• The ecological and physiological consequences of sun vs. shade nesting for the small carpenter bee, Ceratina calcarata, and their offspring

      de Haan, Jessie; Department of Biological Sciences
      Ceratina calcarata mothers choose their nesting location and that choice can have developmental consequences for their offspring. Nests in the sun experience higher developmental temperatures, reducing self-feeding insect body size through a phenomenon called the Temperature-Size Rule. How does developmental temperature affect body size in insects whose mothers’ feed them; for example, in mass-provisioning bees where all the food an offspring needs to complete development is provided by the mother upfront? What are the physiological advantages or disadvantages conveyed to offspring in sunny nests? In this thesis I used C. calcarata to investigate the ecological and behavioural consequences of nest location choice (sun or shade) on mothers, as well as the physiological consequences of developmental temperature on their offspring. Nests randomly allocated to the shade treatment were more likely to be empty when opened, indicating that shaded nesting locations were not preferred. Mothers nesting in the sun foraged more often for nectar than shade mothers, but provisioned similar sized pollen masses. Sunny nests were hotter than shaded nests, even more so if they were oriented on an angle. Offspring from sunny nests were smaller than shade bees in agreement with the Temperature Size Rule. Sunny offspring also had higher thermal tolerance than offspring from the shade but less frequent DGE bursts at 25°C compared to shade bees, suggesting a lower metabolism at a moderate temperature. As a result, I conclude offspring from sunny nests displayed irreversible developmental thermal plasticity. Offspring from sunny nests experienced a thermal trade-off as a result of their developmental conditions; they had a capacity for higher thermal tolerance as evidenced by a shifted thermal breadth, but at the expense of a smaller adult body size. Such trade-offs may enhance their response to climate change and contribute to speciation.
    • Ecological interactions between zooplankton and photosynthetic bacteria in Crawford Lake, Ontario

      Mazumder, A.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1983-07-09)
      The present study was carried out to test the hypothesis that photosynthetic bacteria contribute a large portion of the food of filter feeding zooplankton populations in Crawford Lake, Ontario. The temporal and spatial variations of both groups of organisms are strongly dependent on one another. 14 By using C-Iabelled photosynthetic bacteria. the ingestion and clearance rates of Daphnia pulex, ~. rosea, and Keratella spp were estimated during summer and fall of 1982. These quantitative estimations of zooplankton ingestion and clearence rates on photosynthetic bacteria comprised an original addition to the literature. Photosynthetic bacteria comprised a substantial portion of the diet of all four dominant zooplankton species. The evidence for this is based on the ingestion and clearance rates of the dominant zooplankton species. Ingestion rates of D. pulex and D. rosea ranged 5 5 -1 -1 - -- 5 - -- 5 from 8.3X10 -1 to 14.6XlO -1 cells.ind. hr and 8.1X10 to 13.9X10 cells.ind. hr • Their clearance rates ranged from 0.400 to 1.000 -1 -1 -1 -1 ml.ind. hr. and 0.380 to 0.930 ml.ind. hr • The ingestion and clearance -1 -1 -1 -1 rates of Keratella spp were 600 cell.ind. hr and 0.40 ul.ind. hr respectively. Clearance rates were inversely proportional to the concentration of food cells and directly proportional to the body size of the animals. It is believed that despite the very short reg~neration times of photosynthetic bacteria (3-8 hours) their population densities were controlled in part by the feeding rates of the dominant zooplankton in Crawford Lake. By considering the regeneration times of photosynthetic bacteria and the population clearance rates of zooplankton, it was estimated that between 16 to 52% and 11 to 35% of the PHotosynthetic bacteria were' consumed· by Daphnia· pulex. and Q.. rosea per day. The temporal and spatial distribution of Daphnia pulex, !.. rosea, Keratella quadrata, K. coChlearis and photosynthetic bacteria in Crawford Lake were also investigated during the period of October, 1981 to December, 1982. The photosynthetic bacteria in the lake, constituted a major food source for only those zooplankton Which tolerate anaerobic conditions. Changes in temperature and food appeared to correlate with the seasonal changes in zooplankton density. All four dominant species of zooplankton were abundant at the lake's surface (O-4m) during winter and spring and moved downwards with the thermocline as summer stratification proceeded. Photosynthetic bacteria formed a 2 m thick layer at the chemocline. The position of this photosynthetic bacterial J-ayer changed seasonally. In the summer, the bacterial plate moved upwards and following fall mixing it moved downwards. A vertical shift of O.8m (14.5 to 15.3m) was recorded during the period of June to December. The upper limit of the photosynthetic bacteria in the water column was controlled by dissolved oxygen, and sulfide concentrations While their lower limit was controlled by light intensity. A maximum bacterio- 1 chlorophyll concentration of 81 mg Bchl.l was recorded on August 9, 1981. The seasonal distribution of photosynthetic bacteria was controlledinpart' by ·theg.-"z1ai'_.Q;~.zoopl. ank:tCm;-.Qther -ciactors associated with zooplankton grazing were oxygen and sulfide concentrations.
    • Effect of age on female choice in the field cricket, Gryllus interger

