• Genetic variability in Larus argentatus and Sterna hirundo

      Melvin, George Ian.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Blood serum and egg-white protein samples from individuals representing seven colonies of Larusargentatus, and four colonies of Sterna hirundo were electrophoretically analysed to determine levels of genetic variability and to assess the utility of polymorphic loci as genetic markers. Variability occurred at five co-dominant autosomal loci. S. hirundo protein polymorphism occurred at the Est-5 and the Oest-l loci, while nineteen loci were monomorphic. L. argentatus samples were monomorphic at seventeen loci and polymorphic at the Ldh-A and the Alb loci. Intergeneric differences existed at the Oalb and the Ldh-A loci. Although LDH-A100 from both species possessed identical electrophoretLc mobilities, the intergeneric differences were expressed as a difference in enzyme the'ITIlostabilities. Geographical distribution of alleles and genetic divergence estimates suggest ~ hirundo population panmixis,at least at the sampled locations. The h argentatus gene pool appears relatively heterogeneous with a discreet Atlantic Coast population and a Great Lakes demic population. These observed population structures may be maintained by the relative amount of gene flow occurring within and among populations. Mass ringing data coupled to reproductive success information and analysis of dispersal trends appear to validate this assumption. Similar results may be generated by either selection or both small organism and low locus sample sizes. To clarify these results and to detect the major factor(s) affecting the surveyed portions of the genome, larger sample sizes in conjunction with precise eco-demographic data are required.
    • Selected aspects of the breeding biology of two Lake Erie herring gull colonies

      Haymes, Gerrard Thomas.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Aspects of the breeding biology of two Lake Erie Herri ng Gull colonies were studied in 1975 and 1976. In 1976 the incubation attention given 2-egg and 3-egg clutches initiated early and late in the season was measured. Brood size at one colony was artificially increased or decreased by addition of chicks shortly after hatching. Hatching success was not consistently re~ated to clutch size but early nesters were more successful than late nes'ters. Differences in hatching success between 2-egg and 3-egg clutches were a function of the time of clutch initiation with the clutch size having the greater proportion of its nests initiated early in the season being more successful. The incubation attentiveness of parents of 2-egg and 3-ev,g , and early and late clutches was similar. Most nests were incubated greater than 95% of the time although t heir hatching success was similar ' to those incubated less than 75% of the time. Fledging success, chick growth and weight at fledging were similar among broods of one, two and three chicks and artificially increased broods of four and five chicks. Fledging success was highest for o.e chick broods reduced from two and three chick broods.