• Measurement of repulsive forces between charged phospholipid bilayers

      Cowley, Alexandra Christina.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Electrostatic forces between membranes containing charged lipids were assumed to play an important role in influencing interactions between membranes long before quantitative measurements of such forces were available. ~ur measurements were designed to measure electrostatic forces between layers of lecithin charged with lipi~s carrying ionizable head groups. These experiments have shown that the interactions between charged lipid bila.yere are dominated by electrostatic forces only at separations greater than 30 A. At smaller separations the repulsion between charged bilayers is dominated by strong hydration forces. The net repulsive force between egg lecithin bilayers containing various amounts of cherged lipids (phosphatidylglycerol (PG) 5,10 ano 50 mole%, phosphatidyli. nosi tol (PI) 10 mole% and sodium oleate (Na-Ol) 3,5 and 10 mole%, where mole% gives the ratio of the number of moles' of .charged lipid to the total number of moles of all lipids present in the sample) was stuoied with the help ('If the osmotic streas technique described by LeNeveu et aI, (1977). Also, the forces between pure PG were j_nvestigated in the same manner. The results have been plotted showing variation of force as a function of bilay- _ er separation dw• All curVes 90 obtained called force curves, were found to be similar in sha.pe, showing two distinct regions, one when dw<.30 A is a region cf very rapid iiivariation of force with separation ( it is the region dominated by hydre,tion force) and second when dw> 40 A is a region of very slow variation of force with separB.tion ( it is the region dominated by the electrostatic force). Between these two regions there exists a transition area in which, in most systems studied, a phase separation of lipids into fractions containing different amounts of charged groups, was observed. A qualitative analysis showed that our results were v/ell described by the simple electrostatic double -le.yer theory. For quantitative agreement between measured and calculated force curves however, the charge density for the calculations had to be taken as half of that given by the number density of charged lipids present in the lecithin bilayers. It is not clear at the moment what causes such low apparent degree of ionization among the charged head groups, and further study is needed in this area.
    • Paleoindicators of meromixis

      Cheek, Michael Ross.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      This study was undertaken to ascertain whether meromictic lakes could be differentiated from holomictic lakes on the basis of their surficial profundal sediments. Surface sediment cores (15 cm long) were collected from both the littoral and profundal zones of four meromictic and six holomictic lakes and analyzed for total number of fossil chironomid headcapsu~es, chlorophyll and carotenoid degradation products as well as \ iron and manganese concentrations. Littoral and profundal comparisons of the surface sediments were made between the two lake types using the Mann-Whitney U test. Iron, manganese and the iron to manganese ratio in the littoral sediments of meromictic lakes were significantly lower than those found in the littoral sediments of holomictic lakes. The observed differences are believed to represent an artifact of the significantly higher carbonate concentrations found in three of the four meromictic lakes studied. Profundal and littoral to profundal ratio comparison between holomictic and meromictic lakes suggest that the significantly lower iron and higher carotenoid concentrations in meromictic profundal sediments were a con~equence of meromixis. However, the overlap in distribution exhibited by both iron and carotenoid degradation products between the two lake types was sufficiently large in this study to nullify their use as a means of differentiating meromictic from holomictic lakes. A long core (4.25 m) was removed from the deepest part of the meromictic Crawford Lake (Ontario), sectioned at 5 cm intervals, and analyzed to assess when meromixis occurred, based on its fossil record. Temporal changes in the total number of chironomid headcapsules, and chlorophyll and carotenoid sediment degradation products were closely correlated with organic matter, indicating in my opinion that extensive redeposition of littoral chironomid headcapsules in the profundal zone has occurred. Temporal variations in carotenoid degradation products, in response to changes in organic matter, obscured increased preservation that may have occurred as a consequence of meromixis. Temporal variations in iron and manganese suggest that relatively stable redox conditions have existed throughout most of the lake's history. Therefore it would appear that Crawford Lake has been meromictic since its inception.
    • Postglacial variations in aquatic productivity in Found Lake, Ontario

      Earle, John Christopher.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
    • Sex chromosome translocation and speciation : a Drosophila genetic model

