• The cloning and reconstitution of a bovine adenovirus type 2 E3 deletion mutant and the sequencing and analysis of the early 4 region

      FitzGerald, Linda K.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1995-07-09)
      Recombinant Adenoviruses (Ads) have been shown to have potential applications in three areas: gene therapy, high level protein expression and recombinant vaccines.' At least three different locations within the Ad genome can be deleted and subsequently used for the insertion of foreign sequences. These include the Early 3 (E3), Early 1 (E1) and Early 4 (E4) regions. Viral vectors of this type have been well studied in Human Ads 2 and 5, however one has not yet been constructed for Bovine Adenovirus Type 2 (BAV2). The E3 region is located between 76.6 and 86 m.u. on the r-strand and is transcribed in a rightward direction. The gene products of the Early 3 region (E3) have been shown to be non-essential for viral replication, in vitro, but are required for host immunosurveillance. This study represents the cloning and reconstitution of a BAV2 E3 deletion mutant. A deletion of 1800bp was made within the E3 region of BAV2 and the thymidine kinase gene was subsequently inserted in the deleted area . . The plasmid pdlE3-4tk1 (23.4Kbp) was constructed and used to to facilitate homologous recombination with the wild type BAV2 to produce a mutant. Southern Blotting and Hybridization results suggest the presence of a BAV2 E3 deletion mutant with thymidine kinase sequences present. The E4 region of Human Adenovirus types 2 and 5 is located at the extreme right end of the genome (91.3 map units - 99.1 map units) and is transcribed in a leftward direction giving rise to a complicated set of differentially spliced mRNAs. Essentially there are 7 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding for at least 7 polypeptides. The gene products encoded by the E4 region have been shown to be essential for the expression of late viral genes, host cell shutoff and normal viral growth. We have cloned and sequenced the right end segment between 90.5 map units and 100 map units of the BAV2 genome. The results show several open reading frames which encode polypeptides exhibiting homology to three polypeptides encoded by the E4 region of human adenovirus type 2. These include the 14kDa protein encoded by ORF1, the 34kDa protein encoded by ORF6 and the 13kDa protein encoded by ORF3. The nucleotide sequence, restriction enzyme map, and ORF map of the E4 region could be very useful in future molecular manipulation of this region and could possibly explain the slow growth rate of BAV2 in MDBK cells.
    • Construction of bovine adenovirus type 3 E1 and E3, substitution plasmids and the sequencing analysis of DNA pol and pTP /

      Yagubi, Abdelbaset I.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      The relative ease to concentrate and purify adenoviruses, their well characterized mid-sized genome, and the ability to delete non-essential regions from their genome to accommodate foreign gene, made adenoviruses a suitable candidate for the construction of vectors. The use of adenoviral vectors in gene therapy, vaccination, and as a general vector system for expressing foreign genes have been documented for some time. In this study, the objective was to rescue a BAV3 E1 or E3 recombinant vector carrying the kanamycin resistant gene, a dominant selectable marker with useful applications in studying vectored gene expression in mammalian cells. To accomplish the objective of this study, more information about BAV3 DNA sequences was required in order to make the manipulation of the virus genome accessible. Therefore, sequencing of the BAV3 genome from 1 1 .7% to 30.8% was carried out. Analysis of the determined sequences revealed the primary structure of important viral gene products coded by E2 including BAV3 DNA pol and precursor to terminal protein. Comparative analysis of these proteins with their counterparts from human and non human adenoviruses revealed important insights as to the evolutionary lineage of BAV3. In order to insert the kanamycin resistance gene in either E1 or E3, it was necessary to delete BAV3 sequences to accommodate the foreign gene so as not to exceed the limit of the packaging capacity of the virus. To construct a recombinant BAV3 in which a foreign gene was inserted in the deleted E1 region, an E1 shuttle vector was constructed. This involved the deletion from the viral sequences a region between 1.3% to 9% and inserting the kanamycin resistance gene to replace the deletion. The E1 shuttle vector contained the left (0%- 53.9%) segment of the genome and was expected to generate BAV3 recombinants that can be grown and propagated in cells that can complement the missing E1 functions. To construct a similar shuttle vector for E3 deletion, DNA sequences extending from 78.9% to 82.5% (1281 bp) were deleted from within the E3 region that had been cloned into a plasmid vector. The deleted region corresponds to those that have been shown to be non-essential for viral replication in cell culture. The resulting plasmid was used to construct another recombinant plasmid with BAV3 DNA sequences extending from 37.1% to 100% and with a deletion of E3 sequences that were replaced by kanamycin resistance gene. This shuttle plasmid was used in cotransfections with digested viral DNA in an attempt to rescue a recombinant BAV3 carrying the kanamycin resistance gene to replace the deleted E3. In spite of repeated attempts of transfection, El or E3 recombinant BAV3 were not isolated. It seems that other approaches should be applied to make a final conclusion on BAV3 infectivity.
    • Development of a bovine adenovirus type 2-based gene delivery vector /

