• The structural effects of divalent cations and insulin on phospholipid model membranes /

      SenGupta, Sutapa.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1971-06-29)
      It is well accepted that structural studies with model membranes are of considerable value in understanding the structure of biological membranes. Many studies with models of pure phospholipids have been done; but the effects of divalent cations and protein on these models would make these studies more applicable to intact membrane. The present study, performed with above view, is a structural analysis of divalent io~cardio1ipin complexes using the technique of x-ray diffraction. Cardiolipin, precipitated from dilute solution by divalent ionscalcium, magnesium and barium, contains little water and the structure formed is similar to the structure of pure cardiolipin with low water content. The calcium-cardiolipin complex forms a pure hexagonal type II phase that exists from 40 to 400 C. The molar ratio of calcium and cardiolipin in the complex is 1 : 1. Cardiolipin, precipitated with magnesium and barium forms two co-existing phases, lamellar and hexagonal, the relative quantity of the two phases being dependent on temperature. The hexagonal phase type II consisting of water filled channels formed by adding calcium to cardiolipin may have a remarkable permeability property in intact membrane. Pure cardiolipin and insulin at pH 3.0 and 4.0 precipitate but form no organised structure. Lecithin/cardiolipin and insulin precipitated at pH 3.0 give a pure lamellar phase. As the lecithin/cardiolipin molar ratio changes from 93/7 to SO/50, (a) the repeat distance of the lamellar changes from 72.8 X to 68.2 A; (b) the amount of protein bound increases in such a way that cardiolipin/insulin molar ratio in the complex reaches a maximum constant value at lecithin/cardiolipin molar ratio 70/30. A structural model based on these data shows that the molecular arrangement of lipid and protein is a lipid bilayer coated with protein molecules. The lipid-protein interaction is chiefly electrostatic and little, if any, hydrophobic bonding occurs in this particular system. So, the proposed model is essentially the same as Davson-Daniellifs model of biological membrane.
    • Some ecological effects of beaver upon the watersheds in the Porcupine Hills, Alberta /

      Sverre, S. F. S.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1972-06-15)
      This ecological investigation of the beaver (Castor canadensis canadensis Kuhl) was part of the Eastern Slopes (Alberta) Watershed Research program conducted during the summers of 1968 . 1969 . 1970. and 1971 . A soil particle size analysis indicated that soil heavy with clay was used by the beaver for construction purposes in the Porcupine Hills . Examples were given of the beaver controlling erosion with the construction of dams . and also causing erosion to occur . However . in general . the beaver slow down soil erosion and decrease the loss of soil from this region. The beaver utilized measureable amounts of herbaceous vegetation . However, the utilization of herbs by the beaver requires further investigation. A system of ex~sures and enclosures of herbaceous vegetation plots was used to study the utilization of sedges , grasses , and forbs . The beaver indicated stronger species preference for willow as compared to aspen . The size preference for willow was in the 1.0 to 10.0 centimeters basal diameter classes , while the beaver utilization of aspen indicated a preference for the largest trees with basal diameter greater than 20.0 centimeters. Willow was the most important plant in the low lying areas with regard to distribution, abundance and to produce sustained yield. The beaver used this plant for food and construction throughout the study area. The distribution of aspen was limited. and this species did not appear to produce more than one crop in the lifetime of a beaver colony. Nine out of 15 woody plant types were sampled by the beaver in this region. A plot-intercept transect technique was used for systematic vegetation sampling of the woody vegetation in six intensively studied watersheds. The beaver population of the Porcupine Hills region of SW-Alberta is believed to depend upon the chinooks. During the 1971 ground census, a total of 60 active beaver colonies were tallied on the 930 square kilometers large study area. The beaver of the region were not found to store large food caches during fall and winter, however, they are believed to collect feed periodically throughout the winter months. It was observed that the severe winter in 1968-69, reduced by 27 per cent the number of active beaver colonies within the study area. The Porcupine Hills region had 0.07 beaver colony per square kilometer in 1971, a low density of beaver colonies due to the rough topography of the area. However, the importance of the beaver ponds was somewhat clarified as they provide increased moisture, which lessens the fire damage, and store water for wildlife and cattle in the area. Meteorological data was collected by the author in collaboration with the Department of Transport.
    • The influence of carbon dioxide on growth and metabolism of etiolated Avena sativa 1 coleoptiles

