Onondaga chert : geological and palynological studies as applied to archaeology /
Parkins, William George.
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Cherts from the Middle Devonian Onondaga Formation of the Niagara Peninsula in Southern Ontario and Western New York State can now be distinguished from those of the Early Devonian Bois Blanc Formation of the same area based on differences in petrology, acritarchs, spores, and "Preservation Ratio" values. The finely crystalline, carbonate sediments of the Bois Blanc Formation were deposited under shallow, low energy conditions characterised by the acritarchs Leiofusa bacillum and L. minuta and a high relative abundance of the spore, Apiculiretusispora minor. The medio crystalline and bioclastic carbonate sediments of the Onondaga Formation were deposited under shallow, high energy conditions except for the finely crystalline lagoonal sediments of the Clarence Member which is characterised by the acritarchs Leiofusa navicula, L. sp. B, and L. tomaculata . The author has subdivided and correlated the Clarence Member of the Onondaga Formation using the "Preservation Ratio" values derived from the palynomorphs contained in the cherts. Clarence Member cherts were used by the Archaic people of the Niagara Peninsula for chipped-stone tools. The source area for the chert is considered to be the cobble beach deposits along the north shore of Lake Erie from Port Maitland to Nanticoke