      Ojkic, Davor.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      ABSTRACT Recombinant adenoviruses are currently under intense investigation as potential gene delivery and gene expression vectors with applications in human and veterinary medicine. As part of our efforts to develop a bovine adenovirus type 2 (BAV2) based vector system, the nucleotide sequence of BAV2 was determined. Sixty-six open reading frames (ORFs) were found with the potential to encode polypeptides that were at least 50 amino acid (aa) residue long. Thirty-one of the BAV2 polypeptide sequences were found to share homology to already identified adenovirus proteins. The arrangement of the genes revealed that the BAV2 genomic organization closely resembles that of well-characterized human adenoviruses. In the course of this study, continuous propagation of BAV2 over many generations in cell culture resulted in the isolation of a BAV2 spontaneous mutant in which the E3 region was deleted. Restriction enzyme, sequencing and PCR analyses produced concordant results that precisely located the deletion and revealed that its size was exactly 1299 bp. The E3-deleted virus was plaque-purified and further propagated in cell culture. It appeared that the replication of such a virus lacking a portion of the E3 region was not affected, at least in cell culture. Attempts to rescue a recombinant BAV2 virus with the bacterial kanamycin resistance gene in the E3 region yielded a candidate as verified with extensive Southern blotting and PCR analyses. Attempts to purify the recombinant virus were not successful, suggesting that such recombinant BAV2 was helper-dependent. Ten clones containing full-length BAV2 genomes in a pWE15 cosmid vector were constructed. The infectivity of these constructs was tested by using different transfection methods. The BAV2 genomic clones did appear to be infectious only after extended incubation period. This may be due to limitations of various transfection methods tested, or biological differences between virus- and E. co//-derived BAV2 DNA.
    • Development of packaging cell lines for rescuing BAV2 viral vectors