      Prosser, Melaine Renee.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      Female choice is an important element of sexual selection that may vary among females of the same species. Few researchers have investigated the causes of variation in selectivity with respect to potential mates and overall level of motivation toward a stimulus source representative of a mate. This study demonstrates that female age may be one cause of variation in female choice. Females of different ages may have different mate preferences. As females age, they have less time left to reproduce, and their residual reproductive value decreases. This should correspond to a higher reproductive effort which may be represented as increased motivation and/or decreased selectivity. The effect of age on mate choice in Gryllus integer was investigated by using a non-compensating treadmill, called the Kugel, to measure female phonotaxis. Artificially generated male calling songs of varying pulse rates were broadcast in either a singlestimulus or a three-stimulus experimental design. The pulse rates used in the calling song stimuli were 70, 64, 76, 55 and 85 pulses per second. These corresponded to the documented mean pulse rate for the species at the experimental temperature, one standard deviation below and above the mean, and 2.5 standard deviations below and above the mean, respectively. Test females were either 11-14 days or 25-28 days post-ecdysis. Trials usually were conducted two to seven hours into the scotophase. In the single-stimulus experiment, females were presented with stimuli with only one pulse rate. Older females achieved higher vector scores than younger females, indicating that older females are more motivated to mate. Both groups showed little phonotactic response towards 55 or 85 pIs, both of which lie outside the natural range of G. integer calling song at the experimental temperature. Neither group discriminated among the three pulse rates that fell within the natural range of calling song. In the three-stimulus experiment, females were presented with stimuli with one of three pulse rates, 64, 70 or 76 pIs, In alternation. Both age groups had reduced responsiveness in this experiment, perhaps due to an increase in perceived male density. Additionally, younger females responded significantly more to 64 and 70 pIs than to the higher pulse rate, indicating that they are selective with respect to mate choice. Older females did not discriminate among the three pulse rates. Therefore, it was concluded that selectivity decreases with age. A further study was conducted to determine that these effects were due to age and not due to the differing periods without a mating between the two age groups. Again, stimuli were presented in a three-stimulus experimental design. Age was held constant at 28 days and time since last mating varied from 11 to 25 days. Females varyIng in time since last mating did not differ in their responses to the calling song pulse rates. This indicated that the increased motivation and decreased selectivity exhibited In the initial experiments were due to age and not to time without a mating. Neither time of trial nor female weight had an effect upon female phonotaxis. Data are discussed in terms of mate choice, residual reproductive value, and costs of choice.
    • The effect of age on the structure and compostition of the cell walls of Choanephora cucurbitarum

      Campbell, Craig D.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      The effect of age on the structure and composition of isolated and purified cell walls from cultures of Choanephora cucurbitarum was investigated by microchemical analyses, visible and infrared spectrophotometry, x-ray diffractometry and electron microscopy. Qualitative evaluation revealed the presence of lipids, proteins, neutral sugars, strong alkali soluble sugars, chitin, chitosan and uronic acids in the cell walls of both the 1 and 7 day old cultures. As the mycelium aged, there was a slight but statistically significant increase in the protein content, and a pronounced rise in the chitin and neutral sugar constituents of the cell walls. Conversely, the decrease in the chitosan content during this period had the net effect of altering the chitin: chitosan ratio from near unity in the younger cultures, to a 2:1 ratio in the 7 day old cell wall samples. Glutaraldehyde-osmium fixed thin sections of the 1 day old vegetative hyphae of £. curbitarum revealed the presence of a monolayered cell wall, which upon aging became bilayered. Replicas of acid hydrolysed cell walls demonstrated that both the 1 and 7 day old samples possessed an outer layer which was composed of finely granular amorphous material and randomly distributed microfibrils. The deposition of an inner secondary layer composed of parallel oriented microfibrils in the older hypha was correlated with an increase in the chitin content in the cell wall. The significance of these results with respect to the intimate relationship between composition and structure is discussed.
    • Effect of citrate on the redox properties of cytochrome C and its kinetic and binding behaviour with cytochrome oxidase /

