsulyak, Dmitry V.; Department of Chemistry (2012-04-04)
      The present thesis describes syntheses, structural studies, and catalytic reactivity of new non-classical silane complexes of ruthenium and iron. The ruthenium complexes CpRu(PPri3)CI(T]2-HSiR3) (1) (SiR3 = SiCh (a), SiClzMe (b), SiCIMe2 (c), SiH2Ph (d), SiMe2Ph (e» were prepared by reactions of the new unsaturated complex CpRu(PPri3)CI with silanes. According to NMR studies and X-ray analyses, the complexes la-c exhibit unusual simultaneous Si··· H and Si··· CI-Ru interactions. The complex CpRu(PPri3)CI was also used for the preparation of the first examples of late transition metal agostic silylamido complexes CpRu(PPri3)(N(T]2-HSiMe2)R) (2) (R= Ar or But), which were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The iron complexes CpFe(PMePri2)H2(SiR3) (3) (SiR3 = SiCh (a), SiClzMe (b), SiCIMe2 (c), SiH2Ph (d), SiMe2Ph (e» were synthesized by the reaction of the new borohydride iron complex CpFe(PMePri2)(B~) with silanes in the presence NEt3. The complexes 3 exhibit unprecedented two simultaneous and equivalent Si··· H interactions, which was confirmed by X-ray analyses and DFT calculations. A series of cationic ruthenium complexes [CpRu(PR3)(CH3CN)(112-HSiR'3)]BAF (PR3 = PPri 3 (4), PPh3 (5); SiR'3 = SiCh (a), SiClzMe (b), SiClMe2 (c), SiH2Ph (d), SiMe2Ph (e» was obtained by substitution of one of the labile acetonitrile ligands in [CpRu(PR3)(CH3CNh]BAF with sHanes. Analogous complexes [TpRu(PR3)(CH3CN)(T]2 -HSiR' 3)]BAF (5) were obtained by the reaction of TpRu(PR3)(CH3CN)CI with LiBAF in the presence of silanes. The complexes 4-5 were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and the observed coupling constants J(Si-H) allowed us to estimate the extent of Si-H bond activation in these compounds. The catalytic activity in hydrosilylation reactions of all of the above complexes was examined. The most promising results were achieved with the cationic ruthenium precatalyst [CpRu(PPri3)(CH3CN)2t (6). Complex 6 shows good to excellent catalytic activity in the hydrosilylation of carbonyls, dehydrogenative coupling of silanes with alcohols, amines, acids, and reduction of acid chlorides. We also discovered very selective reduction of nitriles and pyridines into the corresponding N-silyl imines and l,4-dihydropyridines, respectively, at room temperature with the possibility of catalyst recycling. These chemoselective catalytic methods have no analogues in the literature. The reactions were proposed to proceed via an ionic mechanism with intermediate formation of the silane a-complexes 4.
    • Hydrosilylation and hydroboration catalyzed by imido-hydride complexes of molybdenum (IV)