      Salamé, Mohamad S.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      The construction of adenovirus vectors for cloning and foreign gene expression requires packaging cell lines that can complement missing viral functions caused by sequence deletions and/or replacement with foreign DNA sequences. In this study, packaging cell lines were designed to provide in trans the missing bovine adenovirus functions, so that recombinant viruses could be generated. Fetal bovine kidney and lUng cells, acquired at the trimester term from a pregnant cow, were tranfected with both digested wild type BAV2 genomic DNA and pCMV-EI. The plasmid pCMV-EI was specifically constructed to express El of BAV2 under the control of the cytomegalovirus enhancer/promoter (CMV). Selection for "true" transformants by continuous passaging showed no success in isolating immortalised cells, since the cells underwent crisis resulting in complete cell death. Moreover, selection for G418 resistance, using the same cells, also did not result in the isolation of an immortalised cell line and the same culture-collapse event was observed. The lack of success in establishing an immortalised cell line from fetal tissue prompted us to transfect a pre-established cell line. We began by transfecting MDBK (Mardin-Dardy bovine kidney) cells with pCMV-El-neo, which contain the bacterial selectable marker neo gene. A series of MDBK-derived cell lines, that constitutively express bovine adenoviral (BAV) early region 1 (El), were then isolated. Cells selected for resistance to the drug G418 were isolated collectively for full characterisation to assess their suitability as packaging cell lines. Individual colonies were isolated by limiting dilution and further tested for El expression and efficiency of DNA uptake. Two cell lines, L-23 and L-24, out of 48 generated foci tested positive for £1 expression using Northern Blot analysis. DNA uptake studies, using both lipofectamine and calcium phosphate methods, were performed to compare these cells, their parental MDBK cells, 8 and the unrelated human 293 cells as a benchmark. The results revealed that the new MDBKderived clones were no more efficient than MDBK cells in the transient expression of transfected DNA and that they were inferior to 293 cells, when using lacZ as the reporter gene. In view of the inherently poor transfection efficiency of MDBK cells and their derivatives, a number of other bovine cells were investigated for their potential as packaging cells. The cell line CCL40 was chosen for its high efficiency in DNA uptake and subsequently transfected with the plasmid vector pCMV El-neo. By selection with the drug G418, two cell lines were isolated, ProCell 1 and ProCell 2. These cell lines were tested for El expression, permissivity to BAV2 and DNA uptake efficiency, revealing a DNA uptake efficiency of 37 % , comparable to that of CCL40. Attempts to rescue BAV2 mutants carrying the lacZ gene in place of £1 or £3 were carried out by co-transfecting wild type viral DNA with either the plasmid pdlElE-Z (which contains BAV2 sequences from 0% to 40.4% with the lacZ gene in place of the £1 region from 1.1% to 8.25%) or with the plasmid pdlE3-5-Z (which contains BAV2 sequences from 64.8% to 100% with the lacZ gene in place of the E3 region from 75.8% to 81.4%). These cotransfections did not result in the generation of a viral mutant. The lack of mutant generation was thought to be caused by the relative inefficiency ofDNA uptake. Consequently, cosBAV2, a cosmid vector carrying the BAV2 genome, was modified to carry the neo reporter gene in place of the £3 region from 75.8% to 81.4%. The use of a single cosmid vector earring the whole genome would eliminate the need for homologous recombination in order to generate a viral vector. Unfortunately, the transfection of cosBAV2- neo also did not result in the generation of a viral mutant. This may have been caused by the size of the £3 deletion, where excess sequences that are essential to the virus' survival might have been deleted. As an extension to this study, the spontaneous E3 deletion, accidently discovered in our viral stock, could be used as site of foreign gene insertion.
    • Development of techniques for testing the effect of the E1 region on adenovirus integration /

      Geng, Songsong.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2007-06-04)
      Adenoviral vectors are currently the most widely used gene therapeutic vectors, but their inability to integrate into host chromosomal DNA shortened their transgene expression and limited their use in clinical trials. In this project, we initially planned to develop a technique to test the effect of the early region 1 (E1) on adenovirus integration by comparing the integration efficiencies between an E1-deleted adenoviral vector (SubE1) and an Elcontaining vector (SubE3). However, we did not harvest any SubE3 virus, even if we repeated the transfection and successfully rescued the SubE1 virus (2/4 transfections generated viruses) and positive control virus (6/6). The failure of rescuing SubE3 could be caused by the instability of the genomic plasmid pFG173, as it had frequent intemal deletions when we were purifying It. Therefore, we developed techniques to test the effect of E1 on homologous recombination (HR) since literature suggested that adenovirus integration is initiated by HR. We attempted to silence the E1 in 293 cells by transfecting E1A/B-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). However, no silenced phenotype was observed, even if we varied the concentrations of E1A/B siRNA (from 30 nM to 270 nM) and checked the silencing effects at different time points (48, 72, 96 h). One possible explanation would be that the E1A/B siRNA sequences are not potent enough to Induce the silenced phenotype. For evaluating HR efficiencies, an HR assay system based on bacterial transfonmatJon was designed. We constmcted two plasmids ( designated as pUC19-dl1 and pUC19-dl2) containing different defective lacZa cassettes (forming white colonies after transformation) that can generate a functional lacZa cassette (forming blue colonies) through HR after transfecting into 293 cells. The HR efficiencies would be expressed as the percentages of the blue colonies among all the colonies. Unfortunately, after transfonnation of plasmid isolated from 293 cells, no colony was found, even at a transformation efficiency of 1.8x10^ colonies/pg pUC19, suggesting the sensitivity of this system was low. To enhance the sensitivity, PCR was used. We designed a set of primers that can only amplify the recombinant plasmid fomied through HR. Therefore, the HR efficiencies among different treatments can be evaluated by the amplification results, and this system could be used to test the effect of E1 region on adenovirus integration. In addition, to our knowledge there was no previous studies using PCR/ Realtime PCR to evaluate HR efficiency, so this system also provides a PCR-based method to carry out the HR assays.
    • Engineering an improved adenovirus packaging cell line

