• Contact interactions in phospholipid model membrane systems /|nby Dennis M. Le Neveu. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Le Neveu, Dennis M.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
    • Host-parasite relations in a mycoparasitic system : alterations in membrane permeability and lipid composition in Choanephora cucurbitarum infected by Piptocephalis virginiana /

      Maharaj, Rajendranath P.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1980-06-15)
      examined in Choanephora cucurbita rum during the early stages of infection by Piptocephalis virginiana » There was a small but consistent increase in the leakage of electrolytes, amino acids and sugars as a result of infection. These low levels of differential leakage in infected tissues are explained on the basis of the nature of this obligate, biotrophic, mycoparasitic system. Quantitative analysis of the twenty six amino acids and amino compounds detected in the leacheates — showed similar profiles in infected and control host and no new species of amino acids or amino compounds were detected in either infected or control host leacheates. Comparatively high amounts of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine were found in the leacheates of host and infected host . Analyses of the sugars comprising the leacheates of infected and control host showed the presence of eight sugars, among which glucose was found in significant amounts (50-53%) ' The nutritional implication of this preferential leakage is discussed. No significant difference was observed in the leacheates of infected host sugar profiles compared with that of the control host. Profiles of the internal pool sugars of infected and control host did not reflect that obtained from the leacheate data, perhaps owing to leakage of sugars in a selective manner . Membrane lipid analyses yielded higher levels of lipid in infected host compared with the control, both at the 24 h and 36 h analyses. In addition, preliminary investigations of phosphorous-32 incorporation and turnover in phospholipids showed higher levels of 32p incorporation and turnover in infected host compared with the control. No apparent difference was noted in the profiles of the neutral lipid classes and the polar lipid classes of the membrane lipids as determined by one and two dimensional thin-layer chromatography respectively. However, a small but consistently higher degree of unsaturation was detected in the fatty acids of infected tissue compared with the control. Also, '^''-^^''^^'-'-^'^^c acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid previously reported to show a direct correlation during the early stages of infection and the degree of parasitism of P. virginiana on C. cucurbitarum , was found in higher amounts in infected host membrane lipids compared with that of the control host. The implications of these membrane lipid alterations are discussed with particular reference to the small but consistently higher leakage of electrolytes, amino acids and sugars observed during infection in this study.
    • Measurement of forces between and within bilayers of neutral phospholipids

      McAlister, Michael James.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      Phospholipids in water form lamellar phases made up of alternating layers of water and bimolecular lipid leaflets. Three complementary methods, osmotic, mechanical, and vapour pressures, were used to measure the work of removing water from lamellar phases composed of frozen dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine ( DPPC ), melted DPPC, egg phosphatidylethanolamine or equimolar mixtures of DPPC and cholesterol ( DPPC/CHOL ), Concurrently the structural changes that resulted from this water removal were measured using X-ray diffraction. The work was divided into that which forces the bilayers together ( F ) and that which compresses the molecules together within the bilayers ( F )# A large repulsive force exists between bilayers composed of each of the lipids studied and this force increases exponentially as bilayer separation is decreased. F is affected by the nature of the head groups, conformation of the acyl chains and heterogeneity of these chains. In general all of the melted phosphatidylcholines ( melted DPPC, egg lecithin and DPPC/CHOL ) have large equilibrium separations in excess water resulting from large repulsive hydration forces between these bilayers. By comparison, egg PE has an increased attractive force, and frozen DPPC has a decreased hydration force; each results in smaller separations in water for these two lipids. The chemical potentials of the water between the bilayers for all these lipids lie on a continuum, indicating that interbilayer water cannot be characterized by two discrete states, usually referred to as "bound" or "non**bound". For all lipids studied a maximum of 25 % of the total work done on the system goes into deforming the bilayers. The method used here viii to separate repulsion from deformation, developed for us by v. A. Parsegian, provides a unique method for the measurement of lateral pressure of a bilayer and its modulus of deformability ( Y ). Lateral pressure is affected by the nature of the head group, conformation and heterogeneity of the acyl chains. For small changes in molecular surface area ( A ) near equilibrium, both melted and frozen DPPC have similar values for the deformability modulus. Thus in this regime it requires about the same force to change the angle of tilt of frozen chains as it does to compress the fluid bilayer. The introduction of cholesterol into bilayers of DPPC reduces dramatically the lateral pressure of the bilayers over a large range of molecular surface areas ( A ). The variation in the magnitude of bilayer repulsion with different phospholipids provides a basis for the mechanism of lipid segregation in mixed lipid systems and suggests that interacting heterogeneous membranes may influence or modulate the composition of the opposing membrane. The measurements of deformabilities of bilayers provides a direct comparison of them with the properties of monolayers.
    • Measurement of repulsive forces between charged phospholipid bilayers