      Shirobokov, Oleg G.; Department of Chemistry (2012-04-04)
      This thesis describes the synthesis, structural studies, stoichiometric and catalytic reactivity of novel Mo(IV) imido hydride complexes (Cp)(ArN)Mo(H)(PMe3) (1) and (Tp )(ArN)Mo(H)(PMe3) (2). Both 1 and 2 catalyze hydrosilylation of a variety of carbonyls. Detailed kinetic and DFT studies found that 1 reacts by an unexpected associative mechanism, which does not involve Si-H addition either to the imido group or the metal. Despite 1 being a d2 complex, its reaction with PhSiH3 proceeds via a a-bond metathesis mechanism giving the silyl derivative (Cp )(ArN)Mo(SiH2Ph)(PMe3). In the presence of BPh3 reaction of 1 with PhSiH3 results in formation of (Cp)(ArN)Mo(SiH2Ph)(H)2 and (Cp)(ArN)Mo(SiH2Ph)2(H), the first examples ofMo(VI) silyl hydrides. AI: 1 : 1 reaction between 2, PhSiD3 and carbonyl substrate established that hydrosilylation is not accompanied by deuterium incorporation into the hydride position of the catalyst, thus ruling out the conventional mechanism based on carbonyl insertion carbonyl. As 2 is nomeactive to both the silane and ketone, the only mechanistic alternative we are left with is that the metal center activates the carbonyl as a Lewis acid. The analogous nonhydride mechanism was observed for the catalysis by (ArN)Mo(H)(CI)(PMe3), (Ph3P)2(I)(O)Re(H)(OSiMe2Ph) and (PPh3CuH)6. Complex 2 also catalyzes hydroboration of carbonyls and nitriles. We report the first case of metal-catalyzed hydroboration of nitriles as well as hydroboration of carbonyls at very mild conditions. Conversion of carbonyl functions can be performed with high selectivities in the presence of nitrile groups. This thesis also reports the first case of the HlH exchange between H2 and Si-H of silanes mediated by Lewis acids such as Mo(IV) , Re(V) , Cu(I) , Zn(II) complexes, B(C6Fs)3 and BPh3.
    • Tetrathiafulvalene and 2,2'-Bipyridine: Bridging both Worlds in the Pursuit of Novel Molecular Materials

      Gumbau-Brisa, Roger; Department of Chemistry (2013-04-04)
      The preparation and characterization of two families of building blocks for molecule-based magnetic and conducting materials are described in three projects. In the first project the synthesis and characterization of three bis-imine ligands LI - L3 is reported. Coordination of LI to a series of metal salts afforded the five novel coordination complexes Sn(L4)C4 (I), [Mn(L4)(u-CI)(CI)(EtOH)h (II), [CU(L4)(u-sal) h(CI04)2 (sal = salicylaldehyde anion) (III), [Fe(Ls)2]CI (IV) and [Fe(LI)h(u-O) (V). All complexes have been structurally and magnetically characterized. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that, upon coordination to Lewis acidic metal salts, the imine bonds of LI are susceptible to nucleophilic attack. As a consequence, the coordination complexes (I) - (IV) contain either the cyclised ligand L4 or hydrolysed ligand Ls. In contrast, the dimeric Fe3+ complex (V) comprises two intact ligand LI molecules. In. this complex, the ligand chelates two Fe(III) centres in a bis-bidentate manner through the lone pairs of a phenoxy oxygen and an imine nitrogen atom. Magnetic studies of complexes (II-V) indicate that the dominant interactions between neighbouring metal centres in all of the complexes are antiferromagnetic. In the second project the synthesis and characterization two families of TTF donors, namely the cyano aryl compounds (VI) - (XI) and the his-aryl TTF derivatives (XII) - (XIV) are reported. The crystal structures of compounds (VI), (VII), (IX) and (XII) exhibit regular stacks comprising of neutral donors. The UV -Vis spectra of compounds (VI) - (XIV) present an leT band, indicative of the transfer of electron density from the TTF donors to the aryl acceptor molecules. Chemical oxidation of donors (VI), (VII), (IX) and (XII) with iodine afforded a series of CT salts that where possible have been characterized by single crystal X -ray diffraction. Structural studies showed that the radical cations in these salts are organized in stacks comprising of dimers of oxidized TTF donors. All four salts behave as semiconductors, displaying room temperature conductivities ranging from 1.852 x 10-7 to 9.620 X 10-3 Scm-I. A second series of CT salts were successfully prepared via the technique of electrocrystallization. Following this methodology, single crystals of two CT salts were obtained. The single crystal X-ray structures of both salts are isostructural, displaying stacks formed by trimers of oxidized donors. Variable temperature conductivity measurements carried out on this series of CT salts reveal they also are semiconductors with conductivities ranging from 2.94 x 10-7 to 1.960 X 10-3 S em-I at room temperature. In the third project the synthesis and characterization of a series of MII(hfac)2 coordination complexes of donor ligand (XII) where M2+ = Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ are reported. These complexes crystallize in a head-to-tail arrangement of TTF donor and bipyridine moieties, placing the metal centres and hfac ligands are located outside the stacks. Magnetic studies of the complexes (XV) - (XVIII) indicate that the bulky hfac ligands prevent neighbouring metal centres from assembling in close proximity, and thus they are magnetically isolated.
    • Ligand design for molecule-based magnetic and/or conducting materials

