• Aspects of the hemes and modulation of hydrogen donors in catalases from bovine liver, yeast, and escherichia coli

      Hillar, Alexander P.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      Catalase is the enzyme which decomposes hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Escherichia coli contains two catalases. Hydroperoxidase I (HPI) is a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase. Hydroperoxidase II (HPII) is only catalytically active toward H202. Expression of the genes encoding these proteins is controlled by different regimes. HPJI is thought to be a hexamer, having one heme d cis group per enzymatic subunit. HPII wild type protein and heme containing mutant proteins were obtained from the laboratory of P. Loewen (Univ. of Manitoba). Mutants constructed by oligonucleotidedirected mutagenesis were targeted for replacement of either the His128 residue or the Asn201 residue in the vicinity of the HPII heme crevice. His128 is the residue thought to be analogous to the His74 distal axial ligand of the heme in the bovine liver enzyme, and Asn201 is believed to be a residue critical to the function of the enzyme because of its role in orienting and interacting with the substrate molecule. Investigation of the nature of the hemes via absorption spectroscopy of the unmodified catalase proteins and their derived pyridine hemochromes showed that while the bovine and Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalase enzymes are protoheme-containing, the HPII wild type protein contains heme d, and the mutant proteins contain either solely protoheme, or heme d-protoheme mixtures. Cyanide binding studies supported this, as ligand binding was monophasic for the bovine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and wild type HPII enzymes, but biphasic for several of the HPII mutant proteins. Several mammalian catalases, and at least two prokaryotic catalases, are known to be NADPH binding. The function of this cofactor appears to be the prevention of inactivation of the enzyme, which occurs via formation of the inactive secondary catalase peroxide compound (compound II). No physiologically plausible scheme has yet been proposed for the NADPH mediation of catalase activity. This study has shown, via fluorescence and affinity chromatography techniques, that NADPH binds to the T (Typical) and A (Atypical) catalases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and that wild type HPII apparently does not bind NADPH. This study has also shown that NADPH is unlike any other hydrogen donor to catalase, and addresses its features as a unique donor by proposing a mechanism whereby NADPH is oxidized and catalase is protected from inactivation via the formation of protein radical species. Migration of this radical to a position close to the NADPH is also proposed as an adjunct hypothesis, based on similar electron migrations that are known to occur within metmyoglobin and cytochrome c peroxidase when reacted with H202. Validation of these hypotheses may be obtained in appropriate future experiments.
    • The genetics of glucosamine in yeast : cytoplasmic determinants conferring resistance

      Kunz, Bernard A.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Two cytoplasmic, glucosamine resistant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GR6 and GR10, were examined to determine whether or not the lesions involved were located on mitochondrial DNA. Detailed investigation of crosses of GR6 and GR10 or their derivatives to strains bearing known mitochondrial markers demonstrated that: 1. the frequency of glucos~~ine resistance in diploids was independent of factors influencing mitochondrial marker output. 2. upon tetrad analysis a variety of tetrad ratios was observed for glucosamine resistance whereas mitochondrial markers segregated 4:0 or 0:4 (resistant:sensitive). 3. glucosamine resistance and mitochondrial markers segregated differentially with time. 4. glucosamine resistance persisted following treatment of a GRIO derivative with ethidium bromide at concentrations high enough to eliminate all mitochondrial DNA. 5. haploid spore clones displayed two degrees of glucosamine resistance, weak and strong, while growth due to mitochondrial mutations was generally thick and confluent. 6. a number of glucosamine resistant diploids and haploids, which also possessed a mithchondrial resistance mutation, were unable to grow on medium containing both glucosamine and the particular drug involved. 3 These observations 1~ 6 provided strong evidence that the cytoplasmic glucosamine resistant mutations present in GR6 and GRiO were not situated on mitochondrial DNA. Comparison of the glucosamine resistance mutations to some other known cytoplasmic determinants revealed that: 7. glucosamine resistance and the expression of the killer phenotype were separate phenomena. 8. unlike yeast carrying resistance conferring episomes GR6 and GR10 were not resistant to venturicidin or oligomycin and the GR factor exhibited genetic behaviour different from that of the episomal determinants. These results 7--+8 suggested that glucosamine resistance was not associated with the killer determinant nor with alleged yeast episomes. It is therefore proposed that a yeast plasmid(s), previously undescribed, is responsible for glucosamine resistance. The evidence to date is compatible with the hypothesis that GR6 and GR10 carry allelic mutations of the same plasmid which is tentatively designated (GGM).
    • The genetics of glucosamine resistance in yeast /

