• Water and electrolyte content and distribution in tissues of thermally-acclimated rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

      Mearow, Karen M.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      The primary objective of this investigation was that of providing a comprehensive tissue-by-tissue assessment of water-electrolyte status in thermally-acclimated rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. To this end levels of water and the major ions, sodium, chloride and potassium were evaluated in the plasma, at three skeletal muscle sites, and in cardiac muscle, liver, spleen, gut and brain of animals acclimated to 2°, 10° and 18°C. The occurrence of possible seasonal variations in water-electrolyte balance was evaluated by sampling sununer and late fall-early winter populations of trout. On the basis of values for water and electrolyte content, estimates of extracellular and cellular phase volumes, cellular electrolyte concentrations and Nernst equilibrium potentials were made. Since accurate assessment of the extracellular phase volume is critical in the estimation of cellular electrolyte concentrations and parameters based on assumed cellular ion levels, [14 C]-polyethylene glycol-4000, which is assumed to be confined to the extracellular space, was employed to provide comparisons with various ion-defined spaces (H20~~s, H20~~/K and H20~~s). Subsequently, the ion-defined space yielding the most realistic estimate of extracellular phase volume for each tissue was used in cellular electrolyte calculations. Water and electrolyte content and distribution varied with temperature. Tissues, such as liver, spleen and brain appeared to be the most thermosensitive, whereas skeletal and cardiac muscle and gut tissue were less influenced. 'Summer' series trout appeared to be more capable of maintaining their water- electrolyte balance than the ~fall-winter' series animals. i The data are discussed in terms of their possible effect on maintenance of appropriate cellular metabolic and electrophysiological functions.
    • Water quality and fish populations of the Welland River, Ontario /

      Steele, Peter Owen.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1981-06-15)
      The water quality and fish populations of the Welland River were observed to decline with distance downstream. This coincided with increased agricultural , domestic and industrial waste loadings. The river upstream of the City of Welland received considerable loadings from agricultural sources. Centrarchids, sciaenids, ictalurids, cyprinids and esocids characterized this upper section of the river. Most of these species were tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations and the high turbidity which prevailed there . The river near Port Robinson receives many industrial and domestic wastes as evidenced by the water quality data. The fish in this section were less abundant and the observed population was comprised almost solely of cyprinids. Further downstream, near Montrose, the Welland River received shock loads of chemical wastes that exceeded a specific conductance of ISiOOO ;umhos/cm. Few fish were captured at this site and those that were captured were considered to be transients. A review of the literature revealed that none of the common indices of water quality in use today could adequately predict the observed distributions. In addition to the above, the long-term trend (l3 yrs) of water quality of the lower Welland River revealed a gradual improvement. The major factor thought to be responsible for this improvement was the operation of the Welland Sewage Treatment Plant. The construction of the New Welland Ship Canal coincided with large fluctuations of the total solids and other parameters downstream. These conditions prevailed for a maximum of three years (1972- 1975)' Furthermore, spawning times and temperatures, geographic distributions, length-weight regressions and many other descriptive aspects of the ecology of some 26 species/ taxa of fish were obtained. Several of these species are rare or new to southern Ontario.
    • X-ray diffraction studies of muscle : observations on the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis and the insect flight muscle from Sarcophaga bullata

      Cottrell, Alan Philip.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      The interfilament spacing of the anterior byssus retractor muscle from Mytilus edulis was studied as the muscle was extended. It was found that variations in this spacing were very small and consistent with the hypothesis that the interfilament spacing was independent of the extension of the muscle. It was observed that the interfilament spacing was dependent on the osmolarity of the bathing medium. In concentrated solutions of the artificial seawater, the interfilament spacing decreased; while in dilute solutions of artificial seawater, it was observed that the interfilament spacing was increasing. X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained from fresh, and glutaraldehyde fixed, specimens of insect flight muscle from Sarcophaga bullata. There patterns were in general agreement with previous X-ray diffraction studies of insect flight muscle. A reflexion G at 93A was observed and interpreted as arising from diffraction in the mitochondria. Specimens of dried insect flight muscle produced a diffraction pattern consisting of arc and ring reflexions. This was interpreted as suggesting an ordered arrangement of cristae, in the mitochondria from these muscles.