      Cowley, Alexandra Christina.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Electrostatic forces between membranes containing charged lipids were assumed to play an important role in influencing interactions between membranes long before quantitative measurements of such forces were available. ~ur measurements were designed to measure electrostatic forces between layers of lecithin charged with lipi~s carrying ionizable head groups. These experiments have shown that the interactions between charged lipid bila.yere are dominated by electrostatic forces only at separations greater than 30 A. At smaller separations the repulsion between charged bilayers is dominated by strong hydration forces. The net repulsive force between egg lecithin bilayers containing various amounts of cherged lipids (phosphatidylglycerol (PG) 5,10 ano 50 mole%, phosphatidyli. nosi tol (PI) 10 mole% and sodium oleate (Na-Ol) 3,5 and 10 mole%, where mole% gives the ratio of the number of moles' of .charged lipid to the total number of moles of all lipids present in the sample) was stuoied with the help ('If the osmotic streas technique described by LeNeveu et aI, (1977). Also, the forces between pure PG were j_nvestigated in the same manner. The results have been plotted showing variation of force as a function of bilay- _ er separation dw• All curVes 90 obtained called force curves, were found to be similar in sha.pe, showing two distinct regions, one when dw<.30 A is a region cf very rapid iiivariation of force with separation ( it is the region dominated by hydre,tion force) and second when dw> 40 A is a region of very slow variation of force with separB.tion ( it is the region dominated by the electrostatic force). Between these two regions there exists a transition area in which, in most systems studied, a phase separation of lipids into fractions containing different amounts of charged groups, was observed. A qualitative analysis showed that our results were v/ell described by the simple electrostatic double -le.yer theory. For quantitative agreement between measured and calculated force curves however, the charge density for the calculations had to be taken as half of that given by the number density of charged lipids present in the lecithin bilayers. It is not clear at the moment what causes such low apparent degree of ionization among the charged head groups, and further study is needed in this area.
    • The structural effects of divalent cations and insulin on phospholipid model membranes /

      SenGupta, Sutapa.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1971-06-29)
      It is well accepted that structural studies with model membranes are of considerable value in understanding the structure of biological membranes. Many studies with models of pure phospholipids have been done; but the effects of divalent cations and protein on these models would make these studies more applicable to intact membrane. The present study, performed with above view, is a structural analysis of divalent io~cardio1ipin complexes using the technique of x-ray diffraction. Cardiolipin, precipitated from dilute solution by divalent ionscalcium, magnesium and barium, contains little water and the structure formed is similar to the structure of pure cardiolipin with low water content. The calcium-cardiolipin complex forms a pure hexagonal type II phase that exists from 40 to 400 C. The molar ratio of calcium and cardiolipin in the complex is 1 : 1. Cardiolipin, precipitated with magnesium and barium forms two co-existing phases, lamellar and hexagonal, the relative quantity of the two phases being dependent on temperature. The hexagonal phase type II consisting of water filled channels formed by adding calcium to cardiolipin may have a remarkable permeability property in intact membrane. Pure cardiolipin and insulin at pH 3.0 and 4.0 precipitate but form no organised structure. Lecithin/cardiolipin and insulin precipitated at pH 3.0 give a pure lamellar phase. As the lecithin/cardiolipin molar ratio changes from 93/7 to SO/50, (a) the repeat distance of the lamellar changes from 72.8 X to 68.2 A; (b) the amount of protein bound increases in such a way that cardiolipin/insulin molar ratio in the complex reaches a maximum constant value at lecithin/cardiolipin molar ratio 70/30. A structural model based on these data shows that the molecular arrangement of lipid and protein is a lipid bilayer coated with protein molecules. The lipid-protein interaction is chiefly electrostatic and little, if any, hydrophobic bonding occurs in this particular system. So, the proposed model is essentially the same as Davson-Daniellifs model of biological membrane.