      Elliot, Joseph J. (St. Catharines [Ont.] : Dept. of Biological Sciences, Brock University,, 2009-06-04)
    • Glucosamine resistance in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerivisae [sic]

      Maheshwari, Prem Lata.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      By using glucosamine resistant mutants of Saccharomyces ceriv~sa~ an attempt was made to discover the mechanisms which cause glucose repression and/or the Crabtree effect. The strains used are 4B2, GR6, lOP3r, GR8l and GRI08. 4B2 is a wild type yeast while the others are its mutants. To characterize the biochemical reactions which made these mutants resistant to glucosamine poisoning the following experiments were done~ 1. growth and respiration; 2. transport of sugars; 3. effect of inorganic phosphate (Pi): 4. Hexokinase; 5. In yivo phosphorylation. From the above experiments the following conclusions may be drawn: (i) GR6 and lOP3r have normal respiratory and fermentative pathways. These mutants are resistant to glucosamine poisoning due to a slow rate of sugar transport which is due to change in the cell membrane. (ii) GR8l has a normal respiratory pathway. The slow growth on fermentable carbon sourCEE indicates that in GR8l the lesion is in or associated with the glycolytic pathway. The lower rate of sugar transport may be due to a change in energy metabolism. The invivo phosphorylation rate indicates that in GR81 facilitated diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism. (iii) GR108 msa normal glycolytic pathway but the respiratory pathway is abnormal. The slow rate of sugar transport is due to a change in energy metabolism. The lower percentage of in vivo phosphorylation is probably due to a lowered availability of ATP because of the mitochondrial lesion. In all mutants resistance to glucosamine poisoning is due to a lower rate of utilization of ATP. which is caused by various mechanisms (see above), making less ADP available for phosphorylation via ATP synthase which utilizes inorganic phosphate. Because of the lower utilization of Pi, the concentration of intra-mitochondrial Pi does not go down thus protecting mutants from glucosamine poisoning.
    • Partial characterization of the cloned dihydrofolate reductase gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