      Espinet, Susan Andrea.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Although exceptions may be readily identified, two generalizations concerning genetic differences among species may be drawn from the available allozyme and chromosome data. First, structural gene differences among species vary widely. In many cases, species pairs do not differ more than intraspecific populations. This suggests that either very few or no gene substitutions are required to produce barriers to reproduction (Avise 1976). Second, chromosome form and/or number differs among even closely related species (White 1963; 1978; Fredga 1977; Wright 1970). Many of the observed chromosomal differences involve translocational rearrangements; these produce severe fitness depression in heterozygotes and were, thus, long considered unlikely candidates for the fixation required of genetic changes leading to speciation (Wright 1977). Nonetheless, the fact that species differences are frequently translocational argues convincingly for their fixation despite prejudices to the contrary. Haldane's rule states that in the F of interspecific crosses, the heterogametic sex is absent or sterile in the preponderance of cases (Haldane 1932). This rule definitely applies in the genus Dr°sophila (Ehrman 1962). Sex chromosome translocations do not impose a fitness depression as severe as that imposed by autosomal translocations, and X-Y translocations may account for Haldane's rule (Haldane 1932). Consequently a study of the fit ness parameters of an X·yL and a yS chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster populations was initiated by Tracey (1972). Preliminary results suggested that x.yL//YSmales enjoyed a mating advantage with X·yL//X·yL females, that this advantage was frequency dependent, that the translocation produced sexual isolation and that interactions between the yL, yS and a yellow marker contributed to the observed isolation (Tracey and Espinet 1976; Espinet and Tracey 1976). Encouraged by the results of these prelimimary studies, further experiments were performed to clarify the genetic nature of the observed sexual isolation, S the reality of the y frequency dependent fitness .and the behavioural changes, if any, produced by the translocation. The results of this work are reported herein. Although the marker genes used in earlier studies, sparkling poliert an d yellow have both been found to affect activity,but only yellow effects asymmetric sexual isolation. In addition yellow effects isolation through an interaction with the T(X-y) chromosomes, yS also effects isolation, and translocational strains are isolated from those of normal karyotype in the absence of marker gene differences. When yS chromosomes are in competition with y chromosomes on an X.yL background, yS males are at a distinct advantage only when their frequency is less than 97%. The sex chromosome translocation alters the normal courtship pattern by the incorporation of circling between vibration and licking in the male repertoire. Finally a model of speciation base on the fixation of this sex chromosome translocation in a geographically isolated gene pool is proposed.
    • The regulation of oat coleoptile phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and malic enzyme by Hâ ½ and metabolites : kinetic evidence for and against a cytosolic pH-stat

      Smith, Ceredwyn Elizabeth.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and malic enzyme activities in soluble protein extracts of Avena coleoptiles were investigated to determine whether their kinetics were consistent with a role in cytosol pH regulation. Malic enzyme activity was specific for NADP+ and Mn2+. Maximal labelled product formation from [14C]-substrates required the presence of all coenzymes, cofactors and substrates. Plots of rate versus malate concentration, and linear transformations there- 2 of, indicated typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics at non-saturating malate levels and substrate inhibition at higher malate levels. pH increases between 6.5 and 7.25 increased near-optimal activity, decreased the degree of substrate inhibition and the Kmapp(Mn2+) but did not affect the Vmax or Kmapp(malate). Transformed data of PEPC activity demonstrated non-linear plots indicative of non-Michaelian kinetics. pH increases between 7.0 and 7.6 increased the Vmax and decreased the Km app (Mg2+) but did not affect the Kmapp(PEP). Various carboxylic acids and phosphorylated sugars inhibited PEPC and malic enzyme activities, and these effects decreased with pH increases. Metabolite inhibited malic enzyme activity was non-competitive and resulted mainly from Mn2+ chelation. In contrast, metabolite inhibited PEPC activity was unique for each compound tested, being variously dependent on the PEP concentration and the pH employed. These results indicate that fluctuations in pH and metabolite levels affect PEPC and malic enzyme activities similarly and that 3 the in vitro properties of PEPC are consistent with its proposed role in a pH-stat, whereas the in vitro properties of the malic enzyme cannot be interpreted in terms of a role in pH regulation.
    • Investigations on the production of long chain fatty acids in Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk.

      Parmar, Yashpal Inder.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-11-04)
      The fatty acid composition of the total cellular lipids of Choanephora cucurbitarum incubated for 96 hrs on either glucose-ammonium sulfate or malt-weast extract media was determined. The major fatty acids were palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and linoleic acids. The saturated fatty acid possessing the longest acyl chain was stearate (C 18:0). The presence of glutamic acid (2.0 x 10-1% or 1.36 x la-2M) in either of the above growth media resulted in increase in percent of 1f-linolenic acid, decrease in percent of linoleic ~iCid and appearance of a new series of fatty acid> C ~8 e.g. C ",,,,'V' C2k:O, C26,O. The addition of glutamic acid had no effect on the lipid yield but slightly decreased the degree of unsaturation. Compounds which duplicated the effect of glutamic acid were acetate, malate, citrate, succinate, 0( -ketoglutarate, prOline, -y -aminobutyric acid and glucose (3%) but not aspartic acid or alanine. ~o correlation was found between glutamic acid pool concentration and the presence in the growth medium of those compounds which stimulate long chain fatty acid production. Four hours of incubation with 27 JJ 1-1 glutamate supported the production of long chain fatty acids. This stimulation is inhibited if 272 .u M isophthalic acid is added with 27 AJ M glutamate. But, long chain fatty acids were detected when 27 JJ M eX -ketoglutarate is also present in the incubation mixture. Five hours of incubation with 100 ,Mg/ml of cycloheximide resulted in over 9CY/o inhibition of cytoplasmic :protein synthesise Glutamate (27 .uM) enhanced the synthesis of long chain fatty acids under these conditions. These findings are discussed in an attempt to provide a plausible explanation COmmon to compounds that support the production of long chain fatty acids.
    • Relationship between photoperiod, plasma concentration of ionic calcium and the histology of the prolactin-secreting cells of the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland, the corpuscles of stannius and the ultimobranchial gland in the goldfish, Carassius auratus L. /

