• The effect of feeding regime on larval black fly (Diptera: simuliidae) primary head fan ray number

      Lucas, Peter E.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1995-07-09)
      Identification of larval simuliids has always been difficult due to the morphological similarity many species bear to one another. For this reason all characters available have been drawn upon to aid in species identification, including head fan ray number. Even in light of an increasing body of anecdotal reports that head fan ray number is not fixed, it has continued to be used to aid species identification. In the current experiment simuliid larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions to last instar in one of three feeding regimes. Out of nine trials, the results of six showed a significant inverse relationship between feeding regime and head fan ray number. In addition to the laboratory experiments, larvae were also collected from the field over the course of the spring and summer, 1994. From these samples significant interspecific and intraspecific variations in head fan ray number were found both spatially and temporally within Algonquin Park. From these data it is concluded that head fan ray number for the species analysed is a developmentally plastic character, which varies in response to food availability. Furthermore, given the extreme variations in head fan ray number found in some species, I recommend that head fan ray number not be used as an aid to identification unless it can be shown to be a fixed character for the species in question.
    • The effect of gregarine parasite infections, age, and diet on calling song structure and mating behaviour in the Texas field cricket, Gryllus integer

      Proctor, Leslie Elizabeth.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      In the past ten years, many researchers have focussed their attention on parasites regarding the role they may play in causing variations in male secondary sexual traits and subsequent effects on female choice. Male age has also been suggested to be an important factor in female choice if old age reflects superior genes. This study investigated the effects that gregarine gut parasites, age, and diet have on the calling and mating behaviour of the male Texas field cricket, Gryllus integer. Male calling songs were recorded in the laboratory using a Digital Signal Processing Network. The song parameters measured were: pulse rate, pulse width, burst duration, pulses per burst, interburst interval, and percent missing pulses. The effects of parasite load and age on the various calling song parameters was investigated in crickets that were fed two different diets varying in nutritional quality. None of the calling song parameters were affected by either parasite load or age in either diet grou p. Courtship behaviour was ob served and recorded using an Eventlog recorder on an IBM computer in the laboratory. Females mated equally with paras(tized and unparasitized males and with old and young males The total duration and proportion of time spent performing each of 9 courtship displays were recorded for males on each diet. Only one display was affected by parasite load. Highly parasitized males fed the nutritionally inferior diet juddered for a proportionately shorter time than males with low parasite loads. Also, older males performed juddering and shaking antennae proportionally longer and juddering and raising wings for longer durations than younger males. Males that successfully mated were observed for performance of 8 post-copulatory guarding behaviour displays. None of the guarding behaviours were affected by parasite load. However, one display was affected by age, with older males performing guard turning for shorter durations than younger males. Results are discuss,ed in terms of the influence of parasites and age on female choice.
    • The effect of lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) on α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) binding to lipid membranes

      Baptist, Matilda; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2010-03-09)
      The a-tocopherol transfer protein (a-TTP) is responsible for the retention of the atocopherol form of vitamin E in living organisms. The detailed ligand transfer mechanism by a-TTP is still yet to be fully elucidated. To date, studies show that a-TTP transfers a-tocopherol from late endosomes in liver cells to the plasma membrane where it is repackaged into very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and released into the circulation. Late endosomes have been shown to contain a lipid known as lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBP A) that is unique to this cellular compartment. LBPA plays a role in intracellular trafficking and controlling membrane curvature. Taking these observations into account plus the fact that certain proteins are recruited to membranes based on membrane curvature, the specific aim of this project was to examine the effect of LBP A on a-TTP binding to lipid membranes. To achieve this objective, dual polarization interferometry (DPI) and a vesicle binding assay were employed. Whilst DPI allows protein binding affinity to be measured on a flat lipid surface, the vesicle binding assay determines protein binding affinity to lipid vesicles mimicking curved membranes. DPI analysis revealed that the amount of a-TTP bound to lipid membranes is higher when LBPA is present. Using the vesicle binding assay, a similar result was seen where a greater amount of protein is bound to large unilamellar vesicles (LUV s) containing LBP A. However, the effect of LBP A was attenuated when small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) were replaced with LUVs. The outcome of this project suggests that aTTP binding to membranes is influenced by membrane curvature, which in turn is induced by the presence of LBP A.
    • The effect of moisture on decomposition processes in the disturbed peatlands of the Wainfleet bog /