      Thein, Aung.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      The influence of carbon dioxide on growth and protein synthesis of etiolated Avena coleoptiles was investigated. Evidence is presented that 0.03% carbon dioxide stimulated both these processes; and that carbon dioxide stimulated growth depends on carbon dioxide stimulated protein synthesis, In addition the evidence indicates that carbon dioxide stimulated growth is mediated by metabolism, and that carbon dioxide stimulates growth through a dark fixation process. Growth studies also demonstrated that IAA and carbon dioxide stimulated growth in a synergistic manner.
    • The pancreatic islet system of the rock bass /|nby Edward Francis Squires. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Squires, Edward Francis.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1972-07-09)
      The endocrine pancreas of the rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Two cell types with staining properties similar to mammalian A and B cells, and a third, non-staining cell type were found in the spherical pancreatic islets that were surrounded by a connective tissue capsule and embedded in two small masses of exocrine tissue. From an analysis of the ultrastructure of the A and B cells, a secretory cycle for each of these cell types was proposed. The secretory cycle of the A cell consisted of three well defined stages: (1) A cell production stage: during which A granule formation occurred in the sacs of the Golgi apparatus and the cell was characterized by the presence of numerous secretory granules, some elements of lamellar endoplasmic reticulum, and a homogeneously granular nucleus. The cytoplasm contained few distended cisternae, variable numbers of free ribosomes, microtubules and small vesicles. (2) A cell release stage: during which the release of A granules occurred and the cell usually contained several large distended cisternae and variable numbers of secretory granules. Granule release mechanisms included exocytosis, by which individual granules were released into the extracellular space after their membranes fused with the plasmalemma, and emiocytosis, by which one or more granules were released into a large cisterna whose membrane fused with the plasmalemma and formed a pore through which the cisternal contents passed out of the cell. (3) A cell reorganization stage: during which the changeover from the release stage to the production stage occurred and the reorganization of organelles and membrane structures took place. The cell contained few secretory granules and numerous small endoplasmic reticular cisternae. The cytoplasm exhibited less electron density than either of the other two stages. The A granule after formation underwent a series of morphological changes which were described in four numerically identified phases. The secretory cycle of the B cell consisred of two stages: (1) B cell production stage: during which the B granule formation occurred in the sacs of the Go1gi apparatus. The cell was characterized by an irregular outline, the presence of numerous secretory granules, and an irregularly shaped nucleus which contained variable amounts of clumped chromatin. The cytoplasm contained moderate amounts of lamellar endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes, several small vesicles, and an active Go1gi apparatus. (2) B cell release stage: during which the release of B granules occurred. The cell contained a rounded nucleus with dispersed chromatin, several distended endoplasmic reticular cisternae and a variable number of secretory granules. Granule release occu~ by emiocytosis and exocytosis similar to that found for the A cell.
    • Contact interactions in phospholipid model membrane systems /|nby Dennis M. Le Neveu. -- 260 St. Catharines, Ont. : [s. n.],

      Le Neveu, Dennis M.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
    • Changes in the magnitude and pattern of translocation of photoassimilated ¹CO in soybean plants following an acute exposure to gamma radiation /

      Schefski, Hans Juergen.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1974-06-15)
      Young soybean plants (Glycine ~. L. cultivar Harosoy '63), grown under controlled conditions, were exposed to gamma radiation on a single occasion. One hour following exposure to 3,750 rads, the mature trifoliate leaf of the soybean plant was isolated in a closed system and permitted to photoassimilate approximately 1-5 pCi of 14C02 for 15 minutes. After an additional 45 minute-period, the plant was sacrificed and the magnitude of translocation and distribution pattern of 14C determined. In the non-irradiated plants 18~ of the total 14C recovered was outside the fed leaf blades and of this translocated 14c, 28~ was above the node of the fed leaf, 38~ in the stem below the node, 28~ in the roots and 7~ in the petiole. As well, in the irradiated plants, a smaller per cent (6~) of the total 14 C recovered was exported out of the source leaf blades. Of this translocated 14c , a smaller per cent (20~) was found in the apical region above the node of the source leaf and a higher per cent (45~) was recovered from the stem below the node and in the petiole (11~). The per cent of exported 14 C recovered from the root was unaffected by the radiation. Replacement of the shoot apex with 20 ppm IAA immediately following irradiation, only J partially increased the magnitude of translocation but did completely restore the pattern of distribution to that observed in the non-irradiated plants. From supplementary studies showing a radiationinduced reduction of photosynthetic rates in the source leaf and a reduction of the cumulative stem and leaf lengths in the apical sink region, the observed effects of radiation on the translocation process have been correlated to damage incurred by the source and sink regions. These data suggest that the reduction in the magnitude of translocation is the result of damage to both the source and sink regions rather than the phloem conducting tissue itself, whereas the change in the pattern of translocation is probably the result of a reduced rate of 14C-assimilate movement caused by a radiation-induced decrease of sink metabolism, especially the decrease in the metabolism of the apical sink.
    • An investigation of ethylene inhibition of growth in etiolated Avena sativa coleoptiles /

