Recent Submissions

  • Computerized Dynamic Assessment of Vocabulary Knowledge (CDA-V): Vocabulary Depth Assessment and Zone of Proximal Development

    Luke, Javon; Department of Applied Linguistics
    This study presents the Computerized Dynamic Assessment of Vocabulary (CDA-V). The CDA-V is an existing depth of vocabulary assessment approached with Dynamic Assessment. The Word Associates Test (Read, 1993) and Graduated Prompts (Gutiérrez-Clellen & Peña, 2001), respectively. As a result of this combination, the CDA-V measures both depth and partial depth of vocabulary knowledge. The impact of the CDA-V’s Graduated Prompts was examined with 32 native English speakers. I focused on four aspects of the CDAV. The impact of mediation on the CDA-V’s duration, the usefulness of the CDAV’s scores, the types of errors produced throughout the CDA-V, and the connection between typing correctness and speed and depth of vocabulary knowledge. Results indicated that mediation greatly impacted the CDA-V’s overall duration. To minimize this impact an appropriate cut off point maintain the benefits of mediation such as assessing partial knowledge while limiting the negatives of a longer duration. Additionally, the results showed that CDAV’s scores were useful. Specifically, the CDAV did not produce a ceiling effect and the scores recognized the differences between individuals with similar amounts of knowledge. Also, the results indicated that collocation errors occurred significantly more than association errors. Furthermore, an analysis of typed responses in the study revealed that if typed correctly individuals are significantly more likely to answer the subsequent CDAV question quickly. In addition, the fewer number of mediations used predicts faster typing speeds. In other words, the amount of mediation significantly predicts the speed of the preceding typing task. I argue that depth and Dynamic Assessment more accurately assesses how well an individual ‘knows a word’ than current vocabulary assessment standards. Additionally, I demonstrate that depth and Dynamic Assessment can be recognized as a potential new alternative in vocabulary assessments. Finally, potential practical applications of the CDA-V and recommendations for further research are discussed. Ultimately, the CDA-V may be the first depth assessment approached with Dynamic Assessment, thus encouraging future unorthodox vocabulary assessments to improve the assessment of whether an individual ‘knows a word’ and the degree to which they ‘know the word’.
  • Virtual Teams: The Impact of Varying Levels of Virtuality on Project Team Performance

    Arowolo, Adeoluwa; Faculty of Business Programs
    Although virtual teams have existed for over two decades, in recent years the Covid-19 pandemic led to a wider adoption and transition to virtual teamwork by most organizations. Virtuality is operationalized as the proportion of work done remotely or virtually on a project. This research studies the moderating effects of virtuality in project teams on communication frequency, leadership effectiveness, and project team performance. Using the theoretical frameworks of Adaptive Structuration Theory and Transformational Leadership Theory, a survey was carried out that informed this cross-sectional study. Respondents were project team members and managers who were involved in AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) and Finance/IT projects before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study showed that the inverted-u relationship between communication frequency and project performance was preserved in only low virtuality teams, while the shape of the curve was different for high virtuality teams. AEC project performance was also found to be more sensitive to communication frequency, as these projects exhibited inverted-u relationship with performance compared to Finance/IT projects which was more linear. Regardless of the levels of virtuality in project teams, transformational leadership leads to significantly better performance in both types of projects. This study contributes to the body of literature in project management and information systems by measuring one of several dimensions of virtuality in the proposed model and provides insights for project managers in industry to better lead their virtual project teams.
  • Executive and Retrospective Memory Processes in Preschoolers’ Prospective Memory Development

    Fuke, Taissa; Department of Psychology
    Prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember to carry out future intentions, is critical for children’s daily functioning. The Executive Framework of PM Development predicts that executive function should drive young children’s PM development once a sufficient level of retrospective memory has developed. In two studies, we investigated the predictors of PM development in 3- to 6-year-old children using behavioural and parent-reported measures. Neither retrospective memory nor executive function predicted children’s behavioural PM in Study 1. Retrospective memory significantly predicted parent-reported PM in Study 2. Across both studies, executive function consistently predicted parent-reported PM regardless of the method of measurement. Parent-report and behavioural measures may tap into different aspects of PM, but both retrospective memory and executive processes are important to PM development in early childhood.
  • Waveform analysis of forearm muscle activity during dynamic wrist flexion and extension: Effects of forearm posture and torque direction