      Roberts, Pamela.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2002-07-09)
      Recombinant human adenovirus (Ad) vectors are being extensively explored for their use in gene therapy and recombinant vaccines. Ad vectors are attractive for many reasons, including the fact that (1) they are relatively safe, based on their use as live oral vaccines, (2) they can accept large transgene inserts, (3) they can infect dividing and postmitotic cells, and (4) they can be produced to high titers. However, there are also a number of major problems associated with Ad vectors, including transient foreign gene expression due to host cellular immune responses, problems with humoral immunity, and the creation of replication competent adenoviruses (RCA). Most Ad vectors contain deletions in the E1 region that allow for insertion of a transgene. However, the E1 gene products are required for replication and thus must be supplied in trans by a helper ceillille that will allow for the growth and packaging of the defective virus. For this purpose the 293 cell line (Graham et al., 1977) is used most often; however, homologous recombination between the vector and the cell line often results in the generation of RCA. The presence of RCA in batches of adenoviral vectors for clinical use is a safety risk because tlley . may result in the mobilization and spread of the replication-defective vector viruses, and in significant tissue damage and pathogenicity. The present research focused on the alteration of the 293 cell line such that RCA formation can be eliminated. The strategy to modify the 293 cells involved the removal of the first 380 bp of the adenovirus genome through the process of homologous recombination. The first step towards this goal involved identifying and cloning the left-end cellular-viral jUl1ction from 293 cells to assemble sequences required for homologous recombination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to clone the junction, and the clone was verified through sequencing. The plasn1id PAM2 was then constructed, which served as the targeting cassette used to modify the 293 cells. The cassette consisted of (1) the cellular-viral junction as the left-end region of homology, (2) the neo gene to use for positive selection upon tranfection into 293 cells, (3) the adenoviral genome from bp 380 to bp 3438 as the right-end region of homology, and (4) the HSV-tk gene to use for negative selection. The plasmid PAM2 was linearized to produce a double strand break outside the region of homology, and transfected into 293 cells using the calcium-phosphate technique. Cells were first selected for their resistance to the drug G418, and subsequently for their resistance to the drug Gancyclovir (GANC). From 17 transfections, 100 pools of G418f and GANCf cells were picked using cloning lings and expanded for screening. Genomic DNA was isolated from the pools and screened for the presence of the 380 bps using PCR. Ten of the most promising pools were diluted to single cells and expanded in order to isolate homogeneous cell lines. From these, an additional 100 G41Sf and GANef foci were screened. These preliminary screening results appear promising for the detection of the desired cell line. Future work would include further cloning and purification of the promising cell lines that have potentially undergone homologous recombination, in order to isolate a homogeneous cell line of interest.
    • The establishment of two novel bovine cell lines by transfection with the putative transforming region of bovine adenovirus type 3

      White, Donald E.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      Human adenoviruses (Ads), members of the family adenoviridae, are medium-sized DNA viruses which have been used as valuable research tools for the study of RNA processing, oncogenic transformation, and for the development of viral vectors for use in gene delivery and immunization technology. The left 12% of the linear Ad genollle codes for products which are necessary for the efficient replication of the virus, as well as being responsible for the forlllation of tumors in animallllodels. The establishlllent of the 293 cell line, by immortalization of human embryonic kidney cells with th~ E1 region of Ad type S (AdS), has facilitated extensive manipulation of the Ads and the development of recombinant Ad vectors. The study of bovine adenoviruses (BAVs), which cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in cattle has, on the other hand, been limited primarily to that of infectivity, immunology and clinicallllanifestations. As a result, any potential as gene delivery vehicles has not yet been realized. Continued research into the molecular biolo~gy of BAVs and the development of recolllbinant vectors would benefit from the development of a cell line analogous to that of the 293 cells. In an attelllpt to establish such a cell line, the recombinant plaslllid pKC-neo was constructed, containing the left 0-19.7% of the BAV type 3 (BAV3) genome, and the selectable marker for resistance to the aminoglycoside G418, a neomycin derivative. The plasmid construct was then used to transfect both the Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) -iicell line and primary bovine lung cells, after which G418-resistant foci were selected for analysis. Two cell lines, E61 (MDBK) and E24 (primary lung), were subsequently selected and analysed for DNA content, revealing the presence of the pKC-neo sequences in their respective genomes. In addition, BAV3 RNA transcripts were detected in the E61 cells. Although the presence of E1 products has yet to be confirmed in both cell lines, the E24 cells exhibit a phenotype characteristic of partial transformation by E1. The apparent immortalization of the primary lung cells will permit exploitation of their ability to take up exogenous DNA at high efficiency.
    • Manipulation of adenovirus early region 1 rescue plasmids by homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