      Brooks, Stephen P. J.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1981-06-09)
      Increasing citrate concentration, at constant ionic strength (30 mM) decreases the rate of cytochrome ~ reduction by ascorbate. This effect is also seen at both high (600 mM) and low (19 mM) ionic strengths, and the Kapp for citrate increases with increasing ionic strength. Citrate binds d both ferri -and ferrocytochrome ~, but with a lower affinity for the latter form (Kox . .red d = 2 mM, Kd = 8 mM) as shown by an equilibrium assay with N,N,N',N', Tetramethyl E- phenylenediamine. The reaction of ferricytochrome ~with cyanide is also altered in the presence of citrate: citrate increases the K~PP for cyanide. Column chromatography of cytochrome ~-cytochrome oxidase mixtures shows citrate increases the dissociation constant of the complex. These results are confirmed in kinetic assays for the "loose"site (Km = 20 pM) only. The effect of increasing citrate observable at the "tight" site (Km = 0.25 pM) is on the turnover number and not on the K . These results suggest a mechanism m where anion binding to cytochrome £ at the tight site affects the equilibrium between two forms of cytochrome c bound cytochrome oxidase: an active and an inactive one.
    • The effect of diet and parasite load on female phonotaxis in the Texas field cricket, Gryllus integer

      MacDougall, Donald Allen.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      Female crickets respond selectively to variations in species-specific male calling songs. This selectivity has been shown to be age-dependent; older females are less choosy. However, female quality should also affect female selectivity. The effect of female quality on mate choice was examined in Gryllus integer by comparing the phonotactic responses of females on different diets and with different parasite loads to various synthetic models of conspecific calling song. Test females were virgin, 11-14 days old, and had been maintained on one of five diets varying in protein and fat content. Phonotaxis was quantified using a non-compensating Kugel treadmill which generates vector scores incorporating the speed and direction of movement of each female. Test females were presented with four calling song models which differed in pulse rate, but were still within the natural range of the species for the experimental temperature. After testing, females were dissected and the number of gregarine parasites within the digestive tract counted. There were no significant effects of either diet or parasitism on female motivation to mate although the combined effects of these variables seem to have an effect with no apparent trend. Control females did not discriminate among song types, but there was a trend of female preferences for lower pulse rates which are closest to the mean pulse rate for the species. Heavily parasitized females did not discriminate among pulse rates altho~gh there was a similar trend of high vector scores for low pulse rates. Diet, however, affected selectivity with poorly-fed females showing significantly high vector scores for pulse rates near the species mean. Such findings raise interesting questions about energy allocation and costs and risks of phonotaxis and mate choice in acoustic Orthoptera. These results are discussed in terms of sexual selection and female mate choice.
    • Effect of diurnal cycling temperatures on cardiovascular- ventilatory function in statically-acclimated rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

      Henry, James Arthur Charles.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1980-07-09)
      Four groups of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, were acclimated to 2°, 10°, and 18°e, and to a diurnal temperature cycle (100 ± 4°C). To evaluate the influence of cycling temperatures in terms of an immediate as opposed to acclimatory response various ventilatory-cardiovascular rate functions were observed for trout, either acclimated to cycling temperatures or acclimated to constant temperatures and exposed to a diurnal temperature cycle for the first time (10° ± 4°C for trout acclimated to 10°C; 18°+ 4°C for trout acclimated to l8°e). Gill resistance and the cardiac to ventilatory rate ratio were then calculated. Following a post preparatory recovery period of 36 hr, measurements were made over a 48 hour period with the first 24 hours being at constant temperature in the case of statically-acclimated fish followed by 24 hours under cyclic temperature conditions. Trout exhibited marked changes in oxygen consumption (Vo ) with temp- 2 erature both between acclimation groups, and in response to the diurnal temperature cycle. This increase in oxygen uptake appears to have been achieved by adjustment of ventilatory and, to some extent, cardiovascular activity. Trout exhibited significant changes in ventilatory rate (VR), stroke volume (Vsv), and flow (VG) in response to temperature. Marked changes in cardiac rate were also observed. These findings are discussed in relation to their importance in convective oxygen transport via water and blood at the gills and tissues. Trout also exhibited marked changes in pressure waveforms associated with the action of the resp; ratory pumps with temperature. Mean differenti a 1 pressure increased with temperature as did gill resistance and utilization. This data is discussed in relation to its importance in diffusive oxygen transport and the conditions for gas exchange at the gills. With one exception, rainbow trout were able to respond to changes in oxygen demand and availability associated with changes in temperature by means of adjustments in ventilation, and possibly pafusion, and the conditions for gas exchange at the gills. Trout acclimated to 18°C, however, and exposed to high cyclic temperatures, showed signs of the ventilatory and cardiovascular distress problems commonly associated with low circulating levels of oxygen in the blood. It appears these trout were unable to fully meet the oxygen requirements associated with c~ling temperatures above 18°C. These findings were discussed in relation to possible limitations in the cardiovascular-ventilatory response at high temperatures. The response of trout acclimated to cycling temperatures was generally similar to that for trout acclimated to constant temperatures and exposed to cycling temperatures for the first time. This result suggested that both groups of fish may have been acclimated to a similar thermal range, regardless of the acclimation regime employed. Such a phenomenon would allow trout of either acclimation group to respond equally well to the imposed temperature cycle. Rainbow trout showed no evidence of significant diurnal rhythm in any parameters observed at constant temperatures (2°, 10°, and 18° C), and under a 12/12 light-dark photoperiod regime. This was not taken to indicate an absence of circadian rhythms in these trout, but rather a deficiency in the recording methods used in the study.
    • The effect of feeding regime on larval black fly (Diptera: simuliidae) primary head fan ray number