    Parkinson, James; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Background and Aim: For both isometric and dynamic movements at the wrist, a popular analysis technique for forearm muscle activation includes averaged time-series data that may not represent changes in muscle activity throughout the task. Changes in muscle fiber length and environmental stimuli can alter forearm/upper arm muscle activity during dynamic tasks (D. A. Forman et al., 2020a). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of forearm posture and torque on forearm muscle activity using waveform analysis. Methods: 12 participants performed a controlled wrist flexion/extension (±40°) tracking task using a wrist manipulandum. Participants were positioned in a neutral, 30° pronated, or 30° supinated forearm posture and the manipulandum applied a constant torque that resisted either wrist extension or flexion. Posture-torque combinations were performed once each, with six flexion/extension repetitions completed per condition. Wrist kinematics were tracked using the manipulandum and the movement cycle was time normalized. Surface electromyography from eight forearm/upper arm muscles were normalized to maximum voluntary contractions. Statistical non-parametric mapping analyzed waveforms for each muscle using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA for main/interaction effects (p=0.05), with post-hoc t-tests. Results: All muscles showed main effects for both posture and torque direction. Decreases in activity were observed in non-neutral forearm postures (flexors: 53-70%, extensors: 5-23% of the cycle). Flexion torque increased muscle activity for FCR, FDS, and FCU during 0-56% and 75-100%, 9-81%, and 22-51% of the movement cycle, respectively. ED and ECU had significantly increased activity during 0-26% and 70-100% of the movement cycle during the extension torque direction. During the neutral-flexion condition, FCR activity increased compared to all other conditions during 58-70% of the movement. Conclusion: When evaluating the entire waveform, non-neutral forearm postures decreased activity for all muscles during specific ranges. The extension torque increased ED and ECU activity at the start and end of the movement, while the flexion torque increased FCR and FDS activity for the majority of the movement. Also, FCR was important in supporting wrist extension during the neutral-flexion condition. Waveform analysis demonstrated complex forearm muscle activity patterns that could provide insight into neuromuscular control, performance, and fatigue progression.
  • What's out there? Kinesiology curriculum scan for physical activity and older adults in Ontario (Canada)

    Edlington, Cassidy; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Background: To date, no studies have conducted a curricular scan to evaluate coursework targeting older adults and physical activity in university-based kinesiology departments. The research question guiding this study was: What percentage of courses taught in kinesiology programs at universities in Ontario (Canada) focus on older adults and physical activity? Methods: Using a list of universities (N = 29) from Ontario (Canada) as the sampling frame, this descriptive study used archival data published within undergraduate calendars by sixteen universities. Data were extracted then coded using a coding manual developed using best practice guidelines for knowledge synthesis research. Results: Human Biomechanics and Psychomotor Learning/Neuroscience were offered in 100.0% of the undergraduate programs while 81.3% offered a course devoted to older adults and physical activity. Variability in the number of courses targeting older adults and physical activity was evident (Range = 1.0 to 4.0 courses; M = 1.5 courses; SD = 1.2 courses; Md = 1.0 courses). Two universities contained one course that focused on physical activity for chronic diseases among older adults. Conclusions: Overall, this study provides evidence that most universities in Ontario (Canada) offer undergraduate kinesiology courses focused on older adults and physical activity. It is possible that availability of these courses is due to gerontology being an elective course listed within the admission requirements of the College of Kinesiologists of Ontario. Future research may wish to explore the number (i.e., how many?) and type (i.e., class-based vs. field-based, etc.) of courses targeting older adults and physical activity needed for training kinesiology students.
  • Supporting Physical Activity in Pregnancy

    Buchanan, Sabrina; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Physical activity is considered a key therapy for reducing obstetric complications, yet more than 3 in 4 individuals fail to meet physical activity recommendations during pregnancy (Gaston & Vamos, 2012). Differing approaches to physical activity counseling have been implemented to address this issue (Pearce et al., 2013). This study aimed to investigate the effect of one such counseling method, termed motivational interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2013). It involved two approaches for communicating physical activity information – a guiding style embodying the autonomy-supportive mindset of MI, or a directing style involving specific advice and recommendations. Each of these approaches was depicted through a written vignette, showcasing a consult between an exercise professional and a pregnant client. Based on random assignment, participants (N = 123) read one of the two vignettes, then indicated the vignette client’s physical activity level for three time points post-consult. Participants assigned to the guiding style (n = 56) reported higher scores on the six manipulation check items compared to those assigned to the directing style (n = 67). While the mixed model ANOVA demonstrated no significant group × time interaction effect, the analysis revealed a significant main effect of group and time on physical activity levels. Specifically, those in the guiding style condition reported more physical activity on average than those in the directing style condition, with levels decreasing over time in both groups. In sum, a guiding communication style, generated in accordance with MI-based evidence, shows promise for improving prenatal physical activity levels and merits further investigation.
  • "The things I do for sport": Associations with mental health in student-athletes.

