• Developmental variations in the peripheral erythrocytic system of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

      Keen, John Ellis.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1986-07-09)
      The peripheral circulating erythrocytic system of the rainbow trout, l3 almo gairdner , was examined in vitro in relation differences in the morphology and multiple hemoglobin system organization of adult and juvenile red cells. Cells were separated by velocity sedimentation under unit gravity, a procedure requiring red cell exposure to an incubation medium for periods of at least three hours. Therefore , this must provide an environment in which red cells remain in a condition approximaing normalcy. Previous studies having demonstrated commonly employed media to be ineffective in this regard , a medium was developed through modification of Cortl and saline. One of the principal additions to this me dium , norepinephrine, altered cell regulation of intracellular calcium, magnesium and chloride concentrations. Catecholamine involvement was also suggeste d in the synthes is of hemoglobin . The procedure was found to separtate cells primarily by density and, to a lesser extent, by shape. Characterization of red cells revealed two subpopulations to exist . The first comprised the bulk of the cell population, and were of greater l ength, width, volume and major:minor axis ratio than the smaller population; these were adult cells. The later, juvenile cells were of smaller overall size and were more spherical in shape . Juvenile cells also possessed fewer electrophore tpically distinguishable isomorphs than did adults with only eight of eleven hemoglobin component s typically found With maturation,hemoglobin complement with the development of three more bands. The total complement of the adult cell contained 7 cathodal bands and four anodal hemoglobin isomorphs. Bands acquired with maturation comprised the smallest percentage of the cells hemoglobin. each averaging less than one-percent of the total. Whether these additional bands are derived through degradation and reaggregation of existing components or are the product of pe gQy2 synthesis is not yet known.
    • Genetic variability in Larus argentatus and Sterna hirundo

      Melvin, George Ian.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Blood serum and egg-white protein samples from individuals representing seven colonies of Larusargentatus, and four colonies of Sterna hirundo were electrophoretically analysed to determine levels of genetic variability and to assess the utility of polymorphic loci as genetic markers. Variability occurred at five co-dominant autosomal loci. S. hirundo protein polymorphism occurred at the Est-5 and the Oest-l loci, while nineteen loci were monomorphic. L. argentatus samples were monomorphic at seventeen loci and polymorphic at the Ldh-A and the Alb loci. Intergeneric differences existed at the Oalb and the Ldh-A loci. Although LDH-A100 from both species possessed identical electrophoretLc mobilities, the intergeneric differences were expressed as a difference in enzyme the'ITIlostabilities. Geographical distribution of alleles and genetic divergence estimates suggest ~ hirundo population panmixis,at least at the sampled locations. The h argentatus gene pool appears relatively heterogeneous with a discreet Atlantic Coast population and a Great Lakes demic population. These observed population structures may be maintained by the relative amount of gene flow occurring within and among populations. Mass ringing data coupled to reproductive success information and analysis of dispersal trends appear to validate this assumption. Similar results may be generated by either selection or both small organism and low locus sample sizes. To clarify these results and to detect the major factor(s) affecting the surveyed portions of the genome, larger sample sizes in conjunction with precise eco-demographic data are required.
    • Genetic variation and evolutionary divergence within and among populations, species, and genera of the Cambarinae

      Nemeth, Steven Thomas.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Seven crayfish species from three genera of the subfamily Cambarinae were electrophoretically examined for genetic variation at a total of twenty-six loci. Polymorphism was detected primarily at three loci: Ao-2, Lap, and Pgi. The average heterozygosities over-all loci for each species were found to be very low when compared to most other invertebrate species that have been examined electrophoretically. With the exception of Cambarus bartoni, the interpopulation genetic identities are high within any given species. The average interspecific identities are somewhat lower and the average intergeneric identities are lower still. Populations, species and genera conform to the expected taxonomic progression. The two samples of ~ bartoni show high genetic similarity at only 50 percent of the loci compared. Locus by locus identity comparisons among species yield U-shaped distributions of genetic identities. Construction of a phylogenetic dendrogram using species mean genetic distances values shows that species grouping is in agreement with morphological taxonomy with the exception of the high similarity between Orconectespropinquus and Procambarus pictus. This high similarity suggests the possibility of a regulatory change between the two species. It appears that the low heterozygosities, high interpopulation genetic identities, and taxonomic mispositioning can all be explained on the basis of low mutation rates.
    • Postglacial variations in aquatic productivity in Found Lake, Ontario

      Earle, John Christopher.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-07-09)