      Dymock, Ian James.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1975-06-09)
      Growth rates of etiolated Avena sativa coleoptiles in pH 7.0 buffered medium are stimulated in a synergistic manner by IAA and 320 ~l/l carbon dioxide. The suggestion that carbon dioxide stimulated growth involves dark fixation is supported by the ability of 1 mM malate to replace carbon dioxide, with neither factor able to stimulate growth in the presence of the other (Bown, Dymock and Aung, 1974). The regulation of Avena coleoptile growth by ethylene has been investigated in the light of this data and the well documented antagonism between carbon dioxide and ethylene in the regulation of developmental processes. The influence of various permutations of ethylene, IAA, carbon dioxide and malate on the rates of growth, l4c-bicarbonate incorporation, l4C-bicarbonate fixation, and malate decarboxylation have been investigated. In the presence of 320 ~l/l carbon dioxide, 10.8 ~l/l ethylene inhibited growth both in the absence and presence of 20 ~M IAA with inhibition times, of 8-10 and 12-13 minutes respectively. In contrast ethylene inhibition of growth was not significant in the absence of growth stimulation by CO2 or 1 mM malate, and the normal growth increases in response to CO2 and malate were blocked by the simultaneous application of ethylene. The rates of incorporation and dark fixation of l4C-bicerbonate were not measurably. influenced by ethylene, IAA or malate, either prior to or during the changes in growth ,ates induced by these agents. The data does not support the hypothesis that ethylene inhibition of growth results from an inhibition of dark fixation, but suggests that ethylene may inhibit a process which is subsequent to fixation.
    • Syntrophic relationships between algae and bacteria in a fresh-water stream and in culture /

      Scott, Tom.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1975-06-29)
      Interactions between freshwater algae and bacteria were examined in a natural stream habitat and a laboratory model. Field observations provided circumstantial evidence, in statistical correlation for syntrophy between the microbial populations. This relation is probably subject to control by the temperature and pH of the aquatic environment. Several species of a pond community were isolated in axenic culture and tests were performed to determine the nature of mixed species interactions. Isolation procedures and field studies indicated that selected strains of Chlorella and Azotobacter were closely associated in their natural habitat. With the suspected controlling parameters, pH and temperature, held constant, mixed cultures of algae and bacteria were compared to axenic cultures of the same organisms, and a mutual stimulation of growth was observed. A mixed pure culture apparatus was designed in this laboratory to study the algal-bacterial interaction and to test the hypothesis that such an interaction may take place through a diffusable substance or through certain medium-borne conditions, Azotobacter was found to take up a Chlorella-produced exudate, to stimulate protein synthesis, to enhance chlorophyll production and to cause a numerical increase in the interacting Chlorella population. It is not clear whether control is at the environmental, cellular or genetic level in these mixed population interactions. Experimental observations in the model system, taken with field correlations allow one to state that there may be a direct relationship governing the population fluctuations of these two organisms in their natural stream surroundings.
    • Biochemical and histological investigations of viral localisation in the hypersensitive reaction of Phaselous vulgaris L. var Pinto to tobacco mosaic virus infection