      Calarco, Ann Marie.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1980-06-09)
      The relationship between photoperiod, plasma concentration of ionic calcium and the histology of the prolactin-secreting cells of the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland, the Corpuscles of Stannius and the Ultimobranchial gland were investigated. Neither the plasma concentration of ionic calcium nor histologically apparent prolactin cell activity could be correlated with photoperiod. Some evidence of a photoperiodic effect on both the Corpuscles of Stannius and the Ultimobranchial gland was obtained. The expected reciprocal relationship between the activity of these glands was not obvious at the histological level . Quantitative and qualitative analysis at the light microscope level revealed, however, that the hormone prolactin-secreting eta cells of the rostral pars distalis and the hypocalcin-secreting cells of the Corpuscles of Stannius may be arranged in a lamellar pattern comprized of synchronous bands of cells in like-phase of a secretory cycle consisting of four stages - synthesis, storage, release and reorganization. Such synchronized cell cycles in these glands have not heretofore been described in literature. It is suggested that the maintenance of at least 255? of the cells in any one phase of the cycle ensures a supply of the required hormone at all times.
    • Host-parasite relations in a mycoparasitic system : alterations in membrane permeability and lipid composition in Choanephora cucurbitarum infected by Piptocephalis virginiana /

      Maharaj, Rajendranath P.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1980-06-15)
      examined in Choanephora cucurbita rum during the early stages of infection by Piptocephalis virginiana » There was a small but consistent increase in the leakage of electrolytes, amino acids and sugars as a result of infection. These low levels of differential leakage in infected tissues are explained on the basis of the nature of this obligate, biotrophic, mycoparasitic system. Quantitative analysis of the twenty six amino acids and amino compounds detected in the leacheates — showed similar profiles in infected and control host and no new species of amino acids or amino compounds were detected in either infected or control host leacheates. Comparatively high amounts of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine were found in the leacheates of host and infected host . Analyses of the sugars comprising the leacheates of infected and control host showed the presence of eight sugars, among which glucose was found in significant amounts (50-53%) ' The nutritional implication of this preferential leakage is discussed. No significant difference was observed in the leacheates of infected host sugar profiles compared with that of the control host. Profiles of the internal pool sugars of infected and control host did not reflect that obtained from the leacheate data, perhaps owing to leakage of sugars in a selective manner . Membrane lipid analyses yielded higher levels of lipid in infected host compared with the control, both at the 24 h and 36 h analyses. In addition, preliminary investigations of phosphorous-32 incorporation and turnover in phospholipids showed higher levels of 32p incorporation and turnover in infected host compared with the control. No apparent difference was noted in the profiles of the neutral lipid classes and the polar lipid classes of the membrane lipids as determined by one and two dimensional thin-layer chromatography respectively. However, a small but consistently higher degree of unsaturation was detected in the fatty acids of infected tissue compared with the control. Also, '^''-^^''^^'-'-^'^^c acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid previously reported to show a direct correlation during the early stages of infection and the degree of parasitism of P. virginiana on C. cucurbitarum , was found in higher amounts in infected host membrane lipids compared with that of the control host. The implications of these membrane lipid alterations are discussed with particular reference to the small but consistently higher leakage of electrolytes, amino acids and sugars observed during infection in this study.
    • Effect of diurnal cycling temperatures on cardiovascular- ventilatory function in statically-acclimated rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

