• Amputation and heat induced protein synthesis in the regenerating forelimb of Notophthalmus viridescens

      Fraser, Gordon Andrew Donald.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1989-07-09)
      This thesis compares the responses of regenerating forelimb tissues of the newt Notophthalmu..f vlridescens to the stresses of hyperthermia and ID.echanical injury of amputation. In particular, both quantitative and qualitative changes in the synthesis of soluble proteins in stump tissues, including those of the heat shock protein family (HSP70-1ike) were examined. Results from SDS-PAGEfluorography indicate that the trauma of amputation mimics the heat shock response both quantitatively and temporally in its transient repression of the synthesis of most normal cellular proteins, and qualitatively. in the locaJized expression of two unique proteins (hsp30 and hsp70). Fluorography of proteins separated by twodimensional gets revealed that thelCl4:alizedt amputation induced 70kDa protein (amp70) was distinct from the more basic newt hsp/hsc70 isoforms. Although limb amputation resulted in an increase in the synthesis of HSP70 mRNA analogous to that induced by heat 3.b.OCKf amp70 did not cross-react with murine monoclonal antibodies directed against both the inducible and cognate HSP70 proteins of the human. Thus, the possible relationship of amp70 to other members of the HSP70-1ike protein family remains unclear. Western analyses indicated that the levels of the constitutive form of HSP70 (hsc70) were found to be regulated in a stage-dependent manner in the distal stump tissues of the regen,erating forelimb of the newt. The highest levels were found in the mid-late bud stage, a period during which rapidly dividing blastema cells begin to redifferentiate in a proximodistal direction. Immediately after amputation) hsc70 synthesis and accumulation was depressed below steady-state levels measured in the unamputated limb~ The results are discussed in light of a possible role for HSPs and amputatio~ induced proteins in the epimorphic regeneration of the amphibian limb.
    • An examination of transcriptional and translational regulation of the 70kDa heat shock proteins following amputation of the tail and forelimb in the newt Notophthalmus viridescens

      Limoges, Nathalie.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1995-11-04)
      Several stresses to tissues including hyperthermia, ischemia, mechanical trauma and heavy metals have been demonstrated to affect the regulation of a subset of the family of heat shock proteins of70kOa (hsp70). In several organisms following some of these traumas, the levels of hsp70 mRNA and proteins are dramatically upregulated. However, the effects of the stress on limb and tail amputation in the newt Notophthalmus viridescens, involving mechanical tissue damage, have not adequately been examined. In the present study, three techniques were utilized to quantitate the levels of hsp70 mRNA and protein in the tissues of the forelimbs and tails of newts during the early post-traumatic events following surgical resection of these:: appendages. These included quantitative Western blotting of proteins separated by both one and twodimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quantitative Northern blot analysis of total RNA. In tissues of both the limb and tail one hour after amputation, there were no significant differences in the levels of hsp70 protein measured by one-dimensional SOSPAGE followed by Western blotting, when compared to the levels measured in the unamputated limb. A 30 minute heat shock at 35°C failed to elicit an increase in the levels of hsp70 protein in these tissues. Further analysis using the more sensitive 20 PAGE separation of stump tissue proteins revealed that at least some of the five hsp70 isoforms of the newt may be differentially regulated in limbs and tails in response to trauma. It appears also that amputation of the tail and limb tissues leads to slight 3 elevation in the levels of HSP70 mRNA when compared to those of their respective unstressed tissues.