      Stobbs, Lorne W.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      STOBBS, Lorne,W ABSTRACT Biochemical and Histological Investigations of viral localisation in the hypersensitive reaction of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Pinto to tobacco mosaic virus infection. The infection of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Pinto with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) results in the production of distinct necrotic lesions confining the virus to restricted areas of the leaf surface. Biochemical and histological changes in the leaf tissue as a result of infection have been described. Trace accumulations of fluorescent metabolites, detected prior to lesion expression represent metabolites produced, by the cell in response to virus infection. These substances, are considered to undergo oxidation and in diffusing into adjacent cells, react with cellular constituents causing the death of these cells. Such cellular necrosis in advance of infection effectively limits virus spread. Chromatographic studies on extracts from TMV infected Pinto bean leaf tissue suggests that a number of extra-fluorescent metabolites produced on lesion'expression represent end products of phenolic oxidation r,eactionsoccurring earlier in these cells. Inhibition of phenolic oxidation by ascorbate infiltration or elevated temperature treatment resulted in the absence of extra-fluorescent metabolites and the continued movement of virus in the absence of necrosis. Further studies with i ascorbate infiltration indicated that irreversible necrotic events were determined as early as 12 tci 18 hrs after viral inoculation. Histochemical tests indicated that callose formation was initiated at this time, and occurred in response to necrotisation. Inhibition of necrosis by either ascorbate infiltration or elevated temp8rature treatment resulted in the absence of callose deposition. Scanning electron'micrographs of infected tissue revealed severe epidermal and palisade cell damage. Histochemical tests indicated extensive callose formation in cells bordering the lesion, and suggested the role of callose iTh the blockage of intercellular connections limiting virus movement. The significance of these cellular changes is discussed. ii
    • Demographic and genetic attributes of dispersing and resident individuals of an enclosed Microtus pennsylvanicus population

      Ross, Howard Alfred.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      A dispersal polymorphism may exist in emigrants from cyclic populations of Microtus '~nnsylvanicus biasing trap-revealed movements of unenclosed animals in favour of sedentary or colonizing individuals. The dispersal tendency of emigrants from an enclosed population was investigated by releasing animals via tubes into one of two adjacent enclosures, one vacant and one inhabited. Individuals from the enclosed population were monitored for age, sex, weight and electrophoretically detectable serum transferrin genotype in an intensive live-trapping program. In 1973 the minimum number alive in the introduced enclosed study population reached approximately l67/ha when breeding stopped in October. In 1974 intensive breeding increased the population density to 333/ha by mid-July when a long decline in numbers and breeding intensity began without an intervening plateau. An adjacent unenclosed area had a much lower density and longer breeding season in 1974. The growth rate of young males in the enclosed population tended to be lowest during the decline period in 1974. Survival of the enclosed population was high throughout but was lowest during the decline phase in both sexes, especially males. Low transferrin heterozygote survival during the decline coincided with a significant heterozygote deficiency in females whereas in males genotype frequencies did not depart from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium values throughout th.e study. Twenty-nine suitable ani.mals were released during the decline in five periods from July to November 1974. The proportions of males and transferrin heterozygotes in the released graun were generally greater than in the source population~ In the test enclosures 21% of the released animals continued their movement through the vacant area while 41% (no significant difference) moved through the inhabited enclosure. In the vacant test area, females had a greater tendency than males to continue dispersal whereas no difference was noted in the inhabited area. Low frequency of captures in the tubes, predator disturbances and cold weather forced the termination of the study. The role of dispersal as a population regulating mechanism was further substantiated. The genetic differences between emigrant and resident animals lend support to Howard's hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism influences the tendency to disperse. Support is also given to Myers' and Krebs' contention that among dispersers an additional density dependent polymorphism influences the distance dispersed.
    • Some ecological factors affecting the input and population level of total and faecal coliforms and salmonella in Twelve Mile Creek, Lake Ontario and sewage waters near St. Catharines, Ontario