      Lucas, Peter E.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1995-07-09)
      Identification of larval simuliids has always been difficult due to the morphological similarity many species bear to one another. For this reason all characters available have been drawn upon to aid in species identification, including head fan ray number. Even in light of an increasing body of anecdotal reports that head fan ray number is not fixed, it has continued to be used to aid species identification. In the current experiment simuliid larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions to last instar in one of three feeding regimes. Out of nine trials, the results of six showed a significant inverse relationship between feeding regime and head fan ray number. In addition to the laboratory experiments, larvae were also collected from the field over the course of the spring and summer, 1994. From these samples significant interspecific and intraspecific variations in head fan ray number were found both spatially and temporally within Algonquin Park. From these data it is concluded that head fan ray number for the species analysed is a developmentally plastic character, which varies in response to food availability. Furthermore, given the extreme variations in head fan ray number found in some species, I recommend that head fan ray number not be used as an aid to identification unless it can be shown to be a fixed character for the species in question.
    • The effect of gregarine parasite infections, age, and diet on calling song structure and mating behaviour in the Texas field cricket, Gryllus integer

      Proctor, Leslie Elizabeth.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      In the past ten years, many researchers have focussed their attention on parasites regarding the role they may play in causing variations in male secondary sexual traits and subsequent effects on female choice. Male age has also been suggested to be an important factor in female choice if old age reflects superior genes. This study investigated the effects that gregarine gut parasites, age, and diet have on the calling and mating behaviour of the male Texas field cricket, Gryllus integer. Male calling songs were recorded in the laboratory using a Digital Signal Processing Network. The song parameters measured were: pulse rate, pulse width, burst duration, pulses per burst, interburst interval, and percent missing pulses. The effects of parasite load and age on the various calling song parameters was investigated in crickets that were fed two different diets varying in nutritional quality. None of the calling song parameters were affected by either parasite load or age in either diet grou p. Courtship behaviour was ob served and recorded using an Eventlog recorder on an IBM computer in the laboratory. Females mated equally with paras(tized and unparasitized males and with old and young males The total duration and proportion of time spent performing each of 9 courtship displays were recorded for males on each diet. Only one display was affected by parasite load. Highly parasitized males fed the nutritionally inferior diet juddered for a proportionately shorter time than males with low parasite loads. Also, older males performed juddering and shaking antennae proportionally longer and juddering and raising wings for longer durations than younger males. Males that successfully mated were observed for performance of 8 post-copulatory guarding behaviour displays. None of the guarding behaviours were affected by parasite load. However, one display was affected by age, with older males performing guard turning for shorter durations than younger males. Results are discuss,ed in terms of the influence of parasites and age on female choice.
    • The effect of lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) on α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) binding to lipid membranes

