Browsing M.Sc. Biological Sciences by Subject "Oats."
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The influence of carbon dioxide on growth and metabolism of etiolated Avena sativa 1 coleoptilesThe influence of carbon dioxide on growth and protein synthesis of etiolated Avena coleoptiles was investigated. Evidence is presented that 0.03% carbon dioxide stimulated both these processes; and that carbon dioxide stimulated growth depends on carbon dioxide stimulated protein synthesis, In addition the evidence indicates that carbon dioxide stimulated growth is mediated by metabolism, and that carbon dioxide stimulates growth through a dark fixation process. Growth studies also demonstrated that IAA and carbon dioxide stimulated growth in a synergistic manner.
An investigation into differences between indoleacetic acid and fusicoccin in their influence on RNA synthesis, protein synthesis and growth in Avena coleoptile tissueGrowth stimulation of Avena coleoptile tissue by indoleacetic acid (IAA) and fusicoccin (FC) was compared by measuring both their influence on RNA and protein synthesis during IAA or FC stimulated growth. FC stimulated growth more than IAA during the initial four hour exposure, after which the growth rate gradually declined to the control rate. FC, but not IAA, increased the uptake of 3H-Ieucine into tissue and the specific radioactivity of extracted protein. Cycloheximide inhibited the incorporation of 3H-Ieucine into protein by approximately 60% to 70% in all cases. In the presence of cycloheximide 3H-radioactivity accumulated in FC-treated tissue, whereas IAA did not seem to influence 3H-accumulation. These results suggest that FC stimulated leucine uptake into the tissue and that increased specific activity of coleoptile protein is due to increased leucine uptake, not an increased rate of protein synthesis. There was no measurable influence of IAA and/or FC on RNA and protein synthesis during the initial hours of a growth stimulation. Inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis, actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively, severely inhibited IAA enhanced growth but only partially inhibited FC stimulated growth. The data are consistent with suggestions that a rapidly turning over protein participates in IAA stimulated growth, and that a continual synthesis of RNA and proteins is an absolute requirement for a long term growth response to IAA. On the contrary, FC-stimulated growth exhibited less dependency on the transcription and translation processes. The data are consistent with proposals suggesting different sites of action for FC and IAA stimulated growth. l?hen compared to CO2-free air, CO2 at 300 ppm had no significant influence on coleoptile growth and protein synthesis in the presence or absence of lAA or FC. Also, I mM malate, pH 6.0 did not influence growth of coleoptiles in the presence or absence of lAA. This result was obtained despite reports indicating that 300 ppm CO2 or I mM malate stimulates growth and protein synthesis. This lack of difference between CO2-treated and untreated tissue could indicate either that the interstitial space CO2 concentration is not actually different in the two treatments due to significant endogenous respiratory CO2 or else the data would suggest a very loose coupling between dark CO2 fixation and growth. IAA stimulated the in vivo fixation of 14c-bicarbonate (NaHI4c03) by about 25% and the addition of cycloheximide caused an inhibition of bicarbonate fixation within 30 min. Cycloheximide has also been reported to inhibit IAA-stimulated H+ excretion. These data are consistent with the acid growth theory and suggest that lAA stimulated growth involves dark CO2 fixation. The roles of dark CO2 fixation in lAA-stimulated growth are discussed.
An investigation of ethylene inhibition of growth in etiolated Avena sativa coleoptiles /Growth rates of etiolated Avena sativa coleoptiles in pH 7.0 buffered medium are stimulated in a synergistic manner by IAA and 320 ~l/l carbon dioxide. The suggestion that carbon dioxide stimulated growth involves dark fixation is supported by the ability of 1 mM malate to replace carbon dioxide, with neither factor able to stimulate growth in the presence of the other (Bown, Dymock and Aung, 1974). The regulation of Avena coleoptile growth by ethylene has been investigated in the light of this data and the well documented antagonism between carbon dioxide and ethylene in the regulation of developmental processes. The influence of various permutations of ethylene, IAA, carbon dioxide and malate on the rates of growth, l4c-bicarbonate incorporation, l4C-bicarbonate fixation, and malate decarboxylation have been investigated. In the presence of 320 ~l/l carbon dioxide, 10.8 ~l/l ethylene inhibited growth both in the absence and presence of 20 ~M IAA with inhibition times, of 8-10 and 12-13 minutes respectively. In contrast ethylene inhibition of growth was not significant in the absence of growth stimulation by CO2 or 1 mM malate, and the normal growth increases in response to CO2 and malate were blocked by the simultaneous application of ethylene. The rates of incorporation and dark fixation of l4C-bicerbonate were not measurably. influenced by ethylene, IAA or malate, either prior to or during the changes in growth ,ates induced by these agents. The data does not support the hypothesis that ethylene inhibition of growth results from an inhibition of dark fixation, but suggests that ethylene may inhibit a process which is subsequent to fixation.
The regulation of oat coleoptile phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and malic enzyme by Hâ ½ and metabolites : kinetic evidence for and against a cytosolic pH-statPhosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and malic enzyme activities in soluble protein extracts of Avena coleoptiles were investigated to determine whether their kinetics were consistent with a role in cytosol pH regulation. Malic enzyme activity was specific for NADP+ and Mn2+. Maximal labelled product formation from [14C]-substrates required the presence of all coenzymes, cofactors and substrates. Plots of rate versus malate concentration, and linear transformations there- 2 of, indicated typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics at non-saturating malate levels and substrate inhibition at higher malate levels. pH increases between 6.5 and 7.25 increased near-optimal activity, decreased the degree of substrate inhibition and the Kmapp(Mn2+) but did not affect the Vmax or Kmapp(malate). Transformed data of PEPC activity demonstrated non-linear plots indicative of non-Michaelian kinetics. pH increases between 7.0 and 7.6 increased the Vmax and decreased the Km app (Mg2+) but did not affect the Kmapp(PEP). Various carboxylic acids and phosphorylated sugars inhibited PEPC and malic enzyme activities, and these effects decreased with pH increases. Metabolite inhibited malic enzyme activity was non-competitive and resulted mainly from Mn2+ chelation. In contrast, metabolite inhibited PEPC activity was unique for each compound tested, being variously dependent on the PEP concentration and the pH employed. These results indicate that fluctuations in pH and metabolite levels affect PEPC and malic enzyme activities similarly and that 3 the in vitro properties of PEPC are consistent with its proposed role in a pH-stat, whereas the in vitro properties of the malic enzyme cannot be interpreted in terms of a role in pH regulation.