      ACHA, ROLAND; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2013-06-04)
      Work in the area of molecule-based magnetic and/or conducting materials is presented in two projects. The first project describes the use of 4,4’-bipyridine as a scaffold for the preparation of a new family of tetracarboxamide ligands. Four new ligands I-III have been prepared and characterized and the coordination chemistry of these ligands is presented. This project was then extended to exploit 4,4’-bipyridine as a covalent linker between two N3O2 macrocyles. In this respect, three dimeric macrocycles have been prepared IV-VI. Substitution of the labile axial ligands of the Co(II) complex IV by [Fe(CN)6]4- afforded the self-assembly of the 1-D polymeric chain {[Co(N3O2)H2O]2Fe(CN)6}n•3H2O that has been structurally and magnetically characterized. Magnetic studies on the Fe(II) complexes V and VI indicate that they undergo incomplete spin crossover transitions in the solid state. Strategies for the preparation of chiral spin crossover N3O2 macrocycles are discussed and the synthesis of the novel chiral Fe(II) macrocyclic complex VII is reported. Magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer studies reveal that this complex undergoes a gradual spin crossover in the solid state with no thermal hysteresis. Variable temperature X-ray diffraction studies on single crystals of VII reveal interesting structural changes in the coordination geometry of the macrocycle accompanying its SCO transition. The second project reports the synthesis and characterization of a new family of tetrathiafulvalene derivatives VIII – XII, where a heterocyclic chelating ligand is appended to a TTF donor via an imine linker. The coordination chemistries of these ligands with M(hfac)2.H2O (M( = Co, Ni, Mn, Cu) have been explored and the structural and magnetic properties of these complexes are described.
    • Triarylamminium radical-cation complexes: design and magnetic properties and Base-catalyzed hydrosilylation: mechanism and substrate scope

      Revunova, Kseniya; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-02-20)
      1. Triarylamminium radical-cation complexes. The detailed study of manganese, copper and nickel metal-radical complexes with triarylamminium ligands was conducted. Stable, neutral and pseudo-octahedral coordination monometallic complexes with simple monodentate 2,2`-bipyridine ligand containing a redox-active N,N`-(4,4`-dimethoxydiphenyl-amino) substituent were synthesized and fully characterized. The one-electron oxidation process and formation of persistent radical-cation complexes was observed by cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical measurements. Evans method measurements were performed with radical-cation complexes generated by chemical one-electron oxidation with NOPF6 in acetonitrile. The experimental results indicate ferromagnetic coupling between metal and triarylamminium cation in manganese (II) complex and antiferromagnetic coupling in nickel (II) complex. This data is supported by DFT calculations which also lend weight to the  spin polarization mechanism as an operative model for magnetic exchange coupling. Neutral bimetallic complexes with a new ditopic ligand were synthesized and fully characterized, including magnetic and electrochemical studies. Chemical oxidation of these precursor complexes did not generate radical-cations, but dicationic complexes, which was confirmed by UV-vis and EPR-experiments, as well as varied temperature magnetic measurements. DFT calculations for radical-cation complexes are included. A synthetic pathway for polytopic ligand with multiple redox-active triarylamine sites was developed. The structure of the ligand is presumably suitable for -spin polarization exchange model and allows for production of polymetallic complexes having high spin ground states. 2. Base-catalyzed hydrosilylation. A simple reductive base-catalyzed hydrosilation of aldehydes and ketones was adapted to the use of the cheap, safe, and non-toxic polymethylhydrosiloxane (PMHS) instead of the common PhSiH3 and (EtO)3SiH, which present significant cost and safety concerns, respectively. The conversion of silane into pentacoordinate silicate species upon addition of a base was studied in details for the cases of phenyl silane and PMHS and is believed to be essential for the hydrosilylation process. We discovered that nucleophiles (a base or fluoride-anion) induced the rearrangement of PMHS and TMDS into light silanes: MeSiH3 and Me2SiH2, respectively. The reductive properties of PMHS under basic conditions can be attributed to the formation of methyl silane and its conversion into a silicate species. A procedure for the generation of methyl silane and its use in further efficient reductions of aldehydes and ketones has been developed. The protocol was extended to the selective reduction of esters and tertiary amides into alcohols and aldimines into amines with good isolated yields and reduction of heterocyclic compounds was attempted.
    • Synthesis of unnatural analogues of pancratistatin and narciclasine

