• Radiation-induced changes in the export of photoassimilated carbon /|nBarry Jess Shelp. -- 260 0 St. Catharines, [Ont. : s. n.],

      Shelp, Barry Jess.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Low levels of ionizing radiation induce two translocation responses in soybean: a reduction in photoassimilate export from leaves and a change in the distribution pattern of exported photoassimilate within the plant. In this investigation these responses have been further studied specifically to ascertain the site of radiation damage and to better understand the physiological responses observed. Experimentally the primary data was obtained from studies in which a mature trifoliate leaf of a young soybean plant (Glycine ~ L. cultivar Harosoy '63) is isolated in a closed transparent chamber and allowed to photoassimilate 14C02 for 15 minutes. This is followed by an additional 45 ~_il'1;ute period before the plant is sectl.o ne d an d 14 C-ra dl' oactl.v.l ty d eterml. ne d'l n a 11 parts. Such 14c data provides one with the magnitude and distribution pattern of translocation. Further analyses were conducted to determine the relative levels of the major photosynthetic products using the techniques of paper chromatography and autoradiography. Since differences between control and irradiated P 1 ants were not 0 b serve d l' n t h e par tl't"lo nlng 0 f 14 C between the 80% ethanol-soluble and -insoluble fractions 14 or in the relative amounts of C-products of photosynthesis, the reduction in export in irradiated plants is not likely due to reduced availability of translocatable materials. Data presented in this thesis shows that photoassimilate export was not affected by gamma radiation until a threshold dose between 2.0 and 3.0 krads was reached. It was also observed that radiation-induced damage to the export process was capable of recovery in a period of 1 to 2 hours provided high light intensity was supplied. In contrast, the distribution pattern was shown to be extremely radiosensitive with a low threshold dose between .25 and .49 krads. Although this process was also capable of recovery,lt" occurred much earlier and was followed by a secondary effect which lasted at least for the duration of the experiments. The data presented in this thesis is interpreted to suggest that the sites of radiation action for the two translocation responses are different. In regards to photoassimilate export, the site of action of ionizing radiation is the leaf, quite possibly the process of photophosphorylation which may provide energy directly for phloem loading and for membrane integrity of the phloem tissue* In regards to the pattern of distribution of exported photoassimilate, the site is likely the apical sink, possibly the result of changes of levels of endogenous hormones. By the selection of radiation exposure dose and time post-irradiation, it is possible to affect independently these two processes suggesting that each may be regulated independent of the other and involves a distinct site.
    • Selected aspects of common tern reproductive biology

      Courtney, Peter Allan.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Several factors influencing reproductive success were investigated at a Common Tern colony at Port Colborne, Ontario in 1976. In general three egg clutches hatched better than two egg clutches and early started clutches hatched eggs and fledged chicks better than late clutches; the fledging success of two and three egg clutches was similar. Early clutches took longer to hatch and hatched more synchronously than did late clutches. While hatching success differed with nesting substrate used fledging success' did not* No relationship was found between either incubation attentiveness and reproductive success or between incubation attentiveness and clutch size* At no time did food availability appear to be a factor limiting the successful upbringing of two chick broods. While fCf chicks (i.e. chicks hatching from the last laid eggs of three egg clutches) generally survived and grew poorly relative to their brood mates they grew best when they originated from clutches that hatched relatively asynchronously.
    • Selected aspects of the breeding biology of two Lake Erie herring gull colonies

      Haymes, Gerrard Thomas.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Aspects of the breeding biology of two Lake Erie Herri ng Gull colonies were studied in 1975 and 1976. In 1976 the incubation attention given 2-egg and 3-egg clutches initiated early and late in the season was measured. Brood size at one colony was artificially increased or decreased by addition of chicks shortly after hatching. Hatching success was not consistently re~ated to clutch size but early nesters were more successful than late nes'ters. Differences in hatching success between 2-egg and 3-egg clutches were a function of the time of clutch initiation with the clutch size having the greater proportion of its nests initiated early in the season being more successful. The incubation attentiveness of parents of 2-egg and 3-ev,g , and early and late clutches was similar. Most nests were incubated greater than 95% of the time although t heir hatching success was similar ' to those incubated less than 75% of the time. Fledging success, chick growth and weight at fledging were similar among broods of one, two and three chicks and artificially increased broods of four and five chicks. Fledging success was highest for o.e chick broods reduced from two and three chick broods.
    • The genetics of glucosamine in yeast : cytoplasmic determinants conferring resistance

