• Investigation of the mechanism of transfer of a-tocopherol by the human a-tocopherol transfer protein (H-a-TTP) /

      Frahm, Grant E.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2007-06-01)
      The human a-tocopherol transfer protein (h-a-TTP) is understood to be the entity responsible for the specific retention of a-tocopherol (a-toc) in human tissues over all other forms of vitamin E obtained from the diet. a-Tocopherol is the most biologically active form of vitamin E, and to date has been studied extensively with regard to its antioxidant properties and its role of terminating membrane lipid peroxidation chain reactions. However, information surrounding the distribution of a-tocopherol, specifically its delivery to intracellular membranes by a-TTP, is still unclear and the molecular factors influencing transfer remain elusive. To investigate the mechanism of ligand transfer by the h-a-TTP, a fluorescent analogue of a-toc has been used in the development of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. (/?)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-[9-(7-nitro-benzo[l,2,5]oxdiazol-4-ylamino)-nonyl]- chroman-6-ol (NBD-toc) has allowed for the development of the FRET-based ligand transfer assay. This ligand has been utilized in a series of experiments where changes were made to acceptor lipid membrane concentration and composition, as well as to the ionic strength and viscosity of the buffer medium. Such changes have yielded evidence supporting a collisional mechanism of ligand transfer by a-TTP, and have brought to light a new line of inquiry pertaining to the nature of the forces governing the collisional transfer interaction. Through elucidation of the transfer mechanism type, a deeper understanding of the transfer event and the in vivo fate of a-tocopherol have been obtained. Furthermore, the results presented here allow for a deeper investigation of the forces controlling the collisional protein-membrane interaction and their effect on the transfer of a-toc to membranes. Future investigation in this direction will raise the possibility of a complete understanding of the molecular events surrounding the distribution of a-toc within the cell and to the body's tissues.
    • Structural and functional investigation of the human a-tocopherol transfer protein (a-TTP) /

      Panagabko, Candace Lee.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
    • The study of ligand binding specificities of the lipid binding proteins : recombinant human a-tocopherol transport protein (a-ttp), supernatant protein factor (spf) and S. cerevisiae Sec 14p for vitamin e (rrr-a-tocopherol) and other hydrophobic ligands.

      Hernandez, Marta.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      One of the various functions of proteins in biological systems is the transport of small molecules, for this purpose proteins have naturally evolved special mechanisms to allow both ligand binding and its subsequent release to a target site; a process fundamental to many biological processes. Transport of Vitamin E (a-tocopherol), a lipid soluble antioxidant, to membranes helps in the protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids against peroxidative damage. In this research, the ligand binding characteristics of several members of the CRALTRIO family of lipid binding proteins was examined; the recombinant human a-Tocopherol Transfer Protein (a-TIP), Supernatant Protein Factor (SPF)ffocopherol Associated Protein (TAP), Cellular Retinaldehyde Binding Protein (CRALBP) and the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein from S. cerevisiae Sec 14p. Recombinant Sec 14p was expressed and purified from E. coli for comparison of tocopherol binding to the two other recombinant proteins postulated to traffic a-tocopherol. Competitive binding assays using [3H]-a-tocopherol and Lipidex-l000 resin allowed determination of the dissociation constants ~) of the CRAL-TRIO proteins for a-tocopherol and - 20 hydrophobic ligands for evaluation of the possible biological relevance of the binding interactions observed. The KIs (nM) for RRR-a-tocopherol are: a-TIP: 25.0, Sec 14p: 373, CRALBP: 528 and SPFffAP: 615. This indicates that all proteins recognize tocopherol but not with the same affinity. Sec 14p bound its native ligand PI with a KI of381 whereas SPFffAP bound PI (216) and y-tocopherol (268) similarly in contrast to the preferential binding ofRRR-a-tocopherol by a-TIP. Efforts to adequately represent biologically active SPFff AP involved investigation of tocopherol binding for several different recombinant proteins derived from different constructs and in the presence of different potential modulators (Ca+2, Mg+2, GTP and GDP); none of these conditions enhanced or inhibited a-tocopherol binding to SPF. This work suggests that only aTTP serves as the physiological mediator of a-tocopherol, yet structural homology between proteins allows common recognition of similar ligand features. In addition, several photo-affmity analogs of a-tocopherol were evaluated for their potential utility in further elucidation of a-TTP function or identification of novel tocopherol binding proteins.
    • Synthesis of fluorescent analogues of a-tocopherol as ligands for the human a-tocopherol transfer protein (a-TTP) /

      Nava, Phillip J.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2006-06-15)
      To further understand in vivo localization and trafficking of a-tocopherol (a-Toe), the most biologically active form of vitamin E, between lipid environments, tocopherols are required that can be followed by teclu1iques such as confocal microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays. To this end, sixteen fluorescent analogues of a-tocopherol (la-d [(1)anthroy loxy -a-tocopherols, A O-a-Toes], 2a-d [w-nitro benzoxadiazole-a-tocopherols, NBD-aToes], 3a-d [w-dansyl-a-tocopherols, DAN-a-Toes], and 4a-d [w-N-methylanthranilamide-atocopherols, NMA-a-TocsD were prepared by substituting fluorescent labels at the terminus of w-functionalized alkyl chains extending from C-2 of the chroman ring while retaining key binding features of the natural ligand. These compounds were prepared starting from (S)-Trolox® acid VIa esterification, protection, and reduction producing the silyl-protected (S)-Trolox aldehyde that was coupled using Wittig chemistry to different w-hydroxyalkylphosphonium bromides. Reduction of the alkene generated the w-hydroxy functionalized 2-n-alkyl intermediates 9a-d having the necessary 2R stereochemistry. A series of functional group manipulations including mesylation, substitution with azide, and hydride reduction provided w-amino functionalized intermediates 12a-d as well. Coupling intermediates 9a-d and 12a-d with the selected fluorophores (9- anthracene carboxylic acid, 4-chloro-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-l,3-diazole, 5- dimethylaminonapthalene-l-sulfonyl chloride, and I-methyl-2H-3,1-benzoxazine-2,4(1H)dione), followed by deprotection of the phenolic silyl group, gave the desired fluorescent ligands la-d, 2a-d, 3a-d and 4a-d in good yield. Assessment of their binding affinities with recombinant human a-tocopherol transfer protein (ha-TTP) utilizing fluorescent titration binding assays identified competent ligands for further use in protein studies. Compounds Id (C9-AO-a-Toc) and 2d (C9-NBD-a-Toc) both having nonyl alkyl chain extensions between the chromanol and fluorophore were shown to bind specifically to ha-TTP with dissociation constants (KdS) of approximately 280 nM and 55 nM respectively, as compared to 25 nM for the natural ligand 2R,4'R,^'R-a-tocophQxoL.