      Diamond, Joshua C.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2007-06-01)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of increased soil moisture levels on the decomposition processes in a peat-extracted bog. Field experiments, in which soil moisture levels were manipulated, were conducted using 320 microcosms in the Wainfleet Bog from May 2002 to November 2004. Decomposition was measured using litter bags and monitoring the abundance of macro invertebrate decomposers known as Collembola. Litter bags containing wooden toothpicks (n=2240), filter paper (n=480) and Betula pendula leaves (n=40) were buried in the soil and removed at regular time intervals up to one year. The results of the litter bag studies demonstrated a significant reduction of the decomposition of toothpicks (p<0.001), filter paper (p<0.001), and Betula pendula leaves (p<O.OO I) when soil moisture levels were increased to levels approaching those of natural conditions. These conditions significantly reduced the mean mass loss of toothpicks by 30 %, filter paper by 20 % and Betula pendula leaves by 18 % over one year when compared to the control. The abundance of Collembola was monitored using a non-destructive method in the microcosms. By contrast the effect of increased moisture levels on the abundance of Collembola was more variable and difficult to interpret. The conclusions of this study indicate that the Wainfleet Bog is a highly disturbed peatland and that the greatest reductions in decomposition can be obtained by restoring the soil moisture levels near those of undisturbed conditions.
    • The effect of nitrate fertilization on the distribution of exported 14c-photosynthate in nodulated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) plants

      Hunter, David Michael.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      Soybean (Glycine ~ (L.) Merr. cv. Harosoy 63) plants inoculated with Rhizobium japonicum were grown in vermiculite in the presence or absence of nitrate fertilization for up to 6 weeks after planting. Overall growth of nodulated plants was enhanced in the presence of nitrate fertilization, while the extent of nodule development was reduced. Although the number of nodules was not affected by nitrate fertilization when plants were grown at a light intensity limiting for photosynthesis, at light intensities approaching or exceeding the light saturation point for photosynthesis, nitrate fertilization resulted in at least a 30% reduction in nodule numbers. The mature, first trifoliate leaf of 21 day old plants was allowed to photoassimi1ate 14C02. One hour after·· the initial exposure to 14C02, the , plants were harvested and the 14C radioactivity was determined in the 80% ethanol-soluble fraction: in. o:rider to assess· "the extent of photoassimilate export and the pattern of distribution of exported 14C. The magnitude of 14C export was not affected by the presence of nitrate fertilization. However, there was a significant effect on the distribution pattern, particularly with regard to the partitioning of 14C-photosynthate between the nodules and the root tissue. In the presence of nitrate fertilization, less than 6% of the exported 14C photosynthate was recovered from the nodules, with much larger amounts (approximately 37%) being recovered from the root tissue. In the absence of nitrate fertilization, recovery of exported 14C-photosynthate from the nodules (19 to 27%) was approximately equal to that from the root tissue (24 to 33%). By initiating- or terminating the applications of nitrate at 14 days of age, it was determined that the period from day 14 to day 21 after planting was particularly significant for the development of nodules initiated earlier. Addition of nitrate fertilization at this time inhibited further nodule development while stimulating plant growth, whereas removal of nitrate fertilization stimulated nodule development. The results obtained are consistent with the hypothesis that nodule development is inhibited by nitrate fertilization through a reduction in the availability of photosynthate to the nodules.
    • The effect of pH and ethanol on the astringent sub-qualities of red wine, and the implications for optimum grape maturity /