      Kunz, Bernard A.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Two cytoplasmic, glucosamine resistant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GR6 and GR10, were examined to determine whether or not the lesions involved were located on mitochondrial DNA. Detailed investigation of crosses of GR6 and GR10 or their derivatives to strains bearing known mitochondrial markers demonstrated that: 1. the frequency of glucos~~ine resistance in diploids was independent of factors influencing mitochondrial marker output. 2. upon tetrad analysis a variety of tetrad ratios was observed for glucosamine resistance whereas mitochondrial markers segregated 4:0 or 0:4 (resistant:sensitive). 3. glucosamine resistance and mitochondrial markers segregated differentially with time. 4. glucosamine resistance persisted following treatment of a GRIO derivative with ethidium bromide at concentrations high enough to eliminate all mitochondrial DNA. 5. haploid spore clones displayed two degrees of glucosamine resistance, weak and strong, while growth due to mitochondrial mutations was generally thick and confluent. 6. a number of glucosamine resistant diploids and haploids, which also possessed a mithchondrial resistance mutation, were unable to grow on medium containing both glucosamine and the particular drug involved. 3 These observations 1~ 6 provided strong evidence that the cytoplasmic glucosamine resistant mutations present in GR6 and GRiO were not situated on mitochondrial DNA. Comparison of the glucosamine resistance mutations to some other known cytoplasmic determinants revealed that: 7. glucosamine resistance and the expression of the killer phenotype were separate phenomena. 8. unlike yeast carrying resistance conferring episomes GR6 and GR10 were not resistant to venturicidin or oligomycin and the GR factor exhibited genetic behaviour different from that of the episomal determinants. These results 7--+8 suggested that glucosamine resistance was not associated with the killer determinant nor with alleged yeast episomes. It is therefore proposed that a yeast plasmid(s), previously undescribed, is responsible for glucosamine resistance. The evidence to date is compatible with the hypothesis that GR6 and GR10 carry allelic mutations of the same plasmid which is tentatively designated (GGM).
    • Thermoacclimatory variations in the activities of enzymes implicated in ion transport in the rainbow trout, salmo gairdneri

      McCarty, Lynn Scott.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Two groups of rainbow trout were acclimated to 20 , 100 , and 18 o C. Plasma sodium, potassium, and chloride levels were determined for both. One group was employed in the estimation of branchial and renal (Na+-K+)-stimulated, (HC0 3-)-stimulated, and CMg++)-dependent ATPase activities, while the other was used in the measurement of carbonic anhydrase activity in the blood, gill and kidney. Assays were conducted using two incubation temperature schemes. One provided for incubation of all preparations at a common temperature of 2S oC, a value equivalent to the upper incipient lethal level for this species. In the other procedure the preparations were incubated at the appropriate acclimation temperature of the sampled fish. Trout were able to maintain plasma sodium and chloride levels essentially constant over the temperature range employed. The different incubation temperature protocols produced different levels of activity, and, in some cases, contrary trends with respect to acclimation temperature. This information was discussed in relation to previous work on gill and kidney. The standing-gradient flow hypothesis was discussed with reference to the structure of the chloride cell, known thermallyinduced changes in ion uptake, and the enzyme activities obtained in this study. Modifications of the model of gill lon uptake suggested by Maetz (1971) were proposed; high and low temperature models resulting. In short, ion transport at the gill at low temperatures appears to involve sodium and chloride 2 uptake by heteroionic exchange mechanisms working in association w.lth ca.rbonlc anhydrase. G.l ll ( Na + -K + ) -ATPase and erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase seem to provide the supplemental uptake required at higher temperatures. It appears that the kidney is prominent in ion transport at low temperatures while the gill is more important at high temperatures. 3 Linear regression analyses involving weight, plasma ion levels, and enzyme activities indicated several trends, the most significant being the interrelationship observed between plasma sodium and chloride. This, and other data obtained in the study was considered in light of the theory that a link exists between plasma sodium and chloride regulatory mechanisms.
    • Viability interactions between the left and right arms of the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster

      Pechan, Peter Alexander.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Inter and intrachromosomal viability interactions have been detected in a few experimental studies. Computer simulations and analytical models have led to postulation of nonadditivity of gene action. This study reports evidence of strong nonadditive interactions between the arms of the metacentric second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Mean viability for 40 homozygous lines of the second chromosomes was 0.720+0.265 • Mean viability for 40 half homozygous second chromosomes was 0.928!O.)10 • Significant heterogeneity among and within lines was found in both groups of chromosomes, as well as a highly significant viability difference between the two groups. Comparison of observed viabilities with the expected values, according to the theories of additive and multi - plicative gene action. was made for both groups. Highly significant departures from the expected values were found for over 90% of the lines in both groups of chromosomes, for both additive and multiplicative models of gene action.
    • X-ray diffraction studies of muscle : observations on the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis and the insect flight muscle from Sarcophaga bullata