    Brown, Maxwell James; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Literature concerning university sport suggests that student-athletes make a myriad of behavioural sacrifices (e.g. pain, academics, sleep) to support their participation. While willingness to sacrifice has been linked with a host of positive outcomes (e.g., cohesion), whether athlete behavioural sacrifice is linked to mental health is currently unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between behavioural sacrifice and mental health in university student-athletes. Using a non-experimental design, university student-athletes (N = 45; Mage = 20.02) completed a multi-item questionnaire tapping behavioural sacrifice, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, and the Perceived Stress Scale. Participants did report making sacrifices for their sport, with sacrifice of leisure activities and sleep being most common. Results of bivariate correlations between behavioural sacrifice and mental health were in directions hypothesized, yet none reached conventional levels of significance (p > .05). Further, behavioural sacrifice did not significantly predict mental health. Results of the study showcase that student-athletes do make a variety of sacrifices to accommodate the demands of university sport. Additionally, findings surrounding mental health support the need for further investigation into sacrifices made within sport to develop a better understanding of associated outcomes.
  • The Good Sport: Physical Literacy and a Moral Self

    Powers, Taliah L.; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Physical literacy is a theoretical concept defined by Margaret Whitehead as an individual’s competence, knowledge and understanding, and motivation to participate in lifelong physical activity. This concept emerged out of concern for the seeming disregard of human embodiment, particularly in the education sector, and is firmly rooted in the philosophical concepts of monism, existentialism, and phenomenology. In accordance with existential philosophers such as Merleau-Ponty and Sartre, who argue human beings are fundamentally beings-in-the-world, physical literacy purports physically literate individuals should have a well-established embodied sense of self. They are to develop as proficient movers capable of exemplary self-expression, self-presentation, and interactions with others. But this conception of ‘self’ is incomplete absent the recognition that we are not only beings-in-the-world, but rather socially situated embodied beings whose interactions demand more than a sharp sense of kinesthetic awareness. Herein lies my motivation for this thesis. Specifically, the current philosophical foundations of physical literacy are inadequate to account for a conception of self which recognizes humans as both, embodied movers, and moral beings. As such, this thesis critiques the concept of sense of self foundational to physical literacy and its failure to account for a moral self. In response to this gap in the extant literature, the remainder of this thesis is dedicated to expanding the philosophical foundation of physical literacy to include the development of a moral sense of self by drawing upon the concepts of sport-as-play and sportsmanship.
  • The role of mitochondrial membrane phospholipids in muscle mass homeostasis during overloading

    Vidal, Daislyn; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Skeletal muscle is a structurally intricate and heterogenous tissue made up of individual fibers that differ in size, metabolic and contractile properties, and differs within and between organisms. Skeletal muscle is also very dynamic and can adapt to external stimuli supported by a number of cell signalling pathways. For example, muscle cells can increase in size via a process known as hypertrophy which has been studied using different models such as tenotomy. It has been shown in a rodent model of compensatory plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by soleus and gastrocnemius tenotomy that cardiolipin (CL, mitochondrial membrane phospholipid) content and composition and tafazzin (Taz, CL remodelling enzyme) protein expression increases. However, it is still not known if protein content changes to Taz, or enzymes responsible for CL biosynthesis, precede or follow changes to CL content and composition during this adaptive response. As such, this study examined the temporal relationship (days 3, 7, 10, and 14) between the protein content of CL biosynthetic and remodelling enzymes and CL content on the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to mechanical overload via tenotomy. There was a decrease in CL despite no change in Taz protein content. Of the CL biosynthetic enzymes examined, PGS1 and CRLS1 showed significant increases in protein content post tenotomy. The greatest fold changes in TAMM41 and CRLS1 occurred simultaneously to that of CL, while PTPMT1’s changes occurred both simultaneously and after changes in CL content. PGS1 did not show any fold changes. Finally, the content of PE and PC (substrates of Taz for CL remodeling), both did not change. Thus, it can be inferred that 14 days post tenotomy in overloaded plantaris, de novo CL biosynthesis is not required but instead may rely on currently available CL for remodelling with no required change to Taz content.
  • (Re)presentations of Disability: Images of Persons with Down Syndrome