      Henry, James Arthur Charles.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      Four groups of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, were acclimated to 2°, 10°, and 18°e, and to a diurnal temperature cycle (100 ± 4°C). To evaluate the influence of cycling temperatures in terms of an immediate as opposed to acclimatory response various ventilatory-cardiovascular rate functions were observed for trout, either acclimated to cycling temperatures or acclimated to constant temperatures and exposed to a diurnal temperature cycle for the first time (10° ± 4°C for trout acclimated to 10°C; 18°+ 4°C for trout acclimated to l8°e). Gill resistance and the cardiac to ventilatory rate ratio were then calculated. Following a post preparatory recovery period of 36 hr, measurements were made over a 48 hour period with the first 24 hours being at constant temperature in the case of statically-acclimated fish followed by 24 hours under cyclic temperature conditions. Trout exhibited marked changes in oxygen consumption (Vo ) with temp- 2 erature both between acclimation groups, and in response to the diurnal temperature cycle. This increase in oxygen uptake appears to have been achieved by adjustment of ventilatory and, to some extent, cardiovascular activity. Trout exhibited significant changes in ventilatory rate (VR), stroke volume (Vsv), and flow (VG) in response to temperature. Marked changes in cardiac rate were also observed. These findings are discussed in relation to their importance in convective oxygen transport via water and blood at the gills and tissues. Trout also exhibited marked changes in pressure waveforms associated with the action of the resp; ratory pumps with temperature. Mean differenti a 1 pressure increased with temperature as did gill resistance and utilization. This data is discussed in relation to its importance in diffusive oxygen transport and the conditions for gas exchange at the gills. With one exception, rainbow trout were able to respond to changes in oxygen demand and availability associated with changes in temperature by means of adjustments in ventilation, and possibly pafusion, and the conditions for gas exchange at the gills. Trout acclimated to 18°C, however, and exposed to high cyclic temperatures, showed signs of the ventilatory and cardiovascular distress problems commonly associated with low circulating levels of oxygen in the blood. It appears these trout were unable to fully meet the oxygen requirements associated with c~ling temperatures above 18°C. These findings were discussed in relation to possible limitations in the cardiovascular-ventilatory response at high temperatures. The response of trout acclimated to cycling temperatures was generally similar to that for trout acclimated to constant temperatures and exposed to cycling temperatures for the first time. This result suggested that both groups of fish may have been acclimated to a similar thermal range, regardless of the acclimation regime employed. Such a phenomenon would allow trout of either acclimation group to respond equally well to the imposed temperature cycle. Rainbow trout showed no evidence of significant diurnal rhythm in any parameters observed at constant temperatures (2°, 10°, and 18° C), and under a 12/12 light-dark photoperiod regime. This was not taken to indicate an absence of circadian rhythms in these trout, but rather a deficiency in the recording methods used in the study.
    • Feeding rates, parental investment, and brood reduction in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia)

      Quinn, James Scott.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      Fresh egg-weights and feeding rates to chicks were related to chick survival as one means of quantifying apportionment of parental investment wi thin broods of Caspian Terns (SterDI casRla) at a colony in Georgian Bay. Lake Huron, during 1978 and 1979. Ftrst-laid eggs from 2-egg clutches were Significantly heavier and usually hatched one to three days earlier than second-laid eggs in both years of the study. In both years, first-hatched chicks were larger and generally better fed than second-hatched siblings. The disparity between feedIng rates of first- and second-hatched ehicks was greater in 1979. Brood feeding I rates correlated positively with the percentage of food fed to the least-fed sibUng through the period of B-chick ages zero to 10 days in 1978. I suggest that after this age period, parental control over whlcb cbick was fed diminished. In 1978, 10 of 16 secondhatched chicks were fed more than their older siblings during their first 5 days. 'lb.is is interpreted as a parental response to reduce the competitive advantage of the larger first-hatched chicks. Most chick losses were apparently caused by starvation or preda. tion. In 1979, seeorvl-hatched chick disappearance (due to predation) was -related to low feeding rates, whereas first-hatched chick disappearance was related to low fresh egg-weights.. First-hatched chicks survived better than second-hatched chicks both years, and more pairs fledged two chicks in 1978. Maximum estimated feeding rates at the nest and fledging ages suggested that food was more avatlable in 1978 than in 1979. In 1979, second eggs apparently functioned as "insurance" eggs. When the first-laid egg falled to hatch, or the first-hatched chick died, the second-hatched chick was often successfully fledged. When first-hatched chicks survived, the second-hatched chick usually starved or was preyed upon, reducing the brood to one chick. Parental investment patterns favored first-hatched chicks. Brood reduction, when employed, discouraged total nest failure, however, under appropriate conditions, brood reduction was avoided and full broods (or two chicks) were fledged.
    • Ionic regulation in goldfish, Carassius auratus, acclimated to constant and diurnally-cycling temperature conditions