      Cottrell, Alan Philip.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      The interfilament spacing of the anterior byssus retractor muscle from Mytilus edulis was studied as the muscle was extended. It was found that variations in this spacing were very small and consistent with the hypothesis that the interfilament spacing was independent of the extension of the muscle. It was observed that the interfilament spacing was dependent on the osmolarity of the bathing medium. In concentrated solutions of the artificial seawater, the interfilament spacing decreased; while in dilute solutions of artificial seawater, it was observed that the interfilament spacing was increasing. X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained from fresh, and glutaraldehyde fixed, specimens of insect flight muscle from Sarcophaga bullata. There patterns were in general agreement with previous X-ray diffraction studies of insect flight muscle. A reflexion G at 93A was observed and interpreted as arising from diffraction in the mitochondria. Specimens of dried insect flight muscle produced a diffraction pattern consisting of arc and ring reflexions. This was interpreted as suggesting an ordered arrangement of cristae, in the mitochondria from these muscles.
    • Investigations on the host-parasite interface of a mycoparasite system /

      Letourneau, Denis Raymond.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-09-23)
      The cell wall composition of Choanephora cucur - bitarum and the host-parasite interface, after infection with Piptocephalis virginiana , were examined in detail. The cell walls of C_. cucurbitarum were determined to be composed of chitin (17%), chitosan (28.4%), neutral sugars (7.2%),uronic acid (2.4%), proteins (8.2%) and lipids (13.8%). The structure of hyphal walls investigated by electron microscopy of shadowed replicas before and after alkali-acid hydrolysis, showed two distinct regions: microfibrillar and amorphous. The microfibrils which were composed of mainly chitin, were organized into two distinct layers: an outer, thicker layer of randomly orientated microfibrils and an inner, thin layer of parallel microfibrils.Electronmicrographs of the host-parasite interface of C_. cucurbitarum and the mycoparasite , P_. virginiana , 30 h following inoculation, showed that the sheath zone has a similar electron density to that of the host cell wall. The sheath was not present around the young (18 h old) haustorium. High-resolution autoradiographs of infected host hyphae showed that radioactive N-acetyl-D-glucosamine , a precursor of chitin, was incorporated preferentially in the host cell wall and sheath zone. Cell fractionation of label fed hyphae showed that 84% of the label was present in the cell wall and specifically in the chitin portion of the wall. The antifungal antibiotic, Polyoxin D, a specific inhibitor of the enzyme, chitin synthetase, suppressed the incorporation of the label in the cell wall and sheath zone and resulted in a decrease in electron density of the developing sheath. The significance of these results is discussed in the light of host resistance.
    • Habitat selection of three rodents in a frequently burned boreal environment : productivity and habitat diversity

      McDonald, Donald John.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      How does fire affect the plant and animal community of the boreal forest? This study attempted to examine the changes in plant composition and productivity, and small mammal demography brought about by fire in the northern boreal environment at Chick Lake, N.W.T. (65053fN, 128°14,W). Two 5*6 ha plots measuring 375m x 150m were selected for study during the summers of 1973 and 197^. One had been unburned for 120 years, the other was part of a fire which burned in the spring of 1969. Grids of 15m x 15m were established in each plot and meter square quadrats taken at each of the 250 grid intersections in order to determine plant composition and density. Aerial primary production was assessed by clipping and drying 80 samples of terminal new production for each species under investigation. Small mammal populations were sampled by placing a Sherman live trap at each grid intersection for ten days in every month. The two plots were similar in plant species composition which suggested that most regrowth in the burned area was from rootstocks which survived the fire. The plant data were submitted to a cluster analysis that revealed nine separate species associations, six of which occured in the burned area and eight of which occured in the control. These were subsequently treated as habitats for purposes of comparison with small mammal distributions. The burned area showed a greater productivity in flowers and fruits although total productivity in the control area was higher due to a large contribution from the non-vascular component. Maximum aerial productivity as dry wieght was measured at 157.1 g/m and 207.8 g/m for the burn and control respectively. Microtus pennsylvanicus and Clethrionomys rutilus were the two most common small mammals encountered; Microtus xanthognathus, Synaptomys borealis, and Phenacomys intermedius also occured in the area. Populations of M. pennsylvanicus and C. rutilus were high during the summer of 1973; however, M. pennsylvanicus was rare on the control but abundant on the burn, while C. rutilus was rare on the burn but abundant in the control. During the summer of 197^ populations declined, with the result that few voles of any species were caught in the burn while equal numbers of the two species were caught in the control. During the summer of 1973 M. pennsylvanicus showed a positive association to the most productive habitat type in the burn which was avoided by C. rutilus. In the control £• rutilus showed a similar positive association to the most productive habitat type which was avoided by M. pennsylvanicus. In all cases for the high population year of 1973# the two species never overlapped in habitat preference. When populations declined in 197^f "both species showed a strong association for the most productive habitat in the control. This would suggest that during a high population year, an abundant species can exclude competitors from a chosen habitat, but that this dominance decreases as population levels decrease. It is possible that M. pennsylvanicus is a more efficient competitor in a recently burned environment, while C. rutilus assumes this role once non-vascular regrowth becomes extensive.
    • Measurement of forces between and within bilayers of neutral phospholipids