      Vshyvenko, Sergey; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-05-07)
      Described herein is the chemoenzymatic synthesis of several different types of unnatural analogues of Amaryllidaceae constituents. Development and refinement of existing and design and execution of new approaches towards the synthesis of C-1 analogues of pancratistatin and A-ring heterocyclic analogues of narciclasine are discussed. Evaluation of the new analogues as cancer growth inhibitory agents is also described
    • The Use of Ipso-dihydrodiols Enzymatically Derived from Benzoic Acid in Enantioselective Synthesis. Appoaches to Total Synthesis of Vinca Alkaloids

      Adams, David; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-07-18)
      The present studies describe our recent progress in target oriented synthesis of complex organic molecules from aromatic precursors. The latest synthetic approaches toward vinca alkaloids are described and include the construction of model substrates for the investigation into Diels-Alder, radical cascade, and tandem Michael addition reactions as possible routes to the family of alkaloids. Also described are the chemoenzymatic syntheses of the natural product (-)-idesolide and unnatural polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines generated from the biotransformation of benzoic acid with Ralstonia eutropha B9.
    • A DFT Guided/Experimental Approach to Asymmetric Allylation and Phase-Transfer Catalysis

      Mirabdolbaghi, Roya; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-09-10)
      The Dudding group is interested in the application of Density Functional Theory (DFT) in developing asymmetric methodologies, and thus the focus of this dissertation will be on the integration of these approaches. Several interrelated subsets of computer aided design and implementation in catalysis have been addressed during the course of these studies. The first of the aims rested upon the advancement of methodologies for the synthesis of biological active C(1)-chiral 3-methylene-indan-1-ols, which in practice lead to the use of a sequential asymmetric Yamamoto-Sakurai-Hosomi allylation/Mizoroki Heck reaction sequence. An important aspect of this work was the utilization of ortho-substituted arylaldehyde reagents which are known to be a problematic class of substrates for existing asymmetric allylation approaches. The second phase of my research program lead to the further development of asymmetric allylation methods using o-arylaldehyde substrates for synthesis of chiral C(3)-substituted phthalides. Apart from the de novo design of these chemistries in silico, which notably utilized water-tolerant, inexpensive, and relatively environmental benign indium metal, this work represented the first computational study of a stereoselective indium-mediated process. Following from these discoveries was the advent of a related, yet catalytic, Ag(I)-catalyzed approach for preparing C(3)-substituted phthalides that from a practical standpoint was complementary in many ways. Not only did this new methodology build upon my earlier work with the integrated (experimental/computational) use of the Ag(I)-catalyzed asymmetric methods in synthesis, it provided fundamental insight arrived at through DFT calculations, regarding the Yamamoto-Sakurai-Hosomi allylation. The development of ligands for unprecedented asymmetric Lewis base catalysis, especially asymmetric allylations using silver and indium metals, followed as a natural extension from these earlier discoveries. To this end, forthcoming as well was the advancement of a family of disubstituted (N-cyclopropenium guanidine/N-imidazoliumyl substituted cyclopropenylimine) nitrogen adducts that has provided fundamental insight into chemical bonding and offered an unprecedented class of phase transfer catalysts (PTC) having far-reaching potential. Salient features of these disubstituted nitrogen species is unprecedented finding of a cyclopropenium based C-H•••πaryl interaction, as well, the presence of a highly dissociated anion projected them to serve as a catalyst promoting fluorination reactions. Attracted by the timely development of these disubstituted nitrogen adducts my last studies as a PhD scholar has addressed the utility of one of the synthesized disubstituted nitrogen adducts as a valuable catalyst for benzylation of the Schiff base N-diphenyl methylene glycine ethyl ester. Additionally, the catalyst was applied for benzylic fluorination, emerging from this exploration was successful fluorination of benzyl bromide and its derivatives in high yields. A notable feature of this protocol is column-free purification of the product and recovery of the catalyst to use in a further reaction sequence.
    • Half-sandwich Complexes of Ruthenium; Synthesis and Application to Catalysis