      De Miglio, Palmina.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2004-06-04)
      The first objective of this study was to identify appropriate sensory descriptors to assess the astringent sub-qualities of red wine. The influence of pH and ethanol on the sensation of astringency in red wine was evaluated, using a de-alcoholized red wine. A portion of the wine was adjusted to the pH values of 3.2, 3.4, 3.6 and 3.8, and another portion was adjusted to ethanol concentrations of 0%, 6%, 12%, and 15%. In addition, the pH 3.4 and 3.6 treatments were adjusted to an ethanol concentration of 12% and 15% all wines were then assessed sensorially and seventeen terms were identified, through panel discussion, to describe the mouth-feel and taste qualities: velvet, aggressive, silk/satin, dry, fleshy, unripe, pucker viscosity, abrasive, heat, chewy, acidity, grippy/adhesive, bitter, balance, overall astringency, and mouth-coat. Descriptive analysis profiling techniques were used to train the panel and measure the intensity of these attributes. It was found that decreasing pH values (averaged across all ethanol concentrations) showed an increase in the overall astringency of the wine. The combined treatments of ethanol and pH, real wine parameters (pH 3.4 and 3.6; 12% and 15% ethanol) did not have an effect on the perception of the astringent sub-qualities of the wine. A time intensity study was also included using the pH and ethanol adjusted wines, which showed that as the ethanol level of the wines increased so did the time to maximum intensity. The second objective was to identify appropriate sensory descriptors to evaluate the influence of grape maturity and maceration technique (grape skin contact) on the astringency sub-qualities of red vinifera wines from Niagara. The grapes were harvested across two dates, representing an early harvest and a late harvest. A portion of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes wine was divided into three maceration treatments of oneweek maceration, standard two-week maceration, three-week maceration, and MCM. Another portion of both the early and late harvest Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were chaptalized to yield a final ethanol concentration of 14.5%. The wines were assessed sensorially and thirteen terms were identified, through panel discussion, to describe the mouth-feel and taste qualities: carbon dioxide, pucker, acidity, silk/chamois, dusty/chalky/powdery, sandpaper, numbing, grippy/adhesive, dry, mouthcoat, bitter, balance and, overall astringency. Descriptive analysis techniques were used to train the panel and measure the intensity of these attributes. The data revealed few significant differences in the mouth-feel of the wines with respect to maturity; which included differences in overall astringency and balance. There were varietal differences between Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, and Pinot Noir and differences for Cabernet Sauvignon wines due to the length and manner of maceration and as a result of chaptalization. Statistical analysis revealed a more complex mouth-feel for the Pinot Noir wines; and an increase in the intensity of the astringent sub-qualities as a result of the addition of sugar to the wines. These findings have implications for how processing decisions, such as optimum grape maturity and vinification methods may affect red wine quality.
    • Effect of pH on non-photochemical quenching in spinach photsystem 2 particles as measured by picosecond fluorescence decay kinetics

      Carpenter, Christene.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1995-11-04)
      Single photon timing was used to study picosecond chlorophyll a fluorescence decay kinetics of pH induced non-photochemical quenching in spinach photosystem 2 particles. The characteristics of this quenching are a decrease in chlorophyll a fluorescence yield as well as a decrease in photochemistry at low pH. Picosecond kinetics of room temperature fluorescence temporally resolve the individual components of the steady state fluorescence yield into components that are related to primary energy conversion processes in photosystem 2. Four components were resolved for dark adapted (Fo), light saturated (Fm), and chemically reduced (Nadithionite) photosystem 2 reaction centres. The fastest and slowest components, indicative of energy transfer to and energy capture by the photosystem 2 reaction centre and uncoupled ("dead") chlorophyll, respectively, were not affected by changing pH from 6.5 to 4.0. The two intermediate components, indicative of electron transfer processes within the reaction centre of photosystem 2, were affected by the pH change. Results indicate that the decrease in the steady state fluorescence yield at low pH was primarily due to the decrease in lifetime and amplitude of the slower of the intermediate components. These results imply that the decrease in steady state fluorescence yield at low pH is not due to changes in energy transfer to and energy capture by the photosystem 2 reaction centre, but is related to changes in charge stabilization and charge recombination in the photosystem 2 reaction centre.
    • The effect of Resveratrol on the Upregulation of Ngb