      Baptist, Matilda; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2010-03-09)
      The a-tocopherol transfer protein (a-TTP) is responsible for the retention of the atocopherol form of vitamin E in living organisms. The detailed ligand transfer mechanism by a-TTP is still yet to be fully elucidated. To date, studies show that a-TTP transfers a-tocopherol from late endosomes in liver cells to the plasma membrane where it is repackaged into very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and released into the circulation. Late endosomes have been shown to contain a lipid known as lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBP A) that is unique to this cellular compartment. LBPA plays a role in intracellular trafficking and controlling membrane curvature. Taking these observations into account plus the fact that certain proteins are recruited to membranes based on membrane curvature, the specific aim of this project was to examine the effect of LBP A on a-TTP binding to lipid membranes. To achieve this objective, dual polarization interferometry (DPI) and a vesicle binding assay were employed. Whilst DPI allows protein binding affinity to be measured on a flat lipid surface, the vesicle binding assay determines protein binding affinity to lipid vesicles mimicking curved membranes. DPI analysis revealed that the amount of a-TTP bound to lipid membranes is higher when LBPA is present. Using the vesicle binding assay, a similar result was seen where a greater amount of protein is bound to large unilamellar vesicles (LUV s) containing LBP A. However, the effect of LBP A was attenuated when small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) were replaced with LUVs. The outcome of this project suggests that aTTP binding to membranes is influenced by membrane curvature, which in turn is induced by the presence of LBP A.
    • The effect of moisture on decomposition processes in the disturbed peatlands of the Wainfleet bog /

      Diamond, Joshua C.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2007-06-01)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of increased soil moisture levels on the decomposition processes in a peat-extracted bog. Field experiments, in which soil moisture levels were manipulated, were conducted using 320 microcosms in the Wainfleet Bog from May 2002 to November 2004. Decomposition was measured using litter bags and monitoring the abundance of macro invertebrate decomposers known as Collembola. Litter bags containing wooden toothpicks (n=2240), filter paper (n=480) and Betula pendula leaves (n=40) were buried in the soil and removed at regular time intervals up to one year. The results of the litter bag studies demonstrated a significant reduction of the decomposition of toothpicks (p<0.001), filter paper (p<0.001), and Betula pendula leaves (p<O.OO I) when soil moisture levels were increased to levels approaching those of natural conditions. These conditions significantly reduced the mean mass loss of toothpicks by 30 %, filter paper by 20 % and Betula pendula leaves by 18 % over one year when compared to the control. The abundance of Collembola was monitored using a non-destructive method in the microcosms. By contrast the effect of increased moisture levels on the abundance of Collembola was more variable and difficult to interpret. The conclusions of this study indicate that the Wainfleet Bog is a highly disturbed peatland and that the greatest reductions in decomposition can be obtained by restoring the soil moisture levels near those of undisturbed conditions.
    • The effect of nitrate fertilization on the distribution of exported 14c-photosynthate in nodulated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) plants

      Hunter, David Michael.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      Soybean (Glycine ~ (L.) Merr. cv. Harosoy 63) plants inoculated with Rhizobium japonicum were grown in vermiculite in the presence or absence of nitrate fertilization for up to 6 weeks after planting. Overall growth of nodulated plants was enhanced in the presence of nitrate fertilization, while the extent of nodule development was reduced. Although the number of nodules was not affected by nitrate fertilization when plants were grown at a light intensity limiting for photosynthesis, at light intensities approaching or exceeding the light saturation point for photosynthesis, nitrate fertilization resulted in at least a 30% reduction in nodule numbers. The mature, first trifoliate leaf of 21 day old plants was allowed to photoassimi1ate 14C02. One hour after·· the initial exposure to 14C02, the , plants were harvested and the 14C radioactivity was determined in the 80% ethanol-soluble fraction: in. o:rider to assess· "the extent of photoassimilate export and the pattern of distribution of exported 14C. The magnitude of 14C export was not affected by the presence of nitrate fertilization. However, there was a significant effect on the distribution pattern, particularly with regard to the partitioning of 14C-photosynthate between the nodules and the root tissue. In the presence of nitrate fertilization, less than 6% of the exported 14C photosynthate was recovered from the nodules, with much larger amounts (approximately 37%) being recovered from the root tissue. In the absence of nitrate fertilization, recovery of exported 14C-photosynthate from the nodules (19 to 27%) was approximately equal to that from the root tissue (24 to 33%). By initiating- or terminating the applications of nitrate at 14 days of age, it was determined that the period from day 14 to day 21 after planting was particularly significant for the development of nodules initiated earlier. Addition of nitrate fertilization at this time inhibited further nodule development while stimulating plant growth, whereas removal of nitrate fertilization stimulated nodule development. The results obtained are consistent with the hypothesis that nodule development is inhibited by nitrate fertilization through a reduction in the availability of photosynthate to the nodules.
    • The effect of pH and ethanol on the astringent sub-qualities of red wine, and the implications for optimum grape maturity /