      Nagel, Michael G.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1985-07-09)
      The cloned dihydrofolate reductase gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DFR 1) is expressed in Escherichia coli. Bacterial strain JF1754 transformed with plasmids containing DFR 1 is at least 5X more resistant to inhibition by the folate antagonist trimethoprim. Expression of yeast DFR 1 in E. coli suggests it is likely that the gene lacks intervening sequences. The 1.8 kbp DNA fragment encoding yeast dhfr activity probably has its own promotor, as the gene is expressed in both orientations in E. coli. Expression of the yeast dhfr gene cloned into M13 viral vectors allowed positive selection of DFR 1 - M13 bacterial transfectants in medium supplemented with trimethoprim. A series of nested deletions generated by nuclease Bal 31 digestion and by restriction endonuclease cleavage of plasmids containing DFR 1 physically mapped the gene to a 930 bp region between the Pst 1 and Sal 1 cut sites. This is consistent with the 21,000 molecular weight attributed to yeast dhfr in previous reports. From preliminary DNA sequence analysis of the dhfr DNA fragment the 3' terminus of DFR 1 was assigned to a position 27 nucleotides from the Eco Rl cut site on the Bam Hi - Eco Rl DNA segment. Several putative yeast transcription termination consensus sequences were identified 3' to the opal stop codon. DFR 1 is expressed in yeast and it confers resistance to the antifolate methotrexate when the gene is present in 2 - 10 copies per cell. Plasmid-dependent resistance to methotrexate is also observed in a rad 6 background although the effect is somewhat less than that conferred to wild-type or rad 18 cells. Integration of DFR 1 into the yeast genome showed an intermediate sensitivity to folate antagonists. This may suggest a gene dosage effect. No change in petite induction in these yeast strains was observed in transformed cells containing yeast dhfr plasmids. The sensitivity of rad 6 , rad 18 and wild-type cell populations to trimethoprim were unaffected by the presence of DFR 1 in transformants. Moreover, trimethoprim did not induce petites in any strain tested, which normally results if dhfr is inhibited by other antifolates such as methotrexate. This may suggest that the dhfr enzyme is not the only possible target of trimethoprim in yeast. rad 6 mutants showed a very low level of spontaneous petite formation. Methotrexate failed to induce respiratory deficient mutants in this strain which suggested that rad 6 might be an obligate grande. However, ethidium bromide induced petites to a level approximately 50% of that exhibited by wild-type and rad 18 strains.
    • Primary structure and expression studies of the dihydrofolate reductase gene (DFRI) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

      Huang, Tun.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1986-07-09)
      The nucleotide sequence of a genomic DNA fragment thought previously to contain the dihydrofolate reductase gene (DFR1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by genetic criteria was determined. This DNA fragment of 1784' basepairs contains a large open reading frame from position 800 to 1432, which encodes a enzyme with a predicted molecular weight of 24,229.8 Daltons. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of this protein revealed that the yeast polypep·tide contained 211 amino acids, compared to the 186 residues commonly found in the polypeptides of other eukaryotes. The difference in size of the gene product can be attributed mainly to an insert in the yeast gene. Within this region, several consensus sequences required for processing of yeast nuclear and class II mitochondrial introns were identified, but appear not sufficient for the RNA splicing. The primary structure of the yeast DHFR protein has considerable sequence homology with analogous polypeptides from other organisms, especially in the consensus residues involved in cofactor and/or inhibitor binding. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence also revealed the presence of a number of canonical sequences identified in yeast as having some function in the regulation of gene expression. These include UAS elements (TGACTC) required for tIle amino acid general control response, and "TATA H boxes as well as several consensus sequences thought to be required for transcriptional termination and polyadenylation. Analysis of the codon usage of the yeast DFRl coding region revealed a codon bias index of 0.0083. this valve very close to zero suggestes 3 that the gene is expressed at a relatively low level under normal physiological conditions. The information concerning the organization of the DFRl were used to construct a variety of fusions of its 5' regulatory region with the coding region of the lacZ gene of E. coli. Some of such fused genes encoded a fusion product that expressed in E.coli and/or in yeast under the control of the 5' regulatory elements of the DFR1. Further studies with these fusion constructions revealed that the beta-galactosidase activity encoded on multicopy plasmids was stimulated transiently by prior exposure of yeast host cells to UV light. This suggests that the yeast PFRl gene is indu.ced by UV light and nlay in1ply a novel function of DHFR protein in the cellular responses to DNA damage. Another novel f~ature of yeast DHFR was revealed during preliminary studies of a diploid strain containing a heterozygous DFRl null allele. The strain was constructed by insertion of a URA3 gene within the coding region of DFR1. Sporulation of this diploid revealed that meiotic products segregated 2:0 for uracil prototrophy when spore clones were germinated on medium supplemented with 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (folinic acid). This finding suggests that, in addition to its catalytic activity, the DFRl gene product nlay play some role in the anabolisln of folinic acid. Alternatively, this result may indicate that Ura+ haploid segregants were inviable and suggest that the enzyme has an essential cellular function in this species.