      Rezk, Mohamed; Department of Biological Sciences
      Apoptosis involves a series of biochemical events that leads to the eventual death of the cell. One pathway – intrinsic pathway, involves the fragmentation of mitochondria and the release of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as cytochrome c. A certain globin protein has been shown to be able to protect cells from apoptosis, called Neuroglobin (Ngb). Ngb is a globin haem protein that has been shown to reduce the ferric form of cytochrome c to inhibit apoptosis. In addition, Ngb has been shown to translocate into the mitochondria under stress, where it reacts with cytochrome c. Estradiol (E2) has been shown to greatly upregulate the levels of Ngb and also stimulates the translocation of Ngb into the mitochondria. The upregulation of Ngb has been shown to be mediated via the ER subtype, ERβ. Even though literature covers the effects of E2 and the ERβ agonist DPN (Diartylpropiolnitrile), there is a lack of evidence on the ER agonist, Resveratrol (RES); RES is a phytoestrogen that has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis and abrogate mitochondrial fragmentation, ameliorating apoptosis. The hypothesis of this study is that RES will upregulate Ngb levels as E2 does, and will translocate Ngb into the mitochondria as E2 does. The results of this study showed that Ngb bands could not be detected via western blots, and the mRNA transcript levels in MCF-7 and DLD-1 could not be quantified. The Ngb-GFP fusion protein did not fluoresce and Ngb’s translocation into the mitochondria could not be determined. Ngb overexpression did not inhibit mitochondrial fragmentation and did not induce mitochondrial fusion.
    • The effect of social condition and diet on the frequency of male-male agonistic displays in the field cricket, gryllus bimaculatus /

      Tachon, Gabrielle Rachel.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      The frequency and type of agonistic displays involved in male-male encounters should be significantly influenced by the presence of females. Discrete agonistic displays vary in energy expenditure and risk, and therefore should be dependent on available resources. The influence of live females and the scent of females, on the frequency of male agonistic displays was observed in a laboratory terrarium using the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. The effect of energy constraints on display frequency was also determined. Half the males were fed a diet high in protein and fet; the other males were fed a lower quality diet, for a 7-11 day period. The frequency of five individual displays and mating frequency were recorded using an Event Recorder and notebook. Each group of males was presented with three experimental conditions, over three days, involving the presence or absence of live females and female scent. The presence of females elicited an increase in all displays except antennation; female scent increased the frequency of antennations, mandible flares and grapples, but to a lesser extent than did live females. The frequency of grapples significantly increased for males fed the high quality diet; however diet did not influence the other displays. The combined influence of diet and condition was significant for mandible flare only. Mating frequency was not influenced by diet. However, the frequency ofthe displays were positively correlated with mating frequency for high quality fed males. Escalated displays involving high costs, such as grapple and mandible flare, increased in frequency when the benefits of winning contests were high in G.bimaculatus. Escalation to grapple behaviour was less evident for males fed the lower quality diet as this imposed energy constraints on high cost displays.
    • The effect of viticultural and oenological treatments on fruit and wine composition of Chardonnay musqué /

      Schlosser, James W.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2003-07-14)
      The effect of viticultural and oenological treatments on fruit and wine composition of Chardonnay musque Study I: Effect ofveraison leafremoval and cluster thinning A one-year study was performed analysing die effects of leaf removal, cluster thinning, yeast strain selection, and enzyme usage on the chemical composition and sensory properties of Chardonnay musque wine. A number of substantial differences were found between treatments in °Brix, TA, pH, and in free and potentially volatile terpene concentrations. Greatest variations in sensory attributes were created however through use of different viticultural practices.Study II: Effect ofcluster thinning timing A two year study was conducted investigating the effect of cluster thinning timing, yeast strain selection, and enzyme usage on the chemical composition and sensory attributes of Chardonnay musque wine. Time of thinning was found to impact °BrLx, titratable acidit}% pH, and free and potentially volatile terpene concentrations, as well as, a number of yield parameters.Yeast strain selection and enzyme usage also impacted wine composition, andwas found to exhibit a greater effect on sensory properties than application of cluster thinning.
    • Effects of a hydroxy-cinnamoyl conjugate of spermidine in the neuromuscular junction of crayfish /