      Koss, Teddy Frank.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      The effects of a diurnal sine-wave temperature cycle (250 +- 5° C) on the wa terI-e etc r o1 yt est a t us 0 f gol df1' Sh , Carassius auratus, was assessed through determination of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl- and water content in plasma, Red blood cells and muscle tissue. Animals were also acclimated to o 0 0 static temperatures (20 C, 25 c, 30 C) corresponding to the high, low and mid-ooint temperatures of the cycle. All groups were sampled at 03:00, 09:00, 15:00 and 21:00 hr. Hemoglobin content and packed cell volume, as well as electrolyte and 'water levels were determined for each animal and red cell ion concentrations and ion : hemoglobin ratios estimated. Cycled animals were distinct from those at constant temperatures in several respects. Hematological parameters were elevated above those of animals at constant temperature and were, on a diurnal basis, more stable. Red blood cell electrolyte levels varied in an adaptively appropriate fashion to cycle temperatures. This was not the case in the constant temperature groups_ Under the cycling regime, plasma ion levels were more diurnally stable than those of constant temperature fish. Although muscle parameters in cycled fish exhibited more fluctuation than was observed in plasma, these also tended to be relatively more stable than was the caseErythrocytic data are discussed in terms of their effects on hemoglobin-oxygen affinity while plasma and muscle observations were considered from the standpoint of overall water-electrolyte balance. In general, cycled fish appeared to be capable of stabilizing overall body fluid composition, while simultaneously effecting adaptively-appropriate modifications in the erythrocytic ionic microenvironment of hemoglobin. The sometimes marked diurnal variability of water-electrolyte status in animals held at constant temperature as opposed to the conservation of cycled fish suggests that this species is, in some fashion, programmed for regulation in a thermally-fluctuating environment. If this interpretation is valid and a phenomenon of general occurrence, some earlier studies involving constant acclimation of eurythermal species normally occupying habitats which vary in temperature on a daily basis may require reconsideration. at constant temperature.
    • Sexual behavior and factors affecting female reproduction in house and field crickets

      Sakaluk, Scott Kitchener; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      The objective of this investigation was to clarify the adaptive significance of female sexual behaviours in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, and the Texas field cricket, Gryllus integer. Experiments were focussed primarily on: nutritional factors affecting female reproductive success; the ontogeny of female sexual behaviours; female mating frequency and progeny production; and the pattern of sperm competition. Reproduction of singly mated female A. domesticus assigned to 3 nutritional regimes was compared . Females fed a vitamin and protein-enriched mouse chow, cannibalistic females, and starved females produced on the average, 513 , 200 and 68 offspring, respectively. Cannibals probably could not obtain the same amounts of essential nutrients as females fed mouse chow. Reabsorption of oocytes was likely the major factor contributing to the decreased reproduction of starved females. In addition, female !. domesticus fed mouse chow, but allowed constant access to males produced 11 times as many offspring than did females fed corn meal. Females fed corn meal probably could not absorb or synthesize enough dietary lipids, thus resulting in poor ovariole growth. Female !. domesticus first mate at an average adult age of 7 days, closely corresponding to when they first exhibit positive phonotaxis. Females mate repeatedly and often consume the externally attached spermatophore. In ~. domesticus, females allowed constant access to males produced significantly more offspring than did single maters. Similarly, doubly mated G. integer females produced more offspring than did single maters. This difference resulted largely from the failure of many single maters to reproduce. Remating by female crickets partly functions in offsetting the possibility of a failed initial mating. Nymph production increased significantly with the time the spermatophore was attached in singly mated ~. domesticus. Spermatophore consumption by the female was not affected by male guarding behaviour, and the interval between mating and eating of the spermatophore may often be shorter than the time required for maximum insemination. Some degree of sperm depletion in singly mated !. domesticus and G. integer may have occurred. The patterns of daily offspring production of singly and multiplymated females suggests that a factor provided by a male during mating stimulates female oviposition and/or egg production. Female crickets also might acquire nutrition from spermatophore consumption, a benefit that is augmented by female multiple mating. The electrophoretic examination of various allozymes in ~. integer did not permit determination of a pattern of sperm competition. However, the possibility of last male sperm predominance is related to male guarding behaviour.
    • The effect of age on the structure and compostition of the cell walls of Choanephora cucurbitarum

      Campbell, Craig D.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      The effect of age on the structure and composition of isolated and purified cell walls from cultures of Choanephora cucurbitarum was investigated by microchemical analyses, visible and infrared spectrophotometry, x-ray diffractometry and electron microscopy. Qualitative evaluation revealed the presence of lipids, proteins, neutral sugars, strong alkali soluble sugars, chitin, chitosan and uronic acids in the cell walls of both the 1 and 7 day old cultures. As the mycelium aged, there was a slight but statistically significant increase in the protein content, and a pronounced rise in the chitin and neutral sugar constituents of the cell walls. Conversely, the decrease in the chitosan content during this period had the net effect of altering the chitin: chitosan ratio from near unity in the younger cultures, to a 2:1 ratio in the 7 day old cell wall samples. Glutaraldehyde-osmium fixed thin sections of the 1 day old vegetative hyphae of £. curbitarum revealed the presence of a monolayered cell wall, which upon aging became bilayered. Replicas of acid hydrolysed cell walls demonstrated that both the 1 and 7 day old samples possessed an outer layer which was composed of finely granular amorphous material and randomly distributed microfibrils. The deposition of an inner secondary layer composed of parallel oriented microfibrils in the older hypha was correlated with an increase in the chitin content in the cell wall. The significance of these results with respect to the intimate relationship between composition and structure is discussed.
    • The effects of static and diurnally-cycling temperature acclimations on thermal tolerances of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