      De Miglio, Palmina.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2004-06-04)
      The first objective of this study was to identify appropriate sensory descriptors to assess the astringent sub-qualities of red wine. The influence of pH and ethanol on the sensation of astringency in red wine was evaluated, using a de-alcoholized red wine. A portion of the wine was adjusted to the pH values of 3.2, 3.4, 3.6 and 3.8, and another portion was adjusted to ethanol concentrations of 0%, 6%, 12%, and 15%. In addition, the pH 3.4 and 3.6 treatments were adjusted to an ethanol concentration of 12% and 15% all wines were then assessed sensorially and seventeen terms were identified, through panel discussion, to describe the mouth-feel and taste qualities: velvet, aggressive, silk/satin, dry, fleshy, unripe, pucker viscosity, abrasive, heat, chewy, acidity, grippy/adhesive, bitter, balance, overall astringency, and mouth-coat. Descriptive analysis profiling techniques were used to train the panel and measure the intensity of these attributes. It was found that decreasing pH values (averaged across all ethanol concentrations) showed an increase in the overall astringency of the wine. The combined treatments of ethanol and pH, real wine parameters (pH 3.4 and 3.6; 12% and 15% ethanol) did not have an effect on the perception of the astringent sub-qualities of the wine. A time intensity study was also included using the pH and ethanol adjusted wines, which showed that as the ethanol level of the wines increased so did the time to maximum intensity. The second objective was to identify appropriate sensory descriptors to evaluate the influence of grape maturity and maceration technique (grape skin contact) on the astringency sub-qualities of red vinifera wines from Niagara. The grapes were harvested across two dates, representing an early harvest and a late harvest. A portion of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes wine was divided into three maceration treatments of oneweek maceration, standard two-week maceration, three-week maceration, and MCM. Another portion of both the early and late harvest Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were chaptalized to yield a final ethanol concentration of 14.5%. The wines were assessed sensorially and thirteen terms were identified, through panel discussion, to describe the mouth-feel and taste qualities: carbon dioxide, pucker, acidity, silk/chamois, dusty/chalky/powdery, sandpaper, numbing, grippy/adhesive, dry, mouthcoat, bitter, balance and, overall astringency. Descriptive analysis techniques were used to train the panel and measure the intensity of these attributes. The data revealed few significant differences in the mouth-feel of the wines with respect to maturity; which included differences in overall astringency and balance. There were varietal differences between Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, and Pinot Noir and differences for Cabernet Sauvignon wines due to the length and manner of maceration and as a result of chaptalization. Statistical analysis revealed a more complex mouth-feel for the Pinot Noir wines; and an increase in the intensity of the astringent sub-qualities as a result of the addition of sugar to the wines. These findings have implications for how processing decisions, such as optimum grape maturity and vinification methods may affect red wine quality.
    • Effect of pH on non-photochemical quenching in spinach photsystem 2 particles as measured by picosecond fluorescence decay kinetics

      Carpenter, Christene.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1995-11-04)
      Single photon timing was used to study picosecond chlorophyll a fluorescence decay kinetics of pH induced non-photochemical quenching in spinach photosystem 2 particles. The characteristics of this quenching are a decrease in chlorophyll a fluorescence yield as well as a decrease in photochemistry at low pH. Picosecond kinetics of room temperature fluorescence temporally resolve the individual components of the steady state fluorescence yield into components that are related to primary energy conversion processes in photosystem 2. Four components were resolved for dark adapted (Fo), light saturated (Fm), and chemically reduced (Nadithionite) photosystem 2 reaction centres. The fastest and slowest components, indicative of energy transfer to and energy capture by the photosystem 2 reaction centre and uncoupled ("dead") chlorophyll, respectively, were not affected by changing pH from 6.5 to 4.0. The two intermediate components, indicative of electron transfer processes within the reaction centre of photosystem 2, were affected by the pH change. Results indicate that the decrease in the steady state fluorescence yield at low pH was primarily due to the decrease in lifetime and amplitude of the slower of the intermediate components. These results imply that the decrease in steady state fluorescence yield at low pH is not due to changes in energy transfer to and energy capture by the photosystem 2 reaction centre, but is related to changes in charge stabilization and charge recombination in the photosystem 2 reaction centre.
    • The effect of Resveratrol on the Upregulation of Ngb