      Klose, Markus.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      N'-coumaroyl spermidine (NlCSpd) is a plant derived chemical which is proposed to belong to a class of low molecular weight neuroactive substances called phenolic polyamines. NlCSpd is stnicturally similar to glutamate receptor blocking toxins found in certain spiders and wasps, such as JSTX-3 and NSTX-3 found in Nephila spiders. The goal of the present study was to determine if plant-derived phenolic polyamines act like other structurally related chemicals found in Arthropod venoms, such as JSTX-3, and whether they can be classified in the same pharmacological group as the spider and wasp toxins. A comparison was made to determine the relative potencies of various phenolic polyamines fi-om plants and insect venoms. This comparison was done by measuring the effect of various concentrations ofNlCSpd on the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) elicited in muscle of the crayfish Proccanbarus clarkii. NlCSpd was also tested on L-glutamate induced potentials to determine if a postsynaptic component to sj^naptic block occurs. NlCSpd and an analogue with an a longer polyamine chain, NlCSpm, blocked EPSPs in a dose dependent manner, NlCSpd having an IC50 of lOOnM. NlCSpd also blocked L-glutamate induced potentials. The two main components of the NlCSpd molecule alone are insufficient for activity. NlCSpd acts postsynaptically by interfering with crayfish glutamatergic synaptic transmission, likely blocking glutamate receptors by interacting with the same site(s) as other phenolic polyamines. Certain moieties on the polyamines molecule are necessary for activity while others are not.
    • The effects of cultural conditions and parasitism on the lipid composition of choanephora cucubitarum (Berk. Rav.) thaxter /|nJohn M. Deven. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont. : s. n.],

      Deven, John M.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      The fatty acid composition of the total, neutral, sterol, free fatty acid and polar-lipid fractions in the mycelium of Choanephora cucurbitarum was determined. The major fatty acids in all lipid fractions were palmitic, oleic, linoleic and y-linolenic acid. Different lipid fractions did not show any particular preference for any individual fatty acid; however, the degree of unsaturation was different in various lipid fractions. Addition of glutamic acid to the malt-yeast extract medium resulted in the biosynthesis of a number of long-chain fatty acids beyond y-linolenic acid. These fatty acids, e.g. C22~1' C24:0 and C26=Q were never observed to be present in the fungus when grown on a malt-yeast extract medium without glutamic acid. Furthermore, thin-layer chromatographic analysis showed a larger and denser spot of diphosphatidyl glycerol from the mycelium grown on the glutamic acid medium than from the control mycelium. Various cultural conditions such as temperature, age, pH, light and carbon:nitrogen ratio in the growth medium used in this study did not alter the qualitative profile of fatty acids normally present in the organism. Neither did these conditions stimulate the production of further long-chain fatty acids (C20 - C26) beyond y-linolenic acid as observed in growth media containing glutamic acid. These cultural conditions influenced the degree of unsaturation, this being due mainly to changes in the concentration of y-linolenic acid. The fatty acid pattern of the lipid fractions though the same qualitatively, differed quantitatively due to the variation in the y-linolenic acid content under different cultural conditions. The degree of unsaturation of various lipid fractions decreased with increases in temperature, light intensity and pH, but within each treatment the same pattern of decreasing degree of unsaturation with increasing age was observed. The cultural conditions, used in this study, are also known to influence the degree and rate of development of the parasite, Piptocephalis virginiana. A direct correlation was observed between the levels of y-linolenic acid in C. cucurbitarum during the early stages of growth (24 h) and the degree of parasitism of P. virginiana. The amount of y-linolenic acid present in the host mycelium was found to be unrelated to either the dry weight of the mycelium or to the total lipid contents. K. virginiana is confined to host species which produce y-linolenic acid in their mycelium. The lipid profile of the host, C. cucurbitarum, did not show a significant qualitative or quantitative change in the lipid profile as a result of infection by the parasite, P. virginiana,e However, an increase in the total lipid was observed in the infected host mycelium. The significance of these results is discussed.
    • Effects of female postmating odour on male sexual behaviour, in Heliconius butterflies /

      Cornish, Matt.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2001-05-21)
      The effects of the female postmating odour on male sexual behaviour were examined in Heliconius erato and H. charithonia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Predictions from the antiaphrodisiac hypothesis were tested using the two reproductive strategies of these species. Within the pupal mating strategy, results from behavioural experiments quantified and statistically tested dispersal rates of pupal-perched males to the presence of stimuli with and without the postmating odour. Results do not support an antiaphrodisiac function to the postmating odour. Similarly, within the adult courtship strategy, behavioural test results indicate that males do not alter their expenditure of energy in terms of either the duration or frequency of courtship behaviours elicited by females with and without the postmating odour. The data from both experiments did not support the antiaphrodisiac hypothesis for the function of the female postmating odour. A novel hypothesis predicting that the postmating female odour acts as an oviposition-deterring pheromone is presented.
    • The effects of gramicidin on the structure of phospholipid assemblies /

