• Analysis of a temperature sensitive mutation affecting aldehyde oxidase activity in Drosophila melanogaster

      Paterson, Roger C.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      A strain of Drosophila melanogaster (mid america stock culture no. hl16) has been reported to be deficient in aldehyde oxidase activity (Hickey and Singh 1982). This strain was characterized during the course of this study and compared to other mutant strains known to be deficient in aldehyde oxidase activity. During the course of this investigation, the hl16 strain was found to be temperature sensitive in its viability. It was found that the two phenotypes, the enzyme deficiency, and the temperature sensitive lethality were the result of two different mutations, both mapping to the X-chromosome. These two mutations were found to be separable by recombination. The enzyme deficiency was found to map to the same locus as the cinnamon mutation, another mutation which affects aldehyde oxidase production. The developmental profile of aldehyde oxidase in the hl16 strain was compared to the developmental profile in the Canton S wild type strain. The aldehyde oxidase activity in adult hl16 individuals was also compared to that of various other strains. It was also found that the aldehyde oxidase activity was temperature sensitive in the adult flies. The temperature sensitive lethality mutation was mapped to position 1-0.1.
    • Effect of citrate on the redox properties of cytochrome C and its kinetic and binding behaviour with cytochrome oxidase /

      Brooks, Stephen P. J.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1981-06-09)
      Increasing citrate concentration, at constant ionic strength (30 mM) decreases the rate of cytochrome ~ reduction by ascorbate. This effect is also seen at both high (600 mM) and low (19 mM) ionic strengths, and the Kapp for citrate increases with increasing ionic strength. Citrate binds d both ferri -and ferrocytochrome ~, but with a lower affinity for the latter form (Kox . .red d = 2 mM, Kd = 8 mM) as shown by an equilibrium assay with N,N,N',N', Tetramethyl E- phenylenediamine. The reaction of ferricytochrome ~with cyanide is also altered in the presence of citrate: citrate increases the K~PP for cyanide. Column chromatography of cytochrome ~-cytochrome oxidase mixtures shows citrate increases the dissociation constant of the complex. These results are confirmed in kinetic assays for the "loose"site (Km = 20 pM) only. The effect of increasing citrate observable at the "tight" site (Km = 0.25 pM) is on the turnover number and not on the K . These results suggest a mechanism m where anion binding to cytochrome £ at the tight site affects the equilibrium between two forms of cytochrome c bound cytochrome oxidase: an active and an inactive one.
    • Reactivity characteristics of cytochrome c, cytochrome oxidase and the electrostatic cytochrome c - cytochrome oxidase complex /

      Hill, Bruce.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-06-09)
      The mechanism whereby cytochrome £ oxidase catalyses elec-. tron transfer from cytochrome £ to oxygen remains an unsolved problem. Polarographic and spectrophotometric activity measurements of purified, particulate and soluble forms of beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase presented in this thesis confirm the following characteristics of the steady-state kinetics with respect to cytochrome £: (1) oxidation of ferrocytochrome c is first order under all conditions. -(2) The relationship between sustrate concentration and velocity is of the Michaelis-Menten type over a limited range of substrate. concentrations at high ionic strength. (3) ~he reaction rate is independent from oxygen concentration until very low levels of oxygen. (4) "Biphasic" kinetic plots of enzyme activity as a function of substrate concentration are found when the range of cytochrome c concentrations is extended; the biphasicity ~ is more apparent in low ionic strength buffer. These results imply two binding sites for cytochrome £ on the oxidase; one of high affinity and one of low affinity with Km values of 1.0 pM and 3.0 pM, respectively, under low ionic strength conditions. (5) Inhibition of the enzymic rate by azide is non-c~mpetitive with respect to cytochrome £ under all conditions indicating an internal electron transfer step, and not binding or dissociation of £ from the enzyme is rate limiting. The "tight" binding of cytochrome '£ to cytochrome c oxidase is confirmed in column chromatographic experiments. The complex has a cytochrome £:oxidase ratio of 1.0 and is dissociated in media of high ionic strength. Stopped-flow spectrophotometric studies of the reduction of equimolar mixtures and complexes of cytochrome c and the oxidase were initiated in an attempt to assess the functional relevance of such a complex. Two alternative routes -for reduction of the oxidase, under conditions where the predominant species is the £ - aa3 complex, are postulated; (i) electron transfer via tightly bound cytochrome £, (ii) electron transfer via a small population of free cytochrome c interacting at the "loose" binding site implied from kinetic studies. It is impossible to conclude, based on the results obtained, which path is responsible for the reduction of cytochrome a. The rate of reduction by various reductants of free cytochrome £ in high and low ionic strength and of cytochrome £ electrostatically bound to cytochrome oxidase was investigated. Ascorbate, a negatively charged reagent, reduces free cytochrome £ with a rate constant dependent on ionic strength, whereas neutral reagents TMPD and DAD were relatively unaffected by ionic strength in their reduction of cytochrome c. The zwitterion cysteine behaved similarly to uncharged reductants DAD and TI~PD in exhibiting only a marginal response to ionic strength. Ascorbate reduces bound cytochrome £ only slowly, but DAD and TMPD reduce bound cytochrome £ rapidly. Reduction of cytochrome £ by DAD and TMPD in the £ - aa3 complex was enhanced lO-fold over DAD reduction of free £ and 4-fold over TMPD reduction of free c. Thus, the importance of ionic strength on the reactivity of cytochrome £ was observed with the general conclusion being that on the cytochrome £ molecule areas for anion (ie. phosphate) binding, ascorbate reduction and complexation to the oxidase overlap. The increased reducibility for bound cytochrome £ by reductants DAD and TMPD supports a suggested conformational change of electrostatically bound c compare.d to free .£. In addition, analysis of electron distribution between cytochromes £ and a in the complex suggest that the midpotential of cytochrome ~ changes with the redox state of the oxidase. Such evidence supports models of the oxidase which suggest interactions within the enzyme (or c - enzyme complex) result in altered midpoint potentials of the redox centers.