      Rezk, Mohamed; Department of Biological Sciences
      Apoptosis involves a series of biochemical events that leads to the eventual death of the cell. One pathway – intrinsic pathway, involves the fragmentation of mitochondria and the release of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as cytochrome c. A certain globin protein has been shown to be able to protect cells from apoptosis, called Neuroglobin (Ngb). Ngb is a globin haem protein that has been shown to reduce the ferric form of cytochrome c to inhibit apoptosis. In addition, Ngb has been shown to translocate into the mitochondria under stress, where it reacts with cytochrome c. Estradiol (E2) has been shown to greatly upregulate the levels of Ngb and also stimulates the translocation of Ngb into the mitochondria. The upregulation of Ngb has been shown to be mediated via the ER subtype, ERβ. Even though literature covers the effects of E2 and the ERβ agonist DPN (Diartylpropiolnitrile), there is a lack of evidence on the ER agonist, Resveratrol (RES); RES is a phytoestrogen that has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis and abrogate mitochondrial fragmentation, ameliorating apoptosis. The hypothesis of this study is that RES will upregulate Ngb levels as E2 does, and will translocate Ngb into the mitochondria as E2 does. The results of this study showed that Ngb bands could not be detected via western blots, and the mRNA transcript levels in MCF-7 and DLD-1 could not be quantified. The Ngb-GFP fusion protein did not fluoresce and Ngb’s translocation into the mitochondria could not be determined. Ngb overexpression did not inhibit mitochondrial fragmentation and did not induce mitochondrial fusion.
    • The effect of social condition and diet on the frequency of male-male agonistic displays in the field cricket, gryllus bimaculatus /

      Tachon, Gabrielle Rachel.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      The frequency and type of agonistic displays involved in male-male encounters should be significantly influenced by the presence of females. Discrete agonistic displays vary in energy expenditure and risk, and therefore should be dependent on available resources. The influence of live females and the scent of females, on the frequency of male agonistic displays was observed in a laboratory terrarium using the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. The effect of energy constraints on display frequency was also determined. Half the males were fed a diet high in protein and fet; the other males were fed a lower quality diet, for a 7-11 day period. The frequency of five individual displays and mating frequency were recorded using an Event Recorder and notebook. Each group of males was presented with three experimental conditions, over three days, involving the presence or absence of live females and female scent. The presence of females elicited an increase in all displays except antennation; female scent increased the frequency of antennations, mandible flares and grapples, but to a lesser extent than did live females. The frequency of grapples significantly increased for males fed the high quality diet; however diet did not influence the other displays. The combined influence of diet and condition was significant for mandible flare only. Mating frequency was not influenced by diet. However, the frequency ofthe displays were positively correlated with mating frequency for high quality fed males. Escalated displays involving high costs, such as grapple and mandible flare, increased in frequency when the benefits of winning contests were high in G.bimaculatus. Escalation to grapple behaviour was less evident for males fed the lower quality diet as this imposed energy constraints on high cost displays.
    • The effect of viticultural and oenological treatments on fruit and wine composition of Chardonnay musqué /

      Schlosser, James W.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2003-07-14)
      The effect of viticultural and oenological treatments on fruit and wine composition of Chardonnay musque Study I: Effect ofveraison leafremoval and cluster thinning A one-year study was performed analysing die effects of leaf removal, cluster thinning, yeast strain selection, and enzyme usage on the chemical composition and sensory properties of Chardonnay musque wine. A number of substantial differences were found between treatments in °Brix, TA, pH, and in free and potentially volatile terpene concentrations. Greatest variations in sensory attributes were created however through use of different viticultural practices.Study II: Effect ofcluster thinning timing A two year study was conducted investigating the effect of cluster thinning timing, yeast strain selection, and enzyme usage on the chemical composition and sensory attributes of Chardonnay musque wine. Time of thinning was found to impact °BrLx, titratable acidit}% pH, and free and potentially volatile terpene concentrations, as well as, a number of yield parameters.Yeast strain selection and enzyme usage also impacted wine composition, andwas found to exhibit a greater effect on sensory properties than application of cluster thinning.
    • Effects of a hydroxy-cinnamoyl conjugate of spermidine in the neuromuscular junction of crayfish /