      Anderson, Peter.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 2003-07-09)
      The manipulation of large (>10 kb) plasmid systems amplifies problems common to traditional cloning strategies. Unique or rare restriction enzyme recognition sequences are uncommon and very rarely located in opportunistic locations. Making site-specific deletions and insertions in larger plasmids consequently leads to multiple step cloning strategies that are often limited by time-consuming, low efficiency linker insertions or blunt-end cloning strategies. Manipulation ofthe adenovirus genome and the genomes ofother viruses as bacterial plasmids are systems that typify such situations. Recombinational cloning techniques based on homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that circumvent many ofthese common problems have been developed. However, these techniques are rarely realistic options for such large plasmid systems due to the above mentioned difficulties associated with the addition ofrequired yeast DNA replication, partitioning and selectable marker sequences. To determine ifrecombinational cloning techniques could be modified to simplify the manipulation of such a large plasmid system, a recombinational cloning system for the creation of human adenovirus EI-deletion rescue plasmids was developed. Here we report for the first time that the 1,456 bp TRP1/ARS fragment ofYRp7 is alone sufficient to foster successful recombinational cloning without additional partitioning sequences, using only slight modifications of existing protocols. In addition, we describe conditions for efficient recombinational cloning involving simultaneous deletion of large segments ofDNA (>4.2 kb) and insertion of donor fragment DNA using only a single non-unique restriction site. The discovery that recombinational cloning can foster large deletions has been used to develop a novel recombiliational cloillng technique, selectable inarker 'kilockouf" recombinational cloning, that uses deletion of a yeast selectable marker coupled with simultaneous negative and positive selection to reduce background transformants to undetectable levels. The modification of existing protocols as described in this report facilitates the use of recombinational cloning strategies that are otherwise difficult or impractical for use with large plasmid systems. Improvement of general recombinational cloning strategies and strategies specific to the manipulation ofthe adenovirus genome are considered in light of data presented herein.
    • Molecular cloning and restriction endonuclease analysis of bovine adenovirus type 3

      Elgadi, Mabrouk Mohammed.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV3) is a medium size DNA virus that causes respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders in cattle. The viral genome consists of a 35,000 base pair, linear, double-stranded DNA molecule with inverted terminal repeats and a 55 kilodalton protein covalently linked to each of the 5' ends. In this study, the viral genome was cloned in the form of subgenomic restriction fragments. Five EcoRI internal fragments spanning 3.4 to 89.0 % and two Xb a I internal fragments spanning 35.7 to 82.9 % of the viral genome were cloned into the EcoRI and Xbal sites of the bacterial vector pUC19. To generate overlap between cloned fragments, ten Hi n dIll internal fragments spanning 3.9 to 84.9 and 85.5 to 96% and two BAV3 BamHI internal fragments spanning 59.8 to 84.9% of the viral genome were cloned into the HindllI and BamHI sites of pUC19. The HindlII cloning strategy also resulted in six recombinant plasmids carrying two or more Hi ndII I fragments. These fragments provided valuable information on the linear orientation of the cloned fragments within the viral genome. Cloning of the terminal fragments required the removal of the residual peptides that remain attached to the 5' ends of the genome. This was accomplished by alkaline hydrolysis of the DNA-peptide bond. BamH I restriction fragments of the peptide-free DNA were cloned into pUC19 and resulted in two plasmids carrying the BAV3 Bam HI terminal fragments spanning 0 to 53.9% and 84.9 to 100% of the viral genome.
    • Molecular cloning restriction enzyme analysis, bovine adenovirus type 2 genome