      McAlister, Michael James.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      Phospholipids in water form lamellar phases made up of alternating layers of water and bimolecular lipid leaflets. Three complementary methods, osmotic, mechanical, and vapour pressures, were used to measure the work of removing water from lamellar phases composed of frozen dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine ( DPPC ), melted DPPC, egg phosphatidylethanolamine or equimolar mixtures of DPPC and cholesterol ( DPPC/CHOL ), Concurrently the structural changes that resulted from this water removal were measured using X-ray diffraction. The work was divided into that which forces the bilayers together ( F ) and that which compresses the molecules together within the bilayers ( F )# A large repulsive force exists between bilayers composed of each of the lipids studied and this force increases exponentially as bilayer separation is decreased. F is affected by the nature of the head groups, conformation of the acyl chains and heterogeneity of these chains. In general all of the melted phosphatidylcholines ( melted DPPC, egg lecithin and DPPC/CHOL ) have large equilibrium separations in excess water resulting from large repulsive hydration forces between these bilayers. By comparison, egg PE has an increased attractive force, and frozen DPPC has a decreased hydration force; each results in smaller separations in water for these two lipids. The chemical potentials of the water between the bilayers for all these lipids lie on a continuum, indicating that interbilayer water cannot be characterized by two discrete states, usually referred to as "bound" or "non**bound". For all lipids studied a maximum of 25 % of the total work done on the system goes into deforming the bilayers. The method used here viii to separate repulsion from deformation, developed for us by v. A. Parsegian, provides a unique method for the measurement of lateral pressure of a bilayer and its modulus of deformability ( Y ). Lateral pressure is affected by the nature of the head group, conformation and heterogeneity of the acyl chains. For small changes in molecular surface area ( A ) near equilibrium, both melted and frozen DPPC have similar values for the deformability modulus. Thus in this regime it requires about the same force to change the angle of tilt of frozen chains as it does to compress the fluid bilayer. The introduction of cholesterol into bilayers of DPPC reduces dramatically the lateral pressure of the bilayers over a large range of molecular surface areas ( A ). The variation in the magnitude of bilayer repulsion with different phospholipids provides a basis for the mechanism of lipid segregation in mixed lipid systems and suggests that interacting heterogeneous membranes may influence or modulate the composition of the opposing membrane. The measurements of deformabilities of bilayers provides a direct comparison of them with the properties of monolayers.
    • Meloidogne incognita (nematode) parasitism of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) plants : Ethylene action in susceptible and resistant host responses

      Akitt, David Baxter.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      Involvement of ethylene in the etiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) infected with the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) was investigated. Endogenous root concentrations of ethylene were not significantly different in uninfected resistant var. Anahu and susceptible var. Vendor plants. Exposure of resistant plants to high doses of infectious nematode larvae did not affect root ethylene concentrations during the subsequent 30 day period. The possibility that ethylene may be involved in the mechanism of resistance is therefore not supported by these experiments. In no experiments did ethylene concentrations in roots of susceptible plants increase significantly subsequent to ~ incognita infestation. This result is not consistent with the hypothesis in the literature which suggests that increased ethylene production accompanies gall formation. Growth of susceptible tomato plants was affected by ~ incognita infestation such that root weights increased (due to galling), stem heights decreased and top weights increased. The possibility that alterations in stem growth resulted from increased production of 'stress' ethylene is discussed. Growth of resistant plants was unaffected by exposure to high doses of ~ incognita and galls were never detected on the roots of these plants. Root ethane concentrations generally varied in parallel with root ethylene concentrations although ethane concentrations were without exception greater. In 4 of 6 experiments conducted ethane/ethylene ratios increased significantly with time. These results are discussed in the light of published data on the relationship between ethane and ethylene synthesis. The term infested is used throughout this thesis in reference to plants whose root systems had been exposed to nematodes and does not distinguish between the susceptible and resistant response.
    • Seasonal variation in the reproductive biology of the ring -billed gull (Larus delawarensis)