      Szule, Joseph A.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2001-07-14)
      Gramicidin is an antibiotic peptide that can be incorporated into the monolayers of cell membranes. Dimerization through hydrogen bonding between gramicidin monomers in opposing leaflets of the membrane results in the formation of an iontophoretic channel. Surrounding phospholipids, with various associated mechanical properties, have been shown to influence the gating properties of this channel. Conversely, gramicidin incorporation has been shown to affect the structure of spontaneously formed lipid assemblies. Using small-angle x-ray diffraction and model systems composed of phospholipids and gramicidin, the physical effects incurred by gramicidin incorporation were measured. The reverse hexagonal (H^) phase composed of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) monolayers decreased in lattice dimension with increasing incorporation of gramicidin. This indicated that gramicidin was adding negative curvature to the monolayers. In this system, gramicidin was measured to have an apparent intrinsic radius of curvature (Rop*™") of -7. 1 A. The addition of up to 4 mol% gramicidin in mixtures with DOPE did not result in the monolayers becoming stiffer, as indicated by unaltered bending moduli for each composition. Dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) alone forms the lamellar (LJ phase when hydrated, but undergoes a transition into the H^ phase when mixed with gramicidin. The lattice repeat dimension decreases systematically with increased gramicidin content. Again, this indicated that gramicidin was adding negative curvature to the monolayers. At 12 mol% gramicidin in mixtures with DOPC, the apparent radius of intrinsic curvature of gramicidin (Rop*"^) was measured to be -7.4 A. This mixture formed monolayers that were very resistant to bending under osmotic pressure, with a measured bending modulus of 1 15 kT. The measurements made in this study demonstrate that peptides are able to modulate the spontaneous curvature and other mechanical properties of phospholipid assemblies.
    • Effects of intracerebroventricular bombesin administration on local cerebral glucose utilization in the restrained and unrestrained rat

      Wang, FuHu.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of bombesin (BN) induces a syndrome characterized by stereotypic locomotion and grooming, hyperactivity and sleep elimination, hyperglycemia and hypothermia, hyperhemodynamics, feeding inhibition, and gastrointestinal function changes. Mammalian BN-like peptides (MBNs), e.g. gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), Neuromedin C (NMC), and Neuromedin B (NMB), have been detected in the central nervous system. Radio-labeled BN binds to specific sites in discrete cerebral regions. Two specific BN receptor subtypes (GRP receptor and NMB receptor) have been identified in numerous brain regions. The quantitative 2-[14C]deoxyglucose ([14C]20G) autoradiographic method was used to map local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) in the rat brain following ICV injection of BN (vehicle, BN O.1Jlg, O.5Jlg). At each dose, experiments were conducted in freely moving or restrained conditions to determine whether alterations in cerebral function were the result of BN central administration, or were the result of BN-induced motor stereotypy. The anteroventral thalamic nucleus (AV) (p=O.029), especially its ventrolateral portion (AVVL) (p<O.0005), exhibited increased rates of metabolism under both restraint conditions. The effect was treatment dependent without interaction of the restraint conditions. Of all the regions that were reported to have high densities of BN receptors, the internal granular layer of the olfactory bulb (IGr) (p=O.028), and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCh) (p=O.003) exhibited BN treatment effects. BN effects on LCGU were also observed in the median eminence (ME) (p=O.011). Restraint, however, decreased LCGU in the lateral dorsal thalamic nucleus, ventrolateral and dorsomedial parts (LOVL and LOOM) (p=O.044, p=O.009), and the lateral geniculate (LG) (p=O.027). In sum, BN induced a marked and highly localized alteration in cerebral metabolism within parts of the anterior thalamus, which is the principle relay in the limbic circuitry. BN effects were also observed in IGr, Mi, SCh, and ME. Effects of restraint were found in LOVL, LOOM, and LG. It is suggested that increased LCGU in AV and AVVL may be the result of functional change in the limbic circuitry and the hypothalamus caused by BN receptor functional modification. In IGr, increased LCGU following BN administration is considered to be mainly the result the activation of NMB receptor, a subtype of BN receptors. In SCh, increased LCGU is believed to be caused both by BN effects on the thalamic, the hypothalamic, and the limbic functions and by activation of GRP receptor, another BN receptors subtype found in SCh. In ME, increased LCGU is suggested to be caused by BN effects on the hypothalamic functions, especially those related to the neuroendocrine functions. None of the alterations seen in these regions reflects the emission of stereotyped motor behaviors. Rather, they reflect a direct influence of BN central administration upon functioning of the cerebral regions influenced by BN administration. The restraint effects seen in LO, including LOOM and LOVL, are suggested to be the result of altered behavioral expression. The restraint effects seen in LG is suggested to be the result of reduced locomotion.
    • Effects of large anphiphilic ligands upon the spectra and kinetics of cytochrome C oxidase