    Mooradian, Jennifer; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Disabled people have been misrepresented by mass media for decades. The result of disability misrepresentation is the perpetuation of negative disability stereotypes and models of disability. Disability representation has rarely been informed by authentic first-hand knowledge about what disability is and who disabled people are. As such, representations of disability have been formed from an outsider perspective most commonly based on ableism. This study seeks to explore the ways in which disabled people choose to represent themselves and if this representation is consistent with or resistant to dominant disability narratives. Borrowing from Critical Disability Studies and the concept of disability life writing, this study utilized qualitative content analysis to analyze the visual images, comments, and hashtags of randomly selected data posted to four publicly accessible Instagram accounts. Findings show disabled people choose to represent themselves in ways that resist dominant disability narratives, allowing for expanded ideas of what disability is and who disabled people are.
  • Pediculus humanus capitis as a potential vector for Acinetobacter baumannii

    Larkin, Kelsey; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Abstract Introduction: The presence of bacterial pathogens in the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has been subject to intense research in the last decade. Of particular interest, investigations from several countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa coincide in reporting Acinetobacter baumannii, a known opportunistic bacterium causing frequent health-care associated outbreaks. No reports from countries in South America have been published and is important to confirm whether this pathogen is also present in head lice in this continent. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether Acinetobacter baumannii was present in head lice specimens collected from three countries in Latin America. Methods: 123 vials containing 368 head lice collected from Argentina, Colombia, and two locations in Honduras (La Hicaca and San Buenaventura), were analyzed in pools using PCR to determine the presence of A. baumannii DNA. Results: Two vials containing 3 insects halves each from La Hicaca, Honduras were positive for A. baumannii. Since lice were analyzed in pools, it is not possible to calculate an exact frequency of infection in lice. However, based on whether per each vial one, two or all three lice were positive for A. baumannii, a range can be determined between 1.83 - 5.50%. positivity. Genetic sequencing was used to verify our positive results. The remaining lice from Argentina, Colombia, and San Buenaventura; Honduras were identified as negative for the DNA of A. baumannii under the test conditions described. Conclusion: This study is the first to report the presence of Acinetobacter DNA in human head lice from Latin America. Further investigations are required to elucidate the significance of this finding.
  • Subjective cognitive decline and related worry: Examining biopsychosocial correlates in mid-age and older Canadians

    Hopper, Shawna; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Introduction: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a self-reported decline in cognition in otherwise cognitively healthy people, has been acknowledged as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Using data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), a large national study with participants ages 45-85 at baseline, we sought to identify correlates of SCD and SCD-related worry. Methods: In our primary analysis using a Poisson regression model, associations between biopsychosocial variables and SCD were identified (analytic sample: n=21,920). In a second analysis using an ordinal regression model, associations between biopsychosocial variables and SCD-related worry were identified (analytic sample: n=12,694). Results: Multiple risk and protective factors of cognitive decline were not associated with SCD within our sample (i.e., physical activity, hypertension, vision problems), as well as minority stress variables such as sexual orientation and race. Rather, psychosocial variables (i.e., depression, perceived social status, and personality traits) showed a more consistent association with SCD within the sample. Greater SCD-related worry, which is believed to increase the risk of future dementia, was associated with specific personality traits, depression, age, gender, and sexuality. Conclusion: The results from this study confirm the association between multiple health variables and SCD but also emphasize the importance of considering psychological and social factors when conceptualizing SCD and its risk factors.
  • Evaluating and targeting mitochondrial dynamics and plasticity in conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction

    Bagshaw, Olivia Rita Marie; Department of Biological Sciences
    Mitochondria represent dynamic structures which undergo various changes in morphology in order to rapidly respond to changes in cellular physiology. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics are observed in various pathological events and represent a potential target for therapeutics. In this thesis, I first investigated the role of zinc supplementation on rat aortic endothelial (RAENDO) and smooth muscle (RASMC) cell mitochondrial form and function to elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which zinc prevents the development of smooth muscle neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. I discovered that zinc differentially alters the gene expression of several mitochondria-associated genes in cells treated with ZnSO4 for 7 days. In agreement with this, an increase in mitochondrial network fragmentation (fission) is observed in RAENDO cells, whereas fusion is observed in RASMC cells with zinc treatment. I determined that cell-type specific differences in zinc storage and buffer capacity necessitating different mitochondrial quality control mechanisms may underscore differential responses to zinc exposure in vivo. These results highlight mitochondria as an important target for the treatment or prevention of neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. The potential to modulate mitochondrial network morphology to alter cellular function lead to the second study of this thesis, in which a mitochondrial-targeting moiety, triphenylphosphonium (TPP), is employed to target mitochondrial lipid composition. Here, I evaluated the use of TPP-linoleic acid (TPP-LA) to modulate mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) composition in a tafazzin knockout (TAZKO) mouse myoblast model of Barth syndrome, a disease characterized by abnormal CL composition. My results indicate that TPP-LA non-significantly enhances mitochondrial membrane potential and apparent fusion in TAZKO and isogenic wildtype (WT) cells. CL analyses reveal that TPP-LA administration for 14 days during differentiation may rescue the CL profile of TAZKO cells. TPP-LA treatment also enhances biochemical differentiation in WT cells but fails to rescue differentiation in TAZKO cells. These results highlight the complex relationship between mitochondrial lipid composition and modulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Taken together, these two projects highlight the plastic nature of mitochondria, their role in pathological conditions and potential as therapeutic targets.
  • Problematic Parents: An Efficacy Analysis of Code of Conduct Policies in Ontario Minor Hockey Associations

    Heipel, Zach; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Minor hockey in Canada holds significant historical and cultural importance. Many children in Canada aspire to become professional hockey players and many parents dream of their child succeeding in the sport at the highest levels. This perceived importance runs the risk of creating a hypercompetitive environment with overinvolved parents that can adversely affect multiple minor hockey stakeholders, such as young athletes, coaches, referees, administrators, and other parents. Existing research has examined violations from parents in various youth sport settings and a lack of institutional policies to inform, monitor, and discipline parents who violate behavioural expectations. Many studies have recommended the inclusion of parental education tools and association disciplinary procedures, but current literature lacks a fundamental understanding of current behaviour policies and their effectiveness. This study examines the contents of code of conduct policies in Ontario minor hockey associations, the behaviour expectations of parents, the effectiveness of code of conduct policies, the various violations that parents commit, and potential recommendations to improve parental behaviour. Employing constructivist epistemology and qualitative research design, this study used interpretive phenomenology and thematic analysis to analyze two types of data: 58 existing code of conduct documents, and 21 semi-structured interviews with minor hockey rep coaches and administrators. This analysis revealed that while many Ontario minor hockey associations have some form of conduct policy in place, content and implementation varies significantly between associations. Furthermore, while participants perceived that parental behaviour appears to be improving in recent years, misconduct incidents still commonly occur with significant negative consequences to various minor hockey stakeholders. Participants identified many strategies to better prevent and respond to parental misconduct in minor hockey are identified and examined, making this study useful to minor hockey associations in developing better policies and procedures to effectively deal with parental misconduct incidents.
  • Climate Discourse Among Canadian NGOs: Ecological Modernization, Civic Environmentalism, and Climate Justice

    Spiegel, Kate; Department of Sociology
    This research examines the websites of twenty-three Canadian NGOs using critical discourse analysis to understand: (i) What climate change discourses are dominant among Canadian NGOs? (ii) What are the goals and strategies being promoted through these discourses? (iii) How are climate issues being framed by these organizations? (iv) Who do NGOs see as the primary agents and mechanisms of change in addressing climate change? The findings illustrate three main discourses--ecological modernization, civic environmentalism, and climate justice--though the distinctions between discursive categories are often blurred as many organizations draw from multiple discursive narratives in their appeals for climate action. Ecological modernization discourse underpins much of the framing of climate change as a threat to the Canadian economy and the benefits of transitioning to a zero-carbon economy through market interventions and green innovation. Equally represented is a Canadian stream of civic environmentalist discourse. Civic environmentalism has a strong presence in how many NGOs attribute the climate crisis to an imbalance in decision-making power between elites and the rest of Canada where the solution is then to restore democracy in political institutions. Climate justice was least represented but offers a more critical understanding of the nature of the climate crisis and emphasizes the need for a broad-based movement that unifies the fights for social, economic, and ecological justice.