      Roth, James Milton.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1975-10-02)
      Some Ecological Factors Affecting the Input and Population Levels of Total and Faecal Coliforms and Salmonella in Twelve Mile Creek, Lake Ontario and Sewage Waters Near St. Catharines, Ontario. Supervisor: Dr. M. Helder. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of some ecological factors on sewage-Dorne bacteria in waters near St. Catharines, Ontario. Total and faecal coliform levels and the presence of Salmonella were monitored for a period of a year along with determination of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, nitrate N, total phosphate P and ammonium N. Bacteriological tests for coliform analysis were done according to APHA Standard Methods by the membrane filtration technique. The grab sampling technique was employed for all sampling. Four sample sites were chosen in the Port Dalhousie beach area to determine what bacteriological or physical relationship the sites had to each other. The sample sites chosen were the sewage inflow to and the effluent from the St. Catharines (Port Dalhousie) Pollution Control Plant, Twelve Mile Creek below the sewage outfall and Lake Ontario at the Lakeside Park beach. The sewage outfall was located in Twelve Mile Creek, approximately 80 meters from the creek junction with the beach and piers on Lake Ontario. Twelve Mile Creek normally carried a large volume of water from the WeIland Canal which was diverted through the DeCew Generating Station located on the Niagara Escarpment. An additional sample site, which was thought to be free of industrial wastes, was chosen at Twenty Mile Creek, also in the Niagara Region of Ontarioo 3 There were marked variations in bacterial numbers at each site and between each site, but trends to lower_numbers were noted from the sewage inflow to Lake Ontario. Better correlations were noted between total and faecal coliform population levels and total phosphate P and ammonium N in Twenty Mile Creek. Other correlations were observed for other sample stations, however, these results also appeared to be random in nature. Salmonella isolations occurred more frequently during the winter and spring months when water temperatures were minimal at all sample stations except the sewage inflow. The frequency of Salmonella isolations appeared to be related to increased levels of total and faecal coli forms in the sewage effluent. However, no clear relationships were established in the other sample stations. Due to the presence of Salmonella and high levels of total and faecal coliform indicator organisms, the sanitary quality of Lake Ontario and Twelve Mile Creek at the sample sites seemed to be impaired over the major portion of the study period.
    • The application of gas liquid chromatography to the simultaneous analysis of sugars and sugar phosphates in biological samples /|nby David J. LeBlanc. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont. : s. n.],

      LeBlanc, David J.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      A study was undertaken' to determine the applicability of gas liquid chromatography to the simultaneous analysis of sugars and sugar phosphates from biological samples. A new method of silylation involving dimethylsulfoxide, hexamethyldisilazane, trimethylchlorosilane and cyclohexane (1:0.2:0.1:1) which rapidly silylated sugars and sugar phosphates was developed. Subsequent chromatography on a 5% SE-52 column gave good resolution of the sugar and sugar phosphate samples. Sugar phosphates decomposed during chromatography and were lost at the 7 x 10-3 ~mole level. Acidic ethanol extraction of yeast samples revealed background contamination from the yeast sample, the culture medium and the silylation reagents which would further limit the level of detection obtainable with the glc for sugars in biological samples to the 3 x 10-4 ~mole level.
    • The effects of cultural conditions and parasitism on the lipid composition of choanephora cucubitarum (Berk. Rav.) thaxter /|nJohn M. Deven. -- 260 St. Catharines [Ont. : s. n.],

      Deven, John M.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1976-07-09)
      The fatty acid composition of the total, neutral, sterol, free fatty acid and polar-lipid fractions in the mycelium of Choanephora cucurbitarum was determined. The major fatty acids in all lipid fractions were palmitic, oleic, linoleic and y-linolenic acid. Different lipid fractions did not show any particular preference for any individual fatty acid; however, the degree of unsaturation was different in various lipid fractions. Addition of glutamic acid to the malt-yeast extract medium resulted in the biosynthesis of a number of long-chain fatty acids beyond y-linolenic acid. These fatty acids, e.g. C22~1' C24:0 and C26=Q were never observed to be present in the fungus when grown on a malt-yeast extract medium without glutamic acid. Furthermore, thin-layer chromatographic analysis showed a larger and denser spot of diphosphatidyl glycerol from the mycelium grown on the glutamic acid medium than from the control mycelium. Various cultural conditions such as temperature, age, pH, light and carbon:nitrogen ratio in the growth medium used in this study did not alter the qualitative profile of fatty acids normally present in the organism. Neither did these conditions stimulate the production of further long-chain fatty acids (C20 - C26) beyond y-linolenic acid as observed in growth media containing glutamic acid. These cultural conditions influenced the degree of unsaturation, this being due mainly to changes in the concentration of y-linolenic acid. The fatty acid pattern of the lipid fractions though the same qualitatively, differed quantitatively due to the variation in the y-linolenic acid content under different cultural conditions. The degree of unsaturation of various lipid fractions decreased with increases in temperature, light intensity and pH, but within each treatment the same pattern of decreasing degree of unsaturation with increasing age was observed. The cultural conditions, used in this study, are also known to influence the degree and rate of development of the parasite, Piptocephalis virginiana. A direct correlation was observed between the levels of y-linolenic acid in C. cucurbitarum during the early stages of growth (24 h) and the degree of parasitism of P. virginiana. The amount of y-linolenic acid present in the host mycelium was found to be unrelated to either the dry weight of the mycelium or to the total lipid contents. K. virginiana is confined to host species which produce y-linolenic acid in their mycelium. The lipid profile of the host, C. cucurbitarum, did not show a significant qualitative or quantitative change in the lipid profile as a result of infection by the parasite, P. virginiana,e However, an increase in the total lipid was observed in the infected host mycelium. The significance of these results is discussed.
    • A study of selected factors influencing the reproductive performance of the common tern (Sterna hirundo) at Port Colborne, Ontario in 1973 and 1974