      Lee, Sun Hwa; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2014-09-15)
      This thesis describes syntheses and catalytic reactivity of several half-sandwich complexes of ruthenium. The neutral ruthenium trihydride complex, Cp(PPri3)RuH3(1), can efficiently catalyse the H/D exchange reaction between various organic substrates and deuterium sources, such as benzene-d6. Moreover, the H/D exchange reactions of polar substrates were also observed in D2O, which is the most attractive deuterium source due to its low cost and low toxicity. Importantly, the H/D exchange under catalytic conditions was achieved not only in aromatic compounds but also in substituted liphatic compounds. Interestingly, in the case of alkanes and alkyl chains, highly selective deuterium incorporation in the terminal methyl positions was observed. It was discovered that the methylene units are engaged in exchange only if the molecule contains a donating functional group, such as O-and N-donors, C=C double bonds, arenes and CH3. The cationic half-sandwich ruthenium complex [Cp(PPri3)Ru(CH3CN)2]+(2) catalyses the chemoselective mono-addition of HSiMe2Ph to pyridine derivatives to selectively give the 1,4-regiospecific, N-silylated products. An ionic hydrosilylation mechanismis suggested based on the experiments. To support this mechanistic proposal, kinetic studies under catalytic conditions were performed. Also, the 1,4-regioselective mono-hydrosilylation of nitrogen containing compounds such as phenanthroline, quinoline and acridine can be achieved with the related Cp*complex [Cp*(phen)Ru(CH3CN)]+(3) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and HSiMe2Ph under mild conditions. The cationic ruthenium complex 2 can also be used as an efficient catalyst for transfer hydrogenation of various organic substrates including carbonyls, imines, nitriles and esters. Secondary alcohols, amines, N-isopropylidene amines and ether compounds can be obtained in moderate to high yields. In addition, other ruthenium complexes, 1,3 and [Cp*(PPri3)Ru(CH3CN)2]+(4), can catalyse transfer hydrogenation of carbonyls although the reactions were sluggish compared to the ones of 2. The possible intermediate, Cp(PPri3)Ru(CH3CN)(H), was characterized by NMR at low temperature and the kinetic studies for the transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone were performed. Recently, chemoselective reduction of acid chlorides to aldehydes catalysed by the complex 2 was reported. To extend the catalytic reactivity of 2, reduction of iminoyl chlorides, which can be readily obtained from secondary amides, to the corresponding imines and aldehydes was investigated. Various substituted iminoyl chlorides were converted into the imines and aldehydes under mild conditions and several products were isolated with moderate yields.
    • Chemoenzymatic Total Synthesis of Morphine alkaloids: Synthesis of Dihydrocodeine and Hydrocodone via a Double Claisen Strategy and ent-Hydromorphone via an Oxidative Dearomatization/intramolecular [4+2] Cycloaddition