      Chardine, John W.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      The reproductive biology of the Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis) was studied on Gull Island, Presqu'ile Provincial Park, Ontario, in 1976 and 1977. Early started clutches (comprising the majority of clutches on Gull Island) in 1977 produced more chicks per nest (2.20 ± 0.09) than late started clutches (0.86 ± 0.13) as a result of reductions in mean clutch size, hatching success and fledging success with date of clutch initiation. Seasonal changes in mean clutch size, hatching success and fledging success also resulted in early clutches, initiated at the peak of clutch starts, producing more chicks per nest (2.34 ± 0.11) than either pre-peak (2.13 ± 0.20) or post-peak (1.82 ± 0.29) clutches. Possible reasons for these trends, including the observed predominance of immature plumaged, breeding gulls in late started areas, are discussed. Clutches were deserted at night for varying lengths of time from at least 15 April until 10 May, 1977. It is suggested that this nocturnal desertion behaviour resulted in the enhancement of inter- and intra-clutch hatching synchrony in early started areas and further, that this may in part explain the existence of the behaviour in terms of its adaptive significance.
    • The effect of nitrate fertilization on the distribution of exported 14c-photosynthate in nodulated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) plants

      Hunter, David Michael.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      Soybean (Glycine ~ (L.) Merr. cv. Harosoy 63) plants inoculated with Rhizobium japonicum were grown in vermiculite in the presence or absence of nitrate fertilization for up to 6 weeks after planting. Overall growth of nodulated plants was enhanced in the presence of nitrate fertilization, while the extent of nodule development was reduced. Although the number of nodules was not affected by nitrate fertilization when plants were grown at a light intensity limiting for photosynthesis, at light intensities approaching or exceeding the light saturation point for photosynthesis, nitrate fertilization resulted in at least a 30% reduction in nodule numbers. The mature, first trifoliate leaf of 21 day old plants was allowed to photoassimi1ate 14C02. One hour after·· the initial exposure to 14C02, the , plants were harvested and the 14C radioactivity was determined in the 80% ethanol-soluble fraction: in. o:rider to assess· "the extent of photoassimilate export and the pattern of distribution of exported 14C. The magnitude of 14C export was not affected by the presence of nitrate fertilization. However, there was a significant effect on the distribution pattern, particularly with regard to the partitioning of 14C-photosynthate between the nodules and the root tissue. In the presence of nitrate fertilization, less than 6% of the exported 14C photosynthate was recovered from the nodules, with much larger amounts (approximately 37%) being recovered from the root tissue. In the absence of nitrate fertilization, recovery of exported 14C-photosynthate from the nodules (19 to 27%) was approximately equal to that from the root tissue (24 to 33%). By initiating- or terminating the applications of nitrate at 14 days of age, it was determined that the period from day 14 to day 21 after planting was particularly significant for the development of nodules initiated earlier. Addition of nitrate fertilization at this time inhibited further nodule development while stimulating plant growth, whereas removal of nitrate fertilization stimulated nodule development. The results obtained are consistent with the hypothesis that nodule development is inhibited by nitrate fertilization through a reduction in the availability of photosynthate to the nodules.
    • Thermoaclimatory variations in the microenvironment of hemoglobin in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri and the carp, Cyprinus carpio

      Smeda, John Stanislaw.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      Several inorganic substances (e.g., C£ , Mg , Ca , H ) are potent negative modulators of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity. To evaluate the possibility that potentially adaptive changes in the red cell ionic environment of hemoglobin may take place during acclimation of fishes to increased environmental temperature, hematological status (hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell numbers, mean erythrocytic volume and hemoglobin content), plasma + + 2+ 2+ and packed red cell electrolyte levels (Na , K , Ca , Mg , C£ ) were evaluated in summer and winter populations of the stenothermal rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, following acclimation to 2°, 10°, 18°C, and in a spring population of eurythermal carp, Cyprinus carpio, held at 2°, 16° and 30°C. From these data cell ion concentrations and ion:hemoglobin ratios were estimated. In view of the role of red cell carbonic anhydrase in the reductions of blood C02 tensions and the recruitment of Na and C£~ lost by fishes, a preliminary investigation of thermoacclimatory changes in the activity of this system in rainbow trout erythrocytes was conducted. Few changes in hematological status were encountered following acclimation. There was, however, some evidence of weight-specific differential hematological response in carp. This lead to markedly greater increases in hemoglobin, hematocrit and red cell numbers in smaller rather than in larger specimens at higher temperatures; variations which were 2+ well correlated with changes in plasma Ca . Plasma composition in summer trout was not altered by acclimation. In winter trout plasma Na and K increased at higher temperatures. Carp were characterized by increases in plasma calcium, and reductions in sodium and magnesium under these conditions. Several significant seasonal differences in plasma ion levels were observed in the trout. (n) In trout, only erythrocytic K and K :Hb were altered by acclimation, rising at higher temperatures. In carp Na , Na :Hb, C£~ and C£~:Hb in- 2+ 2+ creased with temperature, while Mg and Mg :Hb declined. Changes in overall ionic composition in carp red cells were consistent with increases in H content. In both species significant reciprocal variations in C£~ 2+ - + and Mg were found. In mammalian systems increases in C£ and H reduce hemoglobin-oxygen affinity by interaction with hemoglobin. Reduction in 2+ 2+ Mg maximizes organophosphate modulator availability by decreasing ATP»Mg complex formation. Thus, the changes observed may be of adaptive value in reducing hemoglobin-oxygen affinity, and facilitating oxygen release to cells at higher temperatures. Trout appear to maintain a high chloridelow magnesium state over the entire thermal tolerance zone. Carp, however, achieved this state only at higher temperatures. In both species mean erythrocytic volume was decreased at higher temperatures and this may facilitate branchial oxygen loading. Since mean erythrocytic volume was inversely related to red cell ion content, it is hypothesized that reductions in cell volume are achieved by export of some unidentified solute or solutes. Variations in the carbonic anhydrase activity that could be attributed to the thermoacclimatory process were quite modest. On the other hand, assays performed at the temperature of acclimation showed a large temperature effect where under in vivo conditions of temperature fish acclimated to higher temperatures might be expected to have higher activities. Furthermore, since hematocrit increased with temperature in these fish, while carbonic anhydrase is present only in the erythrocyte, the whole blood levels of this enzyme are expected to increase and further augment the temperature effect. This, in turn, could aid in the reduction of C02 (111) tension and increase the production of H and HC0~~ used in the active uptake of Na and C£ at higher temperatures.
    • Water and electrolyte content and distribution in tissues of thermally-acclimated rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