      Hunter, Rodger Allan.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1976-10-02)
      Several study areas were investigated at two Port Colborne terneries during the summers of 1973 and 1974 in an attempt to determine the influence of clutch size, time of clutch initiation, position in the colony, proximity to Ring-billed Gulls, vegetation and nesting substrate on the reproductive performance of the Common Tern. Hatching success and reproductive success (the number of chicks fledged per egg laid) were generally higher for 3-egg than 2-egg clutches but fledging (the number of chicks fledged per egg hatched) success was usually independant of clutch size. Hatching, fledging and reproductive success declined as a function of time of clutch initiation. Mean clutch sizes also generally declined as a function of time. Nests located in the center of the colony exhibited higher fledging success than those on the periphery. Rock-based clutches had a lower hatching success than clutches initiated on sand or dried vegetation. Reproductive performance did not appear to be related to proximity to Ring-billed Gulls or vegetation within the study area.
    • A preliminary study of the MDH variability in Lemna minor - Lemna turionifera /

      Giles, Barbara Elizabeth.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-06-15)
      Lemna minor is a small aquatic polyploid angiosperm which reproduces apomictically and has a worldwide distribution. This study was vmdertaken to characterize the extent and nature of phenotypic variability. The techniques of starch gel electrophoresis were used in this investigation and. MDH phenotypes of several populations from Ontario, USA and Africa were examined and compared. Heat stability, molecular weight and cell fractionation analyses were also done to identify locus specific MDH bands. The results of the population surveys suggest that there is little genetic variability present both within and between Lemna minor/Lemna turionifera . Evidence of correlation of physiological and seasonal variation patterns was found.
    • Genetic variation and evolutionary divergence within and among populations, species, and genera of the Cambarinae

      Nemeth, Steven Thomas.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Seven crayfish species from three genera of the subfamily Cambarinae were electrophoretically examined for genetic variation at a total of twenty-six loci. Polymorphism was detected primarily at three loci: Ao-2, Lap, and Pgi. The average heterozygosities over-all loci for each species were found to be very low when compared to most other invertebrate species that have been examined electrophoretically. With the exception of Cambarus bartoni, the interpopulation genetic identities are high within any given species. The average interspecific identities are somewhat lower and the average intergeneric identities are lower still. Populations, species and genera conform to the expected taxonomic progression. The two samples of ~ bartoni show high genetic similarity at only 50 percent of the loci compared. Locus by locus identity comparisons among species yield U-shaped distributions of genetic identities. Construction of a phylogenetic dendrogram using species mean genetic distances values shows that species grouping is in agreement with morphological taxonomy with the exception of the high similarity between Orconectespropinquus and Procambarus pictus. This high similarity suggests the possibility of a regulatory change between the two species. It appears that the low heterozygosities, high interpopulation genetic identities, and taxonomic mispositioning can all be explained on the basis of low mutation rates.
    • A relationship between photosynthesis and translocation in plants stressed by ionizing radiation

      McCabe, James B.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Since previous investigations have shown that low levels of ionizing radiation can induce a reduction in the rates of apparent photosynthesis and in the magnitude of photoassimilated l4C exported out of a leaf, the present studies were designed and conducted to determine the relationship, if any, between the radiation effects on these two physiological processes. The experiments were particularly designed to determine if the radiation-induced reduction in export is the result of the reduction in photosynthesis and hence availability of materials for translocation or the result of a reduction in the amount of energy available for the vein loading process. This study has shown that the radiation-induced reduction in l4C export out of a leaf is likely related to a loss of energy available for the vein loading process rather than a reduction in the supply of materials available for export due to reduced C02 uptake. The process of photophosphorylation was shown to be reduced by exposure to radiation to an extent similar to the reduction in the export of l4C which was also observed. Both of these processes returned to their pre-irradiation rates 120 minutes following radiatruon exposure. The rate of photosynthetic C02 uptake was also reduced by radiation exposur~ howeve~ this process did not return to the control level nor was the extent of reduction as large as observed for photophosphorylation and photoassimilate export. The observed relationship between the reductions of export and photoph~sphorylation pointed to the utilization of photosynthetically produced ATP in the vein loading process. The radiation-induced reduction in the export of l4C was observed at the highest light intensity used in this study which would also imply the involvement of the photophosphorylation process as an energy seurce for vein loading. The lack of radiation-induced reduction in export at low light intensities was interpreted as being due to the utilization of respiratory derived ATP, a process known to be insensitive to radiation at the levels used in this study, as the energy source for the vein loading process. Studies using plants not stressed by radiation showed that there was an increase in export of 14C with higher light intensities. In summary, the data has been interpreted as showing that at high light intensities the ATP, produced by photophosphorylation, is available for use in the vein loading process. The site of ATP utilization could not be determined from the data obtained in this study but possible sites have been indicated from the work done by other physiologists and are discussed in the thesis.
    • Glucosamine resistance in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerivisae [sic]