      Varghese, Vimal; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2015-01-15)
      This thesis describes the chemoenzymatic synthesis of three morphine alkaloids. The total synthesis of dihydrocodeine and hydrocodone was accomplished starting from bromobenzene in 16 and 17 steps, respectively. The key steps included a microbial oxidation of bromobenzene by E. coli JM109 (pDTG601A), a Kazmaier-Claisen rearrangement of glycinate ester to generate C-9 and C-14 stereo centers, a Johnson-Claisen rearrangement to set the C-13 quaternary center, and a C-10/C-11 ring closure via a Friedel-Crafts reaction. In addition, the total synthesis of ent-hydromorphone starting from β-bromoethylbenzene in 12 steps is also described. The key reactions included the enzymatic dihydroxylation of β-bromoethylbenzene to the corresponding cis-cyclohexadienediol, a Mitsunobu reaction, and an oxidative dearomatization followed by an intramolecular [4+2] cycloaddition.
    • Electron Transfer Involving the Phylloquinone (A1) Cofactor of Photosystem I Examined with Time Resolved Absorbance and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

      Mula, Samuel Jr.; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2015-01-23)
      The dependence of the electron transfer (ET) rate on the Photosystem I (PSI) cofactor phylloquinone (A1) is studied by time-resolved absorbance and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Two active branches (A and B) of electron transfer converge to the FX cofactor from the A1A and A1B quinone. The work described in Chapter 5 investigates the single hydrogen bond from the amino acid residue PsaA-L722 backbone nitrogen to A1A for its effect on the electron transfer rate to FX. Room temperature transient EPR measurements show an increase in the rate for the A1A- to FX for the PsaA-L722T mutant and an increased hyperfine coupling to the 2-methyl group of A1A when compared to wild type. The Arrhenius plot of the A1A- to FX ET in the PsaA-L722T mutant suggests that the increased rate is probably the result of a slight change in the electronic coupling between A1A- and FX. The reasons for the non-Arrhenius behavior are discussed. The work discussed in Chapter 6 investigates the directionality of ET at low temperature by blocking ET to the iron-sulfur clusters FX, FA and FB in the menB deletion mutant strain of Synechocyctis sp. PCC 6803, which is unable to synthesize phylloquinone, by incorporating the high midpoint potential (49 mV vs SHE) 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (Cl2NQ) into the A1A and A1B binding sites. Various EPR spectroscopic techniques were implemented to differentiate between the spectral features created from A and B- branch electron transfer. The implications of this result for the directionality of electron transfer in PS I are discussed. The work discussed in Chapter 7 was done to study the dependence of the heterogeneous ET at low temperature on A1 midpoint potential. The menB PSI mutant contains plastiquinone-9 in the A1 binding site. The solution midpoint potential of the quinone measures 100 mV more positive then wild-type phylloquinone. The irreversible ET to the terminal acceptors FA and FB at low temperature is not controlled by the forward step from A1 to FX as expected due to the thermodynamic differences of the A1 cofactor in the two active branches A and B. Alternatives for the ET heterogeneity are discussed.
    • Diastereoselective Synthesis of Planar Chiral N-Substituted Ferrocenes Derived from Epimeric Imidazolones and their Application to Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Quinolines

      John, Joshni; Department of Chemistry (Brock University, 2015-03-02)
      This thesis describes the synthesis and use of an N-substituted ferrocene bearing a proline-derived chiral directing group and diastereoselective lithiation-electrophile quench of the pro-Sp hydrogen of the ferrocene to give planar chiral products in >95:5 dr. The auxiliary group is found to be stable to lithium bases of types RLi and R2NLi giving the same diastereoselectivity. The anti- epimer of the previously mentioned syn auxiliary induces lithiation of pro Rp rather than pro Sp hydrogen in >95:5 dr. Upon electrophile quench and elimination, the enantiomer of the syn-derived planar chiral imidazolone is obtained. Hence, this method provides a practical way to prepare planar chiral enantiomers in this series without the use of a more expensive D-proline derived starting material. The syn and anti epimers have β, γ-stereogenic centers and the origin of stereoselectivity in lithiation appears to be driven by the conformational bias exerted by the β-silyloxy moiety in each chiral auxiliary. In the thesis, this conclusion is supported using insensitivity of lithiation selectivity to the bulkiness of the base, comparison of enantiomers, deuteration experiments, nOe difference studies and computational modeling of the ground states and lithiation transition states for both substrates. The products are then converted to ligand precursors to make iridium and rhodium complexes. Among them, one of the cationic iridium complex is found to be effective in the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2-substituted quinolines with enantioselectivities up to 80% at pressures as low as 5 atm.
    • Single-Molecule Magnets and Multifunctional Molecular Magnetic Materials Based on Polynuclear Metal Complexes