      Threader, Ronald William Joseph.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      :ofiedian lethal temperatures ( LT50' s ) were determined for rainbow trout, Salmo gairdnerii, acclimated for a minimum of 21 days at 5 c onstant temperatures between 4 and 20 0 C. and 2 diel temperature fluctuations ( sinewave curves of amplitudes ± 4 and ± 7 0 C. about a mean temperature of 12 0 C. ) . Twenty-four-, 48-, and 96-hour LT50 estimates were c alculated f ollowing standard flow-through aquatic bioassay techniques and probi t transformation of mortality data. The phenomenon of delayed thermal mortality was also investigated. Shifts in upper incipient lethal temperature occurred as a result of previous thermal conditioning. It was shown that increases in constant acclimation temperature result in proportional l inear increases in thermal tolerances. The increase i n estimated 96-hour LT50's was approximately 0.13 0 c. X 1 0 C:1 between 8 and 20 0 C. The effect of acclimation to both cyclic temperature regimes was an increase in LT50 to values between the mean and maximum constant equivalent daily temperatures of the cycles. Twenty-four-, 48-, and 96-hour LT50 estimates of both cycles corresponded approximately to the LT50 values of the 16 0 C. c onstant temperature equivalent . This increase i n thermal tolerance was further demonstrated by the delayed thermal mortality experiments . Cycle amplitudes appeared to i nfluence thermal resistance through alterations in initi al mortality since mortality patterns characteristic of base temperature acclimations re-appeared after approximately 68 hours exposure to test temperatures for the 12 + 4 0 C. group, whereas mortality patterns stabilized and remained constant for a period greater than 192 hours with the larger therma l cycle ( 12 + 7 0 C. ). NO s ignificant corre lations between s pecimen weight and time-to-death was apparent. Data are discussed in relation to the establishment of thermal criteria for important commercial and sport fishes , such as the salmonids , as is the question whether previously reported values on lethal temperature s may have been under estimated.
    • Effect of citrate on the redox properties of cytochrome C and its kinetic and binding behaviour with cytochrome oxidase /

      Brooks, Stephen P. J.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1981-06-09)
      Increasing citrate concentration, at constant ionic strength (30 mM) decreases the rate of cytochrome ~ reduction by ascorbate. This effect is also seen at both high (600 mM) and low (19 mM) ionic strengths, and the Kapp for citrate increases with increasing ionic strength. Citrate binds d both ferri -and ferrocytochrome ~, but with a lower affinity for the latter form (Kox . .red d = 2 mM, Kd = 8 mM) as shown by an equilibrium assay with N,N,N',N', Tetramethyl E- phenylenediamine. The reaction of ferricytochrome ~with cyanide is also altered in the presence of citrate: citrate increases the K~PP for cyanide. Column chromatography of cytochrome ~-cytochrome oxidase mixtures shows citrate increases the dissociation constant of the complex. These results are confirmed in kinetic assays for the "loose"site (Km = 20 pM) only. The effect of increasing citrate observable at the "tight" site (Km = 0.25 pM) is on the turnover number and not on the K . These results suggest a mechanism m where anion binding to cytochrome £ at the tight site affects the equilibrium between two forms of cytochrome c bound cytochrome oxidase: an active and an inactive one.
    • Water quality and fish populations of the Welland River, Ontario /

      Steele, Peter Owen.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1981-06-15)
      The water quality and fish populations of the Welland River were observed to decline with distance downstream. This coincided with increased agricultural , domestic and industrial waste loadings. The river upstream of the City of Welland received considerable loadings from agricultural sources. Centrarchids, sciaenids, ictalurids, cyprinids and esocids characterized this upper section of the river. Most of these species were tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations and the high turbidity which prevailed there . The river near Port Robinson receives many industrial and domestic wastes as evidenced by the water quality data. The fish in this section were less abundant and the observed population was comprised almost solely of cyprinids. Further downstream, near Montrose, the Welland River received shock loads of chemical wastes that exceeded a specific conductance of ISiOOO ;umhos/cm. Few fish were captured at this site and those that were captured were considered to be transients. A review of the literature revealed that none of the common indices of water quality in use today could adequately predict the observed distributions. In addition to the above, the long-term trend (l3 yrs) of water quality of the lower Welland River revealed a gradual improvement. The major factor thought to be responsible for this improvement was the operation of the Welland Sewage Treatment Plant. The construction of the New Welland Ship Canal coincided with large fluctuations of the total solids and other parameters downstream. These conditions prevailed for a maximum of three years (1972- 1975)' Furthermore, spawning times and temperatures, geographic distributions, length-weight regressions and many other descriptive aspects of the ecology of some 26 species/ taxa of fish were obtained. Several of these species are rare or new to southern Ontario.
    • Factors influencing the seasonal changes in primary productivity of the photosynthetic bacteria of Crawford Lake, Ontario

