• Ecological interactions between zooplankton and photosynthetic bacteria in Crawford Lake, Ontario

      Mazumder, A.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1983-07-09)
      The present study was carried out to test the hypothesis that photosynthetic bacteria contribute a large portion of the food of filter feeding zooplankton populations in Crawford Lake, Ontario. The temporal and spatial variations of both groups of organisms are strongly dependent on one another. 14 By using C-Iabelled photosynthetic bacteria. the ingestion and clearance rates of Daphnia pulex, ~. rosea, and Keratella spp were estimated during summer and fall of 1982. These quantitative estimations of zooplankton ingestion and clearence rates on photosynthetic bacteria comprised an original addition to the literature. Photosynthetic bacteria comprised a substantial portion of the diet of all four dominant zooplankton species. The evidence for this is based on the ingestion and clearance rates of the dominant zooplankton species. Ingestion rates of D. pulex and D. rosea ranged 5 5 -1 -1 - -- 5 - -- 5 from 8.3X10 -1 to 14.6XlO -1 cells.ind. hr and 8.1X10 to 13.9X10 cells.ind. hr • Their clearance rates ranged from 0.400 to 1.000 -1 -1 -1 -1 ml.ind. hr. and 0.380 to 0.930 ml.ind. hr • The ingestion and clearance -1 -1 -1 -1 rates of Keratella spp were 600 cell.ind. hr and 0.40 ul.ind. hr respectively. Clearance rates were inversely proportional to the concentration of food cells and directly proportional to the body size of the animals. It is believed that despite the very short reg~neration times of photosynthetic bacteria (3-8 hours) their population densities were controlled in part by the feeding rates of the dominant zooplankton in Crawford Lake. By considering the regeneration times of photosynthetic bacteria and the population clearance rates of zooplankton, it was estimated that between 16 to 52% and 11 to 35% of the PHotosynthetic bacteria were' consumed· by Daphnia· pulex. and Q.. rosea per day. The temporal and spatial distribution of Daphnia pulex, !.. rosea, Keratella quadrata, K. coChlearis and photosynthetic bacteria in Crawford Lake were also investigated during the period of October, 1981 to December, 1982. The photosynthetic bacteria in the lake, constituted a major food source for only those zooplankton Which tolerate anaerobic conditions. Changes in temperature and food appeared to correlate with the seasonal changes in zooplankton density. All four dominant species of zooplankton were abundant at the lake's surface (O-4m) during winter and spring and moved downwards with the thermocline as summer stratification proceeded. Photosynthetic bacteria formed a 2 m thick layer at the chemocline. The position of this photosynthetic bacterial J-ayer changed seasonally. In the summer, the bacterial plate moved upwards and following fall mixing it moved downwards. A vertical shift of O.8m (14.5 to 15.3m) was recorded during the period of June to December. The upper limit of the photosynthetic bacteria in the water column was controlled by dissolved oxygen, and sulfide concentrations While their lower limit was controlled by light intensity. A maximum bacterio- 1 chlorophyll concentration of 81 mg Bchl.l was recorded on August 9, 1981. The seasonal distribution of photosynthetic bacteria was controlledinpart' by ·theg.-"z1ai'_.Q;~.zoopl. ank:tCm;-.Qther -ciactors associated with zooplankton grazing were oxygen and sulfide concentrations.
    • Palaeopigment accumulation and implcations for paleolimnology over the lost century for two Ontario lakes

      Han, Xiaozhong.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      Crawford Lake is a meromictic lake, which is 24 m deep and has an area of 2.5 ha, and has never been reported to have mixed below 16 m. Lady Evelyn Lake, which became a reservoir when a dam was built in 1916, is dimictic with a maximum depth of about 35 m. 1 My research proved that both native chlorophylls and the ratio of chlorophyll derivatives to total carotenoids were better preserved in the shallower lake (Crawford Lake) because it was meromictic. Thus the anaerobic conditions in Crawford Lake below 16 m (monimolimnion) provide excellent conditions for pigment preservation. Under such conditions, the preservation of both chlorophylls and carotenoids, including oscillaxanthin and myxoxanthophyll, are extremely good compared with those of Lady Evelyn Reservoir, in which anaerobic conditions are rarely encountered at the mud-water interface. During the period from 1500 to 1900 A. D. in Crawford Lake, the accumulation rates of oscillaxanthin and myxoxanthophyll were extremely high, but those of chlorophyll derivatives and total carotenoids were relatively low. This was correlated with the presence of a dense benthic mat of cyanobacteria near the lake's chemocline. Competition for light between the deep dwelling cyanobacteria and overlying phytoplankton in this meromictic lake would have been intensified as the lake became more and more eutrophic (1955-1991 A. D.). During the period from 1955 to 1991 A. D., the accumulation rates of chlorophyll derivatives and total carotenoids in the sediment core from Crawford Lake (0-7.5 cm, 1955-present) increased. During this same period, the accumulation rates of cyanobacterial pigments (Le. oscillaxanthin and myxoxanthophyll) declined as the lake became more eutrophic. Because the major cyanobacteria in Crawford Lake are benthic mat forming Lyngbya and Oscillatoria and not phytoplankton, eutrophication resulted in a decline of the mat forming algal pigments. This is important because in previous palaeolimnological studies the concentrations of oscillaxanthin and myxoxanthophyll have been used as correlates with lake trophic levels. The results of organic carbon a13c analysis on the Crawford Lake sediment core supported the conclusions from the pigment study as noted above. High values of a13c at the depth of 34-48 cm (1500-1760 A. D.) were related to a dense population of benthic Oscillatoria and Lyngbya living on the bottom of the lake during that period. The Oscillatoria and Lyngbya utilized the bicarbonate, which had a high a 13C value. Very low values were found at 0-7 cm in the Crawford sediment core. At this time phytoplankton was the main primary producer, which enriched 12C by photosynthetic assimilation.