      Alexandropoulos, Dimitrios; Department of Chemistry
      Our work on single molecule magnets and multifunctional magnetic materials is presented in four projects. In the first project we show for first time that heteroatomic-type pseudohalides, such as OCN-, can be employed as structure-directing ligands and ferromagnetic couplers in higher oxidation state metal cluster chemistry. The initial use of cyanato groups in Mn cluster chemistry has afforded structurally interesting MnII/III14 (1) and MnII/III/IV16 (2) clusters in which the end-on bridging cyanates show a preference in binding through their O-atom. The Mn14 compound shows entirely visible out-of-phase alternating currect signals below 5 K and large hysteresis loops below 2 K. Furthermore, the amalgamation of azido groups with the triethanolamine tripodal ligand in manganese carboxylate cluster chemistry has led to the isolation of a new ferromagnetic, high-nuclearity and mixed-valence MnII/III15Na2 (3) cluster with a large ground-state spin value of S = 14. In the second project we demonstrate a new synthetic route to purely inorganic-bridged, transition metal-azido clusters [CoII7 (4) and NiII7 (5)] and coordination polymers [{FeII/III2}n (6)] which exhibit strong ferromagnetic, SMM and long-range magnetic ordering behaviors. We also show that access to such a unique ferromagnetic class of inorganic, N-rich and O-free materials is feasible through the use of Me3SiN3 as the azido-ligand precursor without requiring the addition of any organic chelating/bridging ligand. In the last projects we have tried to bring together molecular magnetism and optics via the synthesis of multifunctional magnetic materials based on 3d- or 4f-metal ions. We decided to approach such challenge from two different directions: firstly, in our third project, by the deliberate replacement of non-emissive carboxylato ligands in known 3d-SMMs with their fluorescent analogues, without perturbing the metal-core structure and SMM properties (complexes 7, 8, and 9). The second route (last project) involves the use of naphthalene or pyridine-based polyalcohol bridging ligands for the synthesis of new polynuclear LnIII metal clusters (Ln = lanthanide) with novel topologies, SMM behaviors and luminescent properties arising from the increased efficiency of the “antenna” organic group. This approach has led us to the isolation of two new families of LnIII8 (complexes 10-13) and LnIII4 (complexes 14-20) clusters.
    • A. Discovery of novel reactivity under the Sonogashira reaction conditions B. Synthesis of functionalized BODIPYs and BODIPY-sugar conjugates

      Yalagala, Ravi Shekar; Department of Chemistry
      A. During our attempts to synthesize substituted enediynes, coupling reactions between terminal alkynes and 1,2-cis-dihaloalkenes under the Sonogashira reaction conditions failed to give the corresponding substituted enediynes. Under these conditions, terminal alkynes underwent self-trimerization or tetramerization. In an alternative approach to access substituted enediynes, treatment of alkynes with trisubstituted (Z)-bromoalkenyl-pinacolboronates under Sonogashira coupling conditions was found to give 1,2,4,6-tetrasubstituted benzenes instead of Sonogashira coupled product. The reaction conditions and substrate scopes for these two new reactions were investigated. B. BODIPY core was functionalized with various functional groups such as nitromethyl, nitro, hydroxymethyl, carboxaldehyde by treating 4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-2,6-diethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene with copper (II) nitrate trihydrate under different conditions. Further, BODIPY derivatives with alkyne and azido functional groups were synthesized and conjugated to various glycosides by the Click reaction under the microwave conditions. One of the BODIPY–glycan conjugate was found to form liposome upon rehydration. The photochemical properties of BODIPY in these liposomes were characterized by fluorescent confocal microscopy.