    Lee, Jacob; Department of Biological Sciences
    The Notch signalling pathway is a juxtacrine signalling pathway conserved across vertebrate and invertebrate species and is known to be a potent regulator of progenitor cell fate decisions during nervous system development. The dysregulation of the Notch pathway has been implicated in the establishment of an anti-neurogenic environment following spinal cord injury in mammals that ultimately prevents functional recovery. In regeneration-competent species, where both neurons and glia are produced by resident progenitor cells in response to trauma, Notch appears to be regulated differently. In the regeneration-competent axolotl, very little is known regarding the role of the Notch signalling pathway in the establishment of a regeneration permissive environment. Here I report that the axolotl possesses a homolog of the Notch1 receptor and qPCR data indicate that its expression decreases significantly at 7 days post injury in caudal spinal cord tissue. I further report that the Notch downstream target gene, Hes1, is expressed in the spinal cord 3 days following injury and that bath application of the indirect Notch inhibitor, tert-Butyl (S)-{(2S)-2-[2-(3,5 difluorophenyl)acetamido]propanamido} phenylacetate (DAPT), impairs spinal cord regeneration. Finally, I have modified an existing optogenetic plasmid construct that allows for light-dependent temporal and spatial Notch receptor-independent signalling through the axolotl Notch intracellular domain (NICD). In vitro characterization has included the determination of an effective membrane anchor for this construct and the production of an appropriate light-insensitive negative control plasmid. This research has provided evidence for a role of Notch during spinal cord regeneration in the axolotl and provided a unique optogenetic tool to facilitate the determination of the in vivo role that Notch signalling plays during spinal cord regeneration in the axolotl.
  • Dynamic Configuration of Large-Scale Cortical Networks: A Useful Framework for Clarifying the Heterogeneity Found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Kember, Jonah; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) traits (inattention vs. hyperactivity/impulsivity) complicates diagnosis and intervention. Identifying how the configuration of large-scale functional brain networks during cognitive processing correlate with this heterogeneity could help us understand the neural mechanisms altered across ADHD presentations. Here, we recorded high-density EEG while 62 non-clinical participants (ages 18-24; 32 male) underwent an inhibitory control task (Go/No-Go). Functional EEG networks were created using sensors as nodes and across-trial phase-lag index values as edges. Using cross-validated LASSO regression, we examined whether graph-theory metrics applied to both static networks (averaged across time-windows: -500–0ms, 0–500ms) and dynamic networks (temporally layered with 2ms intervals), were associated with hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive traits. Network configuration during response execution/inhibition was associated with hyperactive/impulsive (mean R2across test sets = .20, SE = .02), but not inattentive traits. Post-stimulus results at higher frequencies (Beta, 14-29Hz; Gamma, 30-90Hz) showed the strongest association with hyperactive/impulsive traits, and predominantly reflected less burst-like integration between modules in oscillatory beta networks during execution, and increased integration/small-worldness in oscillatory gamma networks during inhibition. We interpret the beta network results as reflecting weaker integration between specialized pre-frontal and motor systems during motor response preparation, and the gamma results as reflecting a compensatory mechanism used to integrate processing between less functionally specialized networks. This research demonstrates that the neural network mechanisms underlying response execution/inhibition might be associated with hyperactive/impulsive traits, and that dynamic, task-related changes in EEG functional networks may be useful in disentangling ADHD heterogeneity.
  • Representing Recovery: A discourse analysis of the television shows You, AJ and the Queen, and Mom