      Salmon, Kirsty Anne.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1993-07-09)
      Adenoviruses are non-enveloped icosahedral-shaped particles which possess a double-stranded DNA genome. Currently, nearly 100 serotypes of adenoviruses have been identified, 48 of which are of human origin. Bovine adenoviruses (BAVs), causing both mild respiratory and/or enteral diseases in cattle, have been reported in many countries all over the world. Currently, nine serotypes of SAVs have been isolated which have been placed into two subgroups based on a number of characteristics which include complement fixation tests as well as the ability to replicate in various cell lines. Bovine adenovirus type 2 (BAV2), belonging to subgroup I, is able to cause pneumonia as well as pneumonic-like symptoms in calves. In this study, the genome of BAV2 (strain No. 19) was subcloned into the plasmid vector pUC19. In total, 16 plasmids were constructed; three carry internal San fragments (spanning 3.1 to 65.2% ), and 10 carry internal Pstl fragments (spanning 4.9 to 97.4%), of the viral genome. Each of these plasmids was analyzed using twelve restriction endonucleases; BamHI, CiaI, EcoRl, HiOOlll, Kpnl, Noll, NS(N, Ps~, Pvul, Saj, Xbal, and Xhol. Terminal end fragments were also cloned and analyzed, sUbsequent to the removal of the 5' terminal protein, in the form of 2 BamHI B fragments, cloned in opposite orientations (spanning 0 to 18.1°k), and one Pstll fragment (spanning 97.4 to 1000/0). These cloned fragments, along with two other plasmids previously constructed carrying internal EcoRI fragments (spanning 20.6 to 90.5%), were then used to construct a detailed physical restriction map using the twelve restriction endonucleases, as well as to estimate the size of the genome for BAV2(32.5 Kbp). The DNA sequences of the early region 1 (E1) and hexon-associated gene (protein IX) have also been determined. The amino acid sequences of four open reading frames (ORFs) have been compared to those of the E1 proteins and protein IX from other Ads.
    • Permissivity of human HeLa cells to bovine adenovirus type 2 (BaV2 infection

      Dobric, Nikolina.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1998-07-09)
      Infection of hUlnan cells by bovine adenovirlls type 2 (BAV2) is abortive. To obtain a better understanding of this pllenomel1011, and in particular to identify Wllich steps in the viral replicative cycles are altered dllring this virlls-host cells interaction, we have llndertaken a detailed study of BAV2 infections of the nonpennissive hUlnan IIeLa cells. Using autoradiography and 3H-thymidine-labeled vvhole virus particles for infection of HeLa cells, vve determined that viral attachluent appears normal. Furthermore, Southern analysis revealed that internalization and transport to the nuclells occurs in BAV2 infected HeLa cells. To investigate viral DNi\ synthesis, infectivity assays involving hydroxyllrea, a viral DN-A synthesis inhibitor, were carried out. The results revealed that Bft:LV2 DNA synthesis does not occur in HeLa cells. Fllrtller investigations into viral early gene expression by northern blotting analyses indicated that HeLa cells fail to support expression of EIA. This suggested that abortive infection by BAV2 could be attributed to faiiure of EIA to express. To test the possibility that the failure to express ElA was due to the inability of the host cell to recognize the E lA prOlTIoter, ,ve carried out transient expression transfection experiments using plaslnids \vith the bacterial lacZ linder the control of either BAV2 or i\d5 EIA promoter. X-gal histochelIlical assays sho\ved expression of lacZ from the Ad5 ElA prOlnoter but no expression of lacZ [rOln the BAV2 EIA prOlTIoter. This further suggests that the abortive infection b:y BAV2 could be attributed to failure of EIA to express dlle to a nonfllnctional prOlTIoter in hlunan cells. Thus we speClllated that abortive infection of HeLa cells by adenoviruses may be averted by providing EtA functions in trans. To demonstrate this, we coinfected HeLa cells with Ad5 and BAV2, reasoning that Ad5 could cOlnpensate for EIA deficiency in BAV2. OUf results showed that BAV2 DNA synthesis was indeed Sllpported in HeLa cells coinfected with Ad5dlE3 as revealed by Southern analysis. In contrast, coinfection of HeLa cells \vith BAV2 and Ad5dlElE3 mutallt did not support BLt\V2 DNA synthesis. Interestingly, BAV2 failed to replicate in 293 cells which are constitlltively expressing the El genes. This could ilnply that El is necessary but not sufficient to avert the failllre ofBAV2 to undergo productive infection ofhulnan cells.