Browsing M.Sc. Biological Sciences by Subject "Hydration."
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Hydration, conformational states and kinetics of yeast hexokinase PII /The kinetic study of the coupled enzymatic reaction involving monomeric yeast hexokinase PII (HK) and yeast glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) yields a Michaelis constant of 0.15 ± 0.01 mM for D-glucose. At pH 8.7 HK is present in monomeric form. The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG), to the reaction mixture increased the affinity of HK for glucose, independent ofMW of the PEG from 2000 to 10000. The osmotic stress exerted by PEG can be used to measure the change in number of water molecules that accompany enzyme conformational changes (Rand, et al., 1993). Results indicate that the G-6-PDH is not osmotically sensitive and thus, the change in the number of PEG-inaccessible water molecules (ANw) measured in the coupled reaction is only the difference between the glucose-bound and glucosefree conformations of HK. ANw ~ 450 with PEGs of MW > 2000 under conditions for both binding (Reid and Rand, 1997) and kinetic assays. The contribution water may play in the binding of ATP (Km = 0.24 + 0.02 mM) has also been examined. It was found that in this case ANw = (for osmotic pressures < 2.8x10* dynes/cm^), suggesting no additional numbers of waters are displaced when ATP binds to HK. Osmotic pressure experiments were also performed with dimeric HK. It was determined that both the monomeric and dimeric forms of HK give the same ANw under low pressures. If this large ANw is due to conformational flexibility, it would appear that the flexibility is not reduced upon dimerization ofthe enzyme.
The influence of water on the glucose affinity of hexokinaseIn the present thesis, the role of hydration during the glucose induced conformational change of hexokinase is investigated. This is accomplished by applying the osmotic stress technique. The osmotic stress technique is founded on varying of the activity of water in a system in order to determine ifs effects. This is accomplished by adding inert solute molecules that are excluded from the system under study. The solute molecules used within the present investigation are Polyethylene glycols (PEGs). PEGs aid in the removal of water from hexokinase by exerting osmotic pressure. The osmotic pressures of the PEG solutions are also measured with both vapour pressure osmometry and secondary osmometry with phospholipids. An interesting discovery is made in that the osmotic pressures of PEG and co-solute solutions are non-additive. This indicates that PEG concentrates co-solutes in solution by making a certain proportion of the water inaccessible. Glucose binding was measured fluorometrically and the glucose equilibrium dissociation constant (GEDC) of hexokinase is measured in solutions containing the different MW PEGs. Changes in the sensitivity of the glucose affinity with osmotic pressure allows the calculation of the change in the numbers of polymer-inaccessible water molecules upon the binding of glucose to hexokinase ~Nw. It was determined the ~Nw decreases with increases in osmotic pressure in the presence of all MW PEGs. ~Nw decreases from values between 45-290 water molecules at low pressure to approximately 15 at high pressure. There is also a molecular weight dependence observed. There are large decreases in ~Nw with osmotic pressure in the presence of PEGs above MW 1000. However, below MW 1500 changes in ~Nw with osmotic pressure are relatively small. These findings are interpreted with respect to two possible mechanisms involving changes in the conformation of hexokinase u~der osmotic pressure and the access of the PEG molecules to water surrounding hexokinase.