      Maheshwari, Prem Lata.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      By using glucosamine resistant mutants of Saccharomyces ceriv~sa~ an attempt was made to discover the mechanisms which cause glucose repression and/or the Crabtree effect. The strains used are 4B2, GR6, lOP3r, GR8l and GRI08. 4B2 is a wild type yeast while the others are its mutants. To characterize the biochemical reactions which made these mutants resistant to glucosamine poisoning the following experiments were done~ 1. growth and respiration; 2. transport of sugars; 3. effect of inorganic phosphate (Pi): 4. Hexokinase; 5. In yivo phosphorylation. From the above experiments the following conclusions may be drawn: (i) GR6 and lOP3r have normal respiratory and fermentative pathways. These mutants are resistant to glucosamine poisoning due to a slow rate of sugar transport which is due to change in the cell membrane. (ii) GR8l has a normal respiratory pathway. The slow growth on fermentable carbon sourCEE indicates that in GR8l the lesion is in or associated with the glycolytic pathway. The lower rate of sugar transport may be due to a change in energy metabolism. The invivo phosphorylation rate indicates that in GR81 facilitated diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism. (iii) GR108 msa normal glycolytic pathway but the respiratory pathway is abnormal. The slow rate of sugar transport is due to a change in energy metabolism. The lower percentage of in vivo phosphorylation is probably due to a lowered availability of ATP because of the mitochondrial lesion. In all mutants resistance to glucosamine poisoning is due to a lower rate of utilization of ATP. which is caused by various mechanisms (see above), making less ADP available for phosphorylation via ATP synthase which utilizes inorganic phosphate. Because of the lower utilization of Pi, the concentration of intra-mitochondrial Pi does not go down thus protecting mutants from glucosamine poisoning.
    • Influence of temperature and photoperiod upon ionic regulation in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri

      Murphy, Patrick George Francis.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1977-07-09)
      Interactions of photoperiod and temperature upon waterelectrolyte balance were examined in rainbow trout acclimated to six combinations of two photoperiods {18h light: 6h dark, o 6h light: l8h dark) and three temperatures (2, 10 and 18 C). The influence of temperature and photoperiod upon plasma, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and liver levels of sodium, potassium, magnesi.um, calcium, chloride, water content, water distribution and cellular ion concentrations was determined by a one way analysis of variance. Significant (p < 0.05 or better) temperature effects at common photoperiods were observed in 70% of the analyses performed, showing no bias toward either photoperiod. Significant photoperiod effects occured in 57% of the analyses performed at common temperatures. The influence of photoperiod was most prevalent at reduced temperatures. Potassium and magnesium appeared to be particularly thermosensitive, while sodium and calcium were the most photosensitive of the electrolytes. The ionic composition of all tissues studied were relatively thermosensitive, with liver apparently being the most sensitive. On the other hand; the ionic composition of skeletal and cardiac muscle appear to be the mos.t photosensitive of the tissues examined. Water content and distribution in skeletal muscle and liver were significantly influenced by temperature in 50% of the analyses performed showing a very strong bias toward UwinterU animals. Photoperiod effects were significant in 56% of the water parameters measured with a strong bias toward the two lower temperatures. Body weight was of significant influence in 16% of the 174 analyses performed. These data are discussed in terms of the effect of temperature upon ionregulatory mechanisms and the possible impact of photoperiod variations on endocrine systems influencing water-electrolyte metabolism.