      He, Jia.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1992-11-04)
      Cytoch ro me c oxidase (ferrocytochrome c : 02 oxidoreductase ; EC 1.9. 3.1) is the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, catalyzing the transfer of electrons from ferrocytochrome c to molecular oxygen. The effects of two large amphiphilic molecules - valinomycin and dibucaine upon the spectra of the isolated enzyme and upon the activity of both isolated enzyme and enzyme in membrane systems are investigated by using spectrophotometric and oxygen electrode techniques. The results show that both valinomycin and dibucaine change the Soret region of the speetrum and cause a partial inhibition in a concentration range higher than that in which they act as ionophores. It is concluded that both valinomycin and dibucaine binding induce a conformational change of the protein structure which modifies the spectrum of the a3 CUB centre and diminishes the rate of electron transfer between cytochrome a and the binuclear centre.
    • Effects of large anphiphilic ligands upon the spectra and kinetics of cytochrome C oxidase

      He, Chia.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1992-07-09)
      Cytoch ro me c oxidase (ferrocytochrome c : 02 oxidoreductase ; EC 1.9. 3.1) is the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, catalyzing the transfer of electrons from ferrocytochrome c to molecular oxygen. The effects of two large amphiphilic molecules .. valinomycin and dibucaine upon the spectra of the isolated enzyme and upon the activity of both isolated enzyme and enzyme in membrane systems are investigated by using spectrophotometric and oxygen electrode techniques. The results show that both valinomycin and dibucaine change the Soret region of the spectrum and cause a partial inhibition in a concentration range higher than that in which they act as ionophores. It is concluded that both valinomycin and dibucain~ binding induce a conformational change of the protein structure which modifies the spectrum of the a3 CUB centre and diminishes the rate of electron transfer between cytochrome a and the binuclear centre.
    • Effects of low doses of quinpirole on production of 50 kHz vocalizations in Wistar rats

      Komadoski, Melanie D.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Rats emit two distinct types of ultrasonic vocalizations in adulthood: 22 kHz (aversive situation), and 50 kHz calls (appetitive situation). The present project is focussed on pharmacological studies of 50 kHz vocalizations. The 50 kHz calls are elicited from dopaminergic activation in the meso limbic pathway and are emitted in such appetitive situations as social contact(s), sexual encounters, food reward, etc. Eighty-five male rats were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral guide cannulae in the nucleus accumbens shell (A= 9.7, L= 1.2, V= 6.7). Quinpirole, a D2/D3 dopaminergic agonist, was injected in low doses to the nucleus accumbens shell in an attempt to elicit 50 kHz vocalizations. A dose response was obtained for the low dose range of quinpirole for six doses: 0.025 Jlg, 0.06 Jlg, 0.12 Jlg, 0.25 Jlg, 0.5 Jlg, and 1.0 Jlg. It was found that only application of the 0.25 Jlg dose of quinpirole and the 7 Jlg dose of amphetamine (positive control) significantly increased the total number of 50 kHz calls (p < 0.006 and p < 0.004 respectively); and particularly significantly increased the frequency modulated type of these calls (p < 0.01, and p < 0.006 respectively). In a double injection procedure, the dose of 0.25 Jlg quinpirole was antagonized with raclopride (D2 antagonist) or U99194A maleate (D3 antagonist) in an attempt to antagonize the response. The 0.25 Jlg dose of quinpirole was successfully antagonized by pre-treatment with an equimolar dose of U99194A maleate (p < 0.008) but not with raclopride. The 7Jlg amphetamine response was also antagonized with an equimolar dose of raclopride. Based on these results, it seems that low doses of quinpirole, particularly the 0.25 Jlg dose, are capable of increasing 50 kHz vocalizations in rats and do so by activation of the D3 dopamine receptor. This is not a biphasic response as seen with locomotor studies. Also noteworthy is the increase in frequency modulated 50 kHz calls elicited by the 0.25 Jlg dose of quinpirole indicating a possible increase in positive affect.
    • The effects of plants(Typha Latifolia)and root-bed medium on the treatment of domestic sewage within a vertical flow constructed wetland /