      Klose, Markus.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2000-05-21)
      N'-coumaroyl spermidine (NlCSpd) is a plant derived chemical which is proposed to belong to a class of low molecular weight neuroactive substances called phenolic polyamines. NlCSpd is stnicturally similar to glutamate receptor blocking toxins found in certain spiders and wasps, such as JSTX-3 and NSTX-3 found in Nephila spiders. The goal of the present study was to determine if plant-derived phenolic polyamines act like other structurally related chemicals found in Arthropod venoms, such as JSTX-3, and whether they can be classified in the same pharmacological group as the spider and wasp toxins. A comparison was made to determine the relative potencies of various phenolic polyamines fi-om plants and insect venoms. This comparison was done by measuring the effect of various concentrations ofNlCSpd on the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) elicited in muscle of the crayfish Proccanbarus clarkii. NlCSpd was also tested on L-glutamate induced potentials to determine if a postsynaptic component to sj^naptic block occurs. NlCSpd and an analogue with an a longer polyamine chain, NlCSpm, blocked EPSPs in a dose dependent manner, NlCSpd having an IC50 of lOOnM. NlCSpd also blocked L-glutamate induced potentials. The two main components of the NlCSpd molecule alone are insufficient for activity. NlCSpd acts postsynaptically by interfering with crayfish glutamatergic synaptic transmission, likely blocking glutamate receptors by interacting with the same site(s) as other phenolic polyamines. Certain moieties on the polyamines molecule are necessary for activity while others are not.
    • The effects of cultural conditions and parasitism on the lipid composition of choanephora cucubitarum (Berk. Rav.) thaxter /|nJohn M. Deven. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont. : s. n.],

      Deven, John M.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      The fatty acid composition of the total, neutral, sterol, free fatty acid and polar-lipid fractions in the mycelium of Choanephora cucurbitarum was determined. The major fatty acids in all lipid fractions were palmitic, oleic, linoleic and y-linolenic acid. Different lipid fractions did not show any particular preference for any individual fatty acid; however, the degree of unsaturation was different in various lipid fractions. Addition of glutamic acid to the malt-yeast extract medium resulted in the biosynthesis of a number of long-chain fatty acids beyond y-linolenic acid. These fatty acids, e.g. C22~1' C24:0 and C26=Q were never observed to be present in the fungus when grown on a malt-yeast extract medium without glutamic acid. Furthermore, thin-layer chromatographic analysis showed a larger and denser spot of diphosphatidyl glycerol from the mycelium grown on the glutamic acid medium than from the control mycelium. Various cultural conditions such as temperature, age, pH, light and carbon:nitrogen ratio in the growth medium used in this study did not alter the qualitative profile of fatty acids normally present in the organism. Neither did these conditions stimulate the production of further long-chain fatty acids (C20 - C26) beyond y-linolenic acid as observed in growth media containing glutamic acid. These cultural conditions influenced the degree of unsaturation, this being due mainly to changes in the concentration of y-linolenic acid. The fatty acid pattern of the lipid fractions though the same qualitatively, differed quantitatively due to the variation in the y-linolenic acid content under different cultural conditions. The degree of unsaturation of various lipid fractions decreased with increases in temperature, light intensity and pH, but within each treatment the same pattern of decreasing degree of unsaturation with increasing age was observed. The cultural conditions, used in this study, are also known to influence the degree and rate of development of the parasite, Piptocephalis virginiana. A direct correlation was observed between the levels of y-linolenic acid in C. cucurbitarum during the early stages of growth (24 h) and the degree of parasitism of P. virginiana. The amount of y-linolenic acid present in the host mycelium was found to be unrelated to either the dry weight of the mycelium or to the total lipid contents. K. virginiana is confined to host species which produce y-linolenic acid in their mycelium. The lipid profile of the host, C. cucurbitarum, did not show a significant qualitative or quantitative change in the lipid profile as a result of infection by the parasite, P. virginiana,e However, an increase in the total lipid was observed in the infected host mycelium. The significance of these results is discussed.
    • Effects of female postmating odour on male sexual behaviour, in Heliconius butterflies /

      Cornish, Matt.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2001-05-21)
      The effects of the female postmating odour on male sexual behaviour were examined in Heliconius erato and H. charithonia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Predictions from the antiaphrodisiac hypothesis were tested using the two reproductive strategies of these species. Within the pupal mating strategy, results from behavioural experiments quantified and statistically tested dispersal rates of pupal-perched males to the presence of stimuli with and without the postmating odour. Results do not support an antiaphrodisiac function to the postmating odour. Similarly, within the adult courtship strategy, behavioural test results indicate that males do not alter their expenditure of energy in terms of either the duration or frequency of courtship behaviours elicited by females with and without the postmating odour. The data from both experiments did not support the antiaphrodisiac hypothesis for the function of the female postmating odour. A novel hypothesis predicting that the postmating female odour acts as an oviposition-deterring pheromone is presented.