      Mearow, Karen M.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      The primary objective of this investigation was that of providing a comprehensive tissue-by-tissue assessment of water-electrolyte status in thermally-acclimated rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. To this end levels of water and the major ions, sodium, chloride and potassium were evaluated in the plasma, at three skeletal muscle sites, and in cardiac muscle, liver, spleen, gut and brain of animals acclimated to 2°, 10° and 18°C. The occurrence of possible seasonal variations in water-electrolyte balance was evaluated by sampling sununer and late fall-early winter populations of trout. On the basis of values for water and electrolyte content, estimates of extracellular and cellular phase volumes, cellular electrolyte concentrations and Nernst equilibrium potentials were made. Since accurate assessment of the extracellular phase volume is critical in the estimation of cellular electrolyte concentrations and parameters based on assumed cellular ion levels, [14 C]-polyethylene glycol-4000, which is assumed to be confined to the extracellular space, was employed to provide comparisons with various ion-defined spaces (H20~~s, H20~~/K and H20~~s). Subsequently, the ion-defined space yielding the most realistic estimate of extracellular phase volume for each tissue was used in cellular electrolyte calculations. Water and electrolyte content and distribution varied with temperature. Tissues, such as liver, spleen and brain appeared to be the most thermosensitive, whereas skeletal and cardiac muscle and gut tissue were less influenced. 'Summer' series trout appeared to be more capable of maintaining their water- electrolyte balance than the ~fall-winter' series animals. i The data are discussed in terms of their possible effect on maintenance of appropriate cellular metabolic and electrophysiological functions.
    • Reactivity characteristics of cytochrome c, cytochrome oxidase and the electrostatic cytochrome c - cytochrome oxidase complex /