      Severn, Shawn R. T.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1981-07-09)
      A naturally occurring population of photosynthetic bacteria, located in the meromictic Crawford Lake, was examined during two field seasons (1979-1981). Primary production, biomass, light intensity, lake transparency, pH and bicarbonate concentration were all monitored during this period at selected time intervals. Analysis of the data indicated that (l4C) bacterial photosynthesis was potentially limited by the ambient bicarbonate concentration. Once a threshold value (of 270 mg/l) was reached a dramatic (2 to 10 fold) increase in the primary productivity of the bacteria was observed. Light intensity appeared to have very little effect on the primary productivity of the bacteria, even at times when analyses by Parkin and Brock (1980a) suggested that light intensity could be limiting (i.e., 3.0-5.0 ft. candles). Shifts in the absorption maxima at 430 nrn of the .bacteriochlorophyll spectrum suggested that changes in the species or strain composition of the photosynthetic bacteria had occurred during the summer months. It was speculated that these changes might reflect seasonal variation in the wavelength of light reaching the bacteria. Chemocline erosion did not have the same effect on the population size (biomass) of the photosynthetic bacteria in Crawford Lake (this thesis) as it did in Pink Lake (Dickman, 1979). In Crawford Lake the depth of the chemocline was lowered with no apparent loss in biomass (according to bacteriochlorophyll data). A reverse current was. proposed to explain the observation. The photosynthetic bacteria contributed a significant proportion (10-60%) of the lake1s primary productivitya Direct evidence was obtained with (14C) labelling of the photosynthetic bacteria, indica.ting that the zooplankton were grazing the photosynthetic bacteria. This indicated that some of the photosynthetic bacterial productivity was assimilated into the food chain of the lake. Therefore, it was concluded that the photosynthetic bacteria made a significant contribution to the total productivity of Crawford Lake.
    • Individual differences and factors affecting male behaviour in field crickets

      Wyatt, David Ross.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1981-07-09)
      Individual differences in male sexual behav~our and the factors influencing calling behaviour were studied in the field crickets Gryllus 2 integer and Q. veletis. In a large (13m) outdoor arena individually numbered adult male ~~ integer started calling at three to five days of age but thereafter the age of individual G. integer males did not affect nightly calling duration. Calling also did not correlate with individual weight. In this study individual male calling was continuously distributed from 0 hrs. per night to 3.5 hrs. per night, on average. A temporal effect on the number of G. integer males calling was observed. The number of males calling through the night was uniform, but a sharp increase in the number calling was observed in the early morning. No difference in calling times was observed between the night and dawn callers. AlsC)' males calling at dawn usually didnotc'all during the preceeding night. Calling and reproductive success in 1979 demonstrated a negative logarithmic relationship while in the 1980(initial) population a negative linear relationship was observed. No relationship was seen in the 1980 high density population. The ratio of non-callers to callers also affected the mating of individuals in the 1979 and1980(initial) densities:-non~callers (males calling .5 hrs. per night, on average, or less) obtained more females when the population contained a high number of callers, this being a negative logarithmic relationship to, No such relationship was observed in the 1980 high density population. Individual displacement varied nightly and was not correlated to amount of calling or reproductive success of individual G. integer males. G. integer males were displa~ed more when in a higher density in the outdoor arena Male G. integer and G. veletis behaviours were also observed in an indoor arena at different densities and, in G. veletis, with respect to female presence. When females were present in the arena, in G. veletis, male calling was reduced. Males of both species called less, on average, when in ~ higher density, than when they were in a lower density. Male displacement of both species increased on average when in a higher density as compared to displacement in a lower density. Aggression was measured by aggressive call-ing and fighting and was studied in regards to density.G. integer demonstrated less aggression in all but one comparison at higher density. No difference was observed in the ratio of aggressive calling to f.ighting comparison in G. integer. G. veletis demonstrated mixed results. No difference in aggression between densities was observed in comparisons. Less.aggression did occur in higher densities when comparisons invol.ved fighting behaviour. Male behaviour represents a competitive strategy against ot~er males, strategy being defined as a genetic (in part) alternative to other strategies. In this sense, the factors of time, density, male-male aggression, and female presence are conditions demonstrated to affect male behaviour in G. integer and G. veletis. Individual male differences and other considerations suggest that alternative male behaviours are represented by at least two conditional strategies. This possibility, and the transient 'or stable nature of genetic polymorphisms in field cricket behaviour are considered.
    • Light and electron microscope studies of host-parasite relations in a mycoparasite