      Rozema, Lloyd R.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2000-07-14)
      The effect that plants {Typha latifolia) as well as root-bed medium physical and chemical characteristics have on the treatment of primary treated domestic wastewater within a vertical flow constructed wetland system was investigated. Five sets of cells, with two cells in each set, were used. Each cell was made of concrete and measured 1 .0 m X 1 .0 m and was 1.3 m deep. Four different root-bed media were tested : Queenston Shale, Fonthill Sand, Niagara Shale and a Michigan Sand. Four of the sets contained plants and a single type of root-bed medium. The influence of plants was tested by operating a Queenston Shale set without plants. Due to budget constraints no replicates were constructed. All of the sets were operated independently and identically for twenty-eight months. Twelve months of data are presented here, collected after 16 months of continuous operation. Root-bed medium type did not influence BOD5 removal. All of the sets consistently met Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE) requirements (<25 mg/L) for BOD5 throughout the year. The 12 month average BOD5 concentration from all sets with plants was below 2.36 mg/L. All of the sets were within MOE discharge requirements (< 25 mg/L) for suspended solids with set effluent concentrations ranging from 1.53 to 14.80 mg/L. The Queenston Shale and Fonthill Sand media removed the most suspended solids while the Niagara Shale set produced suspended solids. The set containing Fonthill Sand was the only series to meet MOE discharge requirements (< Img/L) for total phosphorus year-round with a twelve month mean effluent concentration of 0.23 mg/L. Year-round all of the root-bed media were well below MOE discharge requirements (< 20mg/L in winter and < 10 mg/L in sumnner) for ammonium. The Queenston Shale and Fonthill Sand sets removed the most total nitrogen. Plants had no effect on total nitrogen removal, but did influence how nitrogen was cycled within the system. Plants increased the removal of suspended solids by 14%, BOD5 by 10% and total phosphorus by 22%. Plants also increased the amount of dissolved oxygen that entered the system. During the plant growing season removal of total phosphorus was better in all sets with plants regardless of media type. The sets containing Queenston Shale and Fonthill Sand media achieved the best results and plants in the Queenston Shale set increased treatment efficiency for every parameter except nitrogen. Vertical flow wetland sewage treatment systems can be designed and built to consistently meet MOE discharge requirements year-round for BOD5, suspended solids, total phosphorus and ammonium. This system Is generally superior to the free water systems and sub-surface horizontal flow systems in cold climate situations.
    • Effects of reflection and social isolation on crayfish behaviour /

      Drozdz, Joanna K.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2006-06-01)
      Visual stimuli and socialization influence exploratory behaviour in crayfish. The predominant components of spontaneous exploratory behaviour were determined by observing the activity of solitary adult crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in a glass aquarium containing fresh water and no objects. Five distinct behaviours were observed: rearing up (climbing on the wall), turning around, cornering (facing the comer), backward walking, and crossing (crossing the midline of the aquarium). The frequency of rearing up, cornering and turning around decreased when reflection from the glass wall was blocked with black cardboard, black paint or non-reflective transparent plastic. In a tank containing mirrors on one side and non-reflective plastic on the other, crayfish cornered, reared up, and turned around more in front of the mirrors. Socialization was necessary for crayfish to respond to the reflection. Crayfish that were housed in pairs for two weeks exhibited more rearing up, turning around and cornering in front of the mirrors than in the non-reflective side. Crayfish isolated for two weeks did not show these differences. Socialized crayfish also exhibited more rearing up, turning around and cornering than did isolated crayfish. Thus, crayfish respond to visual stimuli provided by a glass tank, but the responds depends on socialization.