    Downton, Zabrina; Social Justice and Equity Studies Program
    This thesis analyses representations of mothers seeking recovery from drug use in the first season of three serial shows available on Netflix: Mom, AJ and the Queen, and You. Prior to the main analysis of these shows, a literature review was conducted resulting in the opportunity to address a lacuna in the literature related to gender-focused studies looking at recovery from addiction. The shows that were chosen all include at least one character who is a mother and begins the process of recovery. These shows possess striking similarities in their portrayals of an abstinence-based approach to addiction recovery as well as intersecting discourses of addicted women as bad mothers who reproduce deviance through their children. A discursive analysis of Mom, AJ and the Queen, and You seeks to understand which discourses of addiction, drug use, gender, motherhood, and deviance are present in these representations and the messages that are communicated to the viewing public. This thesis illustrates that these representations reproduce dominant, gendered discourses which construct drug using women as deviant women and “bad mothers” who produce “bad children”. These representations further reinforce the dominant abstinence-based recovery discourse that creates a dichotomous understanding of addiction and recovery as active use as the problem and total abstinence as the only solution. Despite the presence of some resistance to these discourses, these shows ultimately reproduce stereotypical, and often harmful, gendered discourses of addiction and recovery.
  • What Factors Increase Odds of Long-Stay Delayed Discharge in Alternate Level of Care Patients?

    Carfagnini, Quinten; Applied Health Sciences Program
    Background: Patients no longer requiring the current level of care they are receiving, but continue to be delayed from discharging, are designated as Alternate Level of Care (ALC) patients. These patients add to the continued challenge surrounding hospital overcrowding. We assessed risk factors of long-stay ALC patients; patients who have been delayed more than 30 days. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine the factors that increase the odds of long-stay delayed discharge in ALC patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing data from Niagara Health’s WTIS database between September 2014 and September 2019. We compared hospital location, demographic and needs/barriers factors pertaining to regular versus long-stay ALC patients using logistical regression analysis. Results: Of the 16,436 patients, 1,679 (10.2%) were considered long-stay ALC patients. Long-stay ALC patients were more likely to be male (OR=1.22, [1.08-1.38]), be directly admitted as opposed to through the ED (OR=1.30), currently occupy a convalescent care bed (OR=5.52, [1.66-18.37]) or mental health bed (OR=9.75, [2.36-36.17]) and have a discharge destination of an LTC bed (OR=66.39, [26.22-168.09]). Each present barrier increased the odds of becoming long-stay ALC by 44%. Odds were also increased by the presence of a bariatric (OR=6.13, [2.98-12.59]), feeding (OR=6.48, [1.92-21.92]) or infection (isolation) (OR=2.03, [1.49-2.77]) barrier. Conclusions: Long-stay ALC patients were more likely to be directly admitted, males with discharge destinations to LTC and assisted living facilities with the presence of bariatric, feeding and/or isolation requirements.
  • Decolonizing Graduate Education: Considerations for Integration and Internationalization of a Master of Education Program

    Wainaina, Esther; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education
    Abstract The internationalization of graduate education at Western higher education institutions (WHEIs) is seldom offered in programs that segregate international students from domestic students. The Master of Education Internationally educated Students Program (MEd ISP) at Brock University in Ontario, Canada had offered a segregated graduate program prior to the university’s decision to terminate the program and integrate all future international and domestic students in its Master of Education (MEd) program. While current knowledge of internationalization approaches at WHEIs reveals disparities between official discourses for internationalization and international students’ experiences at WHEIs, this study identified a gap in the knowledge of WHEIs’ strategies for transitioning internationalization from segregated to integrated graduate programs. Adopting a decolonial theoretical framework, the study explored dominant, neoliberal, and colonizing approaches to internationalization in the MEd ISP and sought to advocate for decolonizing considerations for future internationalization of the MEd program at Brock University. The study engaged 5 international students and 1 domestic student in a decolonizing phenomenology that utilized qualitative interviews to explore participants’ firsthand accounts of the strengths and weaknesses of the MEd ISP as well as their perceptions of colonizing and decolonizing attributes of internationalization at Brock University. Interestingly, the study found that the most relevant attributes of colonizing educational approaches were perceptions of the superiority of Western knowledge and not the segregationist approach to internationalization as had been anticipated. Rather than offering formulations for decolonizing the internationalization of graduate programs, the study recommends a process of pertinent questioning that problematizes naturalized Western knowledge through epistemic and ontological pluralization. Further, the study offers initial questions that can be advanced through an iterative interaction of neoliberal, critical, and decolonizing considerations for internationalization of graduate programs at WHEIs. The narrowed scope of the study’s pool of participants contributed a significant limitation to the generalizability of the study. Future studies on internationalization approaches at WHEIs may be inspired to build on the study’s findings to include insights from graduate program administrators and instructors.

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