      Golesorkhi, Roya.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1981-07-09)
      Light microscope studies of the mycoparasite Piptocephalis virginiana revealed that the cylindrical spores of the parasite became spherical upon germination and produced 1-4 germ tubes. Generally t"l.vO germ tubes were produced by each spore. When this parasite was inoculated on its potential hosts, Choanephora cucurbitarum and Phascolomyces articulosus, the germ tube nearest to the host hypha continued to grow and made contact with the host hypha. The tip of the parasite's germ tube became swollen to form a distinct appressorium. Up to this stage the behavior of the parasite was similar regardless of the nature of the host. In the compatible host-parasite combination, the parasite penetrated the host, established a nutritional relationship and continued to grow to cover the host completely with its buff colored spores in 3-4 days. In the incompatible host-parasite combination, the parasite penetrated the host but its further advance was arrested. As a result of failure to establish a nutritional relationship with the resistant host, the parasite made further attempts to penetrate the host at different sites producing multiple infections. In the absence of nutrition the parasite weakened and the host outgrew the parasite completely. In the presence of a non-host species, Linderina pennispora the parasite continued to grow across the non-host 1).yp_hae vlithout establishing an initial contact. Germination studies showed that the parasite germinated equally well in the presence of host and non-host species. Further electron microscope studies revealed that the host-parasite interaction between P. virginiana and its host, C. cucurbi tarum, was compatible when the host hyphae were young slender, with a thin cell wall of one layer. The parasite appeared to penetrate mechanically by pushing the host-cell wall inward. The host plasma membrane invaginated along the involuted cell wall. The older hyphae of C. cucurbitarum possessed two distinct layers of cell wall and-showed an incompatible interaction when challenged vlith the parasite. At the point of contact, the outer layer of the host-cell wall dissolved, probably by enzymatic digestion, and the inner layer became thickened and developed a papilla as a result of its response to the parasite. The haustoria of the parasite in the old hyphae were always surrounded by a thick, well developed sheath, whereas the haustoria of the same age in the young host mycelium were devoid of a sheath during early stages of infection. Instead, they were in direct contact with the host protoplast. The incompatible interaction between a resistant host, P. articulosus and the parasite showed similar results as with the old hyphae of C. cucurbitarum. The cell wall of P. articulosus appeared thick-with two or more layers even in the 18-22 h-old hyphae. No contact or interaction was established between the parasite and the non-host L. pennispora. The role of cell wall in the resistance mechanism is discussed.
    • Size regulation of double and half embryos in the mice musculus

      Lewis, Nancy Elizabeth.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1981-07-09)
      Genetic chimeras made by aggregating early mouse embryos have many uses in developmental biology and have also provided insights into embryonic growth regulation. There is an indication that the embryo can regulate for an increase in size because although aggregation chimeras are twice as big as normal embryos when made, they are born of normal size. Upward regula..... tion of size reduced embryos is also possible. Half embryos made by the isolation or destruction of one of the blastomeres of a 2-cell embryo are also born of normal size. Little is known about the timing or the mechanism of this size regulation. In this study, the timing of size regulation in double and half embryos was clearly established by comparison of cell numbers derived from serial reconstruction of light microscope sections of control and experimental embryos. It was shown that size regulation in double embryos occurred around 6dl6h and in half embryos by 7dOh. Size regulation occurred in all tissues at the same time indicating a single control mechanism for the entire embryo. More detailed examination of the growth of double embryos revealed that size regulation occurred by alteration in cell cycle length~ No excessive cell death was found in double embryos compared to the controls and continuous labelling with [3H] thymidine showed no large non-dividing cell population in double embryos. However, a comparison of the mitotic index of double and control embryos after colcemid treatment, revealed a large difference between the two around 5dl6h to 6d16h. During this period, control embryos underwent a proliferative burst not shown by the double embryos. The mechanism for cell cycle control is not clear; it may be intrinsic to the embryo or determined by the uterine environment. Evidence was found suggesting that differentiation in the postimplantation embryo was cell number dependent. The timing of differentiative events was examined in half, double and control embryos. Proamnion formation, which occurs prior to size regulation, occurs at the same cell number but at different times in the three groups of embryos. However mesoderm which appears after size regulation was seen at the same time in all grollps of embryos.