      Hill, Bruce.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-06-09)
      The mechanism whereby cytochrome £ oxidase catalyses elec-. tron transfer from cytochrome £ to oxygen remains an unsolved problem. Polarographic and spectrophotometric activity measurements of purified, particulate and soluble forms of beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase presented in this thesis confirm the following characteristics of the steady-state kinetics with respect to cytochrome £: (1) oxidation of ferrocytochrome c is first order under all conditions. -(2) The relationship between sustrate concentration and velocity is of the Michaelis-Menten type over a limited range of substrate. concentrations at high ionic strength. (3) ~he reaction rate is independent from oxygen concentration until very low levels of oxygen. (4) "Biphasic" kinetic plots of enzyme activity as a function of substrate concentration are found when the range of cytochrome c concentrations is extended; the biphasicity ~ is more apparent in low ionic strength buffer. These results imply two binding sites for cytochrome £ on the oxidase; one of high affinity and one of low affinity with Km values of 1.0 pM and 3.0 pM, respectively, under low ionic strength conditions. (5) Inhibition of the enzymic rate by azide is non-c~mpetitive with respect to cytochrome £ under all conditions indicating an internal electron transfer step, and not binding or dissociation of £ from the enzyme is rate limiting. The "tight" binding of cytochrome '£ to cytochrome c oxidase is confirmed in column chromatographic experiments. The complex has a cytochrome £:oxidase ratio of 1.0 and is dissociated in media of high ionic strength. Stopped-flow spectrophotometric studies of the reduction of equimolar mixtures and complexes of cytochrome c and the oxidase were initiated in an attempt to assess the functional relevance of such a complex. Two alternative routes -for reduction of the oxidase, under conditions where the predominant species is the £ - aa3 complex, are postulated; (i) electron transfer via tightly bound cytochrome £, (ii) electron transfer via a small population of free cytochrome c interacting at the "loose" binding site implied from kinetic studies. It is impossible to conclude, based on the results obtained, which path is responsible for the reduction of cytochrome a. The rate of reduction by various reductants of free cytochrome £ in high and low ionic strength and of cytochrome £ electrostatically bound to cytochrome oxidase was investigated. Ascorbate, a negatively charged reagent, reduces free cytochrome £ with a rate constant dependent on ionic strength, whereas neutral reagents TMPD and DAD were relatively unaffected by ionic strength in their reduction of cytochrome c. The zwitterion cysteine behaved similarly to uncharged reductants DAD and TI~PD in exhibiting only a marginal response to ionic strength. Ascorbate reduces bound cytochrome £ only slowly, but DAD and TMPD reduce bound cytochrome £ rapidly. Reduction of cytochrome £ by DAD and TMPD in the £ - aa3 complex was enhanced lO-fold over DAD reduction of free £ and 4-fold over TMPD reduction of free c. Thus, the importance of ionic strength on the reactivity of cytochrome £ was observed with the general conclusion being that on the cytochrome £ molecule areas for anion (ie. phosphate) binding, ascorbate reduction and complexation to the oxidase overlap. The increased reducibility for bound cytochrome £ by reductants DAD and TMPD supports a suggested conformational change of electrostatically bound c compare.d to free .£. In addition, analysis of electron distribution between cytochromes £ and a in the complex suggest that the midpotential of cytochrome ~ changes with the redox state of the oxidase. Such evidence supports models of the oxidase which suggest interactions within the enzyme (or c - enzyme complex) result in altered midpoint potentials of the redox centers.
    • Paleolimnology of selected Precambrian Shield lakes /

      Smol, J. P. (John P.); Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-06-29)
      The analysis of fossil diatoms and Mallomonas assemblages in a 2.85 m sediment core revealed that a series of distinct floristic changes have occurred in the development of Found Lake, a small Shield lake in southern Ontario. Climatic and vegetational changes in the lake's watershed were closely associated with successional changes in the lake's biota. Nutrients released by the deciduous component of the Found Lake watershed appeared to be especially important in determining diatom and Mallomonas standing crop. The top 20 cm of sediment of 3 ,Shield lakes was then investigated using close interval (1 cm) analyses of diatoms, Mallomonas scales, pollen grains and sedimentary phosphorus. Found and Jake Lake are adjacent to Highway 60, whereas Delano Lake has been undisturbed and was used as a control. Dramatic changes in the diatom and Mallomonas communities were recorded in the Found and Jake Lake stratigraphies and could be closely associated with known historical events. Increased turbidity and nutrient enrichment were believed responsible for these successional changes. In addition, diatom and Mallomonas standing crop increased substantially following road construction in Found Lake's drainage basin. Meanwhile, no. sharp changes in diatom or Mallomonas communities were recorded in the recent sediments of the control (Delano) lake. The use£ulness o£ Synuracean scales as paleoindicators, as well as the importance o£ sectioning cores at close intervals during transition periods in a laker's development, was stressed.
    • An investigation into differences between indoleacetic acid and fusicoccin in their influence on RNA synthesis, protein synthesis and growth in Avena coleoptile tissue

