• Amino acid transport : the special case of a H/L-glutamate cotransport system in Asparagus sprengeri mesophyll cells /

      McCutcheon, Steve L.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1987-06-09)
      The addition of L-Glutamate (L-GLU) and L-Hethionine ~ulfoximine (L-HSO) to mechanically isolated. photosynthetically competent, Asparagus sprengeri mesophyll cells ~u~pended in 1mM CaS04 cau~ed an immediate transient alkalinization of the cell su~pension medium in both the light and dark. The alkalinization response was specific and stereospecific as none of the L-isomers of the other 19 protein amino acids tested or D-GLU gave this response. Uptake of 14C-L-GLU was stimulated by the light. The addition of non-radioactive L-GLU. or L-GLU analogs together with 14C-L-GLU showed that only L-GLU and L-HSO stimulated alkalinization whilst inhibiting the uptake of 14C-L-GLU. Both the L-GLU dependent alkalinization and the upt~ke of 14C-L-GLU were stimulated when the external pH was decreased from 6.5 to 5.5. Increasing external K+ concentrations inhibited the uptake of 14C-L-GLU. Fusicoccin (FC) stimulated uptake. The L-GLU dependent alkalinization re~ponse exhibited monophasic saturation kinetics while the uptake of 14C-L-GLU exhibited biphasic saturation kinetics. In addition to a saturable component. the uptake kinetics also showed a linear component of uptake. Addition of L-GLU and L-MSO caused internal acidification of the cell as measured by a change in the distribution of 14C-DMO. There was no change in K+ efflux when L-GLU was added. A H+ to L-GLUinflux stoichiometry of 3:1 wa~ mea~ured at an external I.-GLU concentration of O.5mM and increased with increasing external 13 L-QLU concentration. Metabolism of L-GLU was detected manometrlcally by observing an increase in COa evolution upon the addition of L-QLU and by detection of i*C02 evolution upon the addition of »*C-L-GLU. »*C02 evolution was higher in the dark than in the light. The data are consistent with the operation of a H+/L-QLO cotransport system. The data also show that attempts to quantify the stoichlometry of the process were complicated by the metabolism of L-GLU.
    • L-Glutamate uptake, decarboxylation to -aminobutyric acid and GABA efflux in isolated Asparagus sprengeri mesophyll cells

      Chung, Induk.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1989-07-09)
      Addition of L-glutamate caused alkalinization of the medium surrounding Asparagus spreng.ri mesophyll cells. This suggests a H+/L-glutmate symport uptake system for L-glutamate. However stoichiometries of H+/L-glutamate symport into Asparagus cells were much higher than those in other plant systems. Medium alkalinization may also result from a metabolic decarboxylation process. Since L-glutmate is decarboxylated to r-amino butyric acid (SABA) in this system, the origin of medium alkalinization was reconsidered. Suspensions of mechanically isolated and photosyntheically competent Asparagus sprengeri mesophyll cells were used to investigate the H+/L-glutamate symport system, SABA production, GABA transport, and the origin of L-glutamate dependent medium alkalinization. The major results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. L-Glutamate and GABA were the second or third most abundant amino acids in these cells. Cellular concentrations of L-glutamate were 1.09 mM and 1.31 mM in the light and dark, respectively. Those of SABA were 1.23 mM and 1.17 mM in the light and dark, respectively. 2. Asparagine was the most abundant amino acid in xylem sap and comprised 54 to 68 1. of the amino acid pool on a molar basis. GABA was the second most abundant amino acid and represented 10 to 11 1. of the amino acid pool. L-Slutamate was a minor component. 3. A 10 minute incubation with 1 mM L-glutamate increased the production of GABA in the medium by 2,743 7. and 2,241 7. in the light and dark, respectively. 4. L-Glutamate entered the cells prior to decarboxylation. 5. There was no evidence for a H+/GABA symport process • 6. GABA was produced by loss of carbon-1 of L-glutamate. 7. The specific activity of newly synthesized labeled GABA suggests that it is not equilibrated with a storage pool of GABA. 8. The mechanism of GABA efflux appears to be a passive process. 9. The evidence indicates that the origin of L-glutamate dependent medium alkalinization is a H+/L-glutamate symport not an extracellular decarboxylation. The possible role of GABA production in regulating cytoplasmic pH and L-glutamate levels during rapid electrogenic H+/L-glutamate symport is discussed.