      Doo, Ahmed Cassin.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Growth stimulation of Avena coleoptile tissue by indoleacetic acid (IAA) and fusicoccin (FC) was compared by measuring both their influence on RNA and protein synthesis during IAA or FC stimulated growth. FC stimulated growth more than IAA during the initial four hour exposure, after which the growth rate gradually declined to the control rate. FC, but not IAA, increased the uptake of 3H-Ieucine into tissue and the specific radioactivity of extracted protein. Cycloheximide inhibited the incorporation of 3H-Ieucine into protein by approximately 60% to 70% in all cases. In the presence of cycloheximide 3H-radioactivity accumulated in FC-treated tissue, whereas IAA did not seem to influence 3H-accumulation. These results suggest that FC stimulated leucine uptake into the tissue and that increased specific activity of coleoptile protein is due to increased leucine uptake, not an increased rate of protein synthesis. There was no measurable influence of IAA and/or FC on RNA and protein synthesis during the initial hours of a growth stimulation. Inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis, actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively, severely inhibited IAA enhanced growth but only partially inhibited FC stimulated growth. The data are consistent with suggestions that a rapidly turning over protein participates in IAA stimulated growth, and that a continual synthesis of RNA and proteins is an absolute requirement for a long term growth response to IAA. On the contrary, FC-stimulated growth exhibited less dependency on the transcription and translation processes. The data are consistent with proposals suggesting different sites of action for FC and IAA stimulated growth. l?hen compared to CO2-free air, CO2 at 300 ppm had no significant influence on coleoptile growth and protein synthesis in the presence or absence of lAA or FC. Also, I mM malate, pH 6.0 did not influence growth of coleoptiles in the presence or absence of lAA. This result was obtained despite reports indicating that 300 ppm CO2 or I mM malate stimulates growth and protein synthesis. This lack of difference between CO2-treated and untreated tissue could indicate either that the interstitial space CO2 concentration is not actually different in the two treatments due to significant endogenous respiratory CO2 or else the data would suggest a very loose coupling between dark CO2 fixation and growth. IAA stimulated the in vivo fixation of 14c-bicarbonate (NaHI4c03) by about 25% and the addition of cycloheximide caused an inhibition of bicarbonate fixation within 30 min. Cycloheximide has also been reported to inhibit IAA-stimulated H+ excretion. These data are consistent with the acid growth theory and suggest that lAA stimulated growth involves dark CO2 fixation. The roles of dark CO2 fixation in lAA-stimulated growth are discussed.
    • Breeding parameters of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo carbo) at mixed species colonies on Prince Edward Island, Canada

      Hogan, Geoffrey Gordon.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Breeding parameters of Great Cormorants (PkaZac/iOCOfiCLX CCUibo dCUtbo) and Double-crested Cormorants (P. CLU/uXuA CMJhLtllb) were examined at two mixed species colonies at Cape Tryon and Durell Point, Prince Edward Island from 1976 to 1978. Differential access to nests at the two colony sites resulted in more complete demographic data for P. CCUibo than for P. CLUJiituA. In 1911j P. CCtfibo was present at both colonies by 21 March, whereas P. auAAJtuA did not return until 1 April and 16 April at Cape Tryon and Durell Point, respectively. Differences in the arrival chronology by individuals of each species and differences in the time of nest site occupation according to age, are suggested as factors influencing the nest site distribution of P. CXUtbo and P. aiVtituA at Cape Tryon. Forty-eight P. dOJtbo chicks banded at the Durell Point colony between 19 74 and 19 76 returned there to nest as two- to four-year olds in 19 77 and 19 78. Unmarked individuals with clutch-starts in April were likely greater than four years old as all marked two to four-year olds (with one possible exception) in 19 77 and 1978 had clutch-starts in May and June. Seasonal variation in the breeding success of P. dOJibo individuals was examined at Durell Point in 1977. Mean clutch-size, hatching success and fledging success exhibited a seasonal decline. Four- and 5-egg clutches represented the majority (75%) of all P. CCUibo clutches at Durell Point in 1977 and had the highest reproductive success (0.48 and 0.43 chicks fledged per egg laid respectively). Smaller clutches produced small broods with significantly higher chick mortality while larger clutches suffered high egg loss prior to clutch completion.
    • Genetic variability in Larus argentatus and Sterna hirundo

      Melvin, George Ian.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Blood serum and egg-white protein samples from individuals representing seven colonies of Larusargentatus, and four colonies of Sterna hirundo were electrophoretically analysed to determine levels of genetic variability and to assess the utility of polymorphic loci as genetic markers. Variability occurred at five co-dominant autosomal loci. S. hirundo protein polymorphism occurred at the Est-5 and the Oest-l loci, while nineteen loci were monomorphic. L. argentatus samples were monomorphic at seventeen loci and polymorphic at the Ldh-A and the Alb loci. Intergeneric differences existed at the Oalb and the Ldh-A loci. Although LDH-A100 from both species possessed identical electrophoretLc mobilities, the intergeneric differences were expressed as a difference in enzyme the'ITIlostabilities. Geographical distribution of alleles and genetic divergence estimates suggest ~ hirundo population panmixis,at least at the sampled locations. The h argentatus gene pool appears relatively heterogeneous with a discreet Atlantic Coast population and a Great Lakes demic population. These observed population structures may be maintained by the relative amount of gene flow occurring within and among populations. Mass ringing data coupled to reproductive success information and analysis of dispersal trends appear to validate this assumption. Similar results may be generated by either selection or both small organism and low locus sample sizes. To clarify these results and to detect the major factor(s) affecting the surveyed portions of the genome, larger sample sizes in conjunction with precise eco-demographic data are required.