Environmental Racism: Proximity of Environmental Hazards and Benefits to Visible Minority Communities in Ontario, Canada
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AbstractConsidering the global Black Lives Matter protests and the relatively limited academic research on environmental racism in Canada, this major research paper (MRP) explores the distribution of environmental racism in Ontario, Canada. Specifically, the research examines how environmental hazards (air pollution and landfills), and environmental benefits (parks and recreation) are distributed across visible minority and white communities in Hamilton and Niagara using ArcGIS Pro. The findings reaffirm that environmental racism exists in Ontario, Canada. For example, in communities with high percentages of visible minorities, parks tended to be less common and small, while particulate air pollution tended to be high. This research highlights the presence of environmental racism in Canada. Documenting and communicating the prevalence of environmental racism, and developing effective legislation for addressing environmental rights, are essential to funding lasting solutions for environmental racism in Canada.
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Environmental assessment of Lake Gibson sediments, water quality, and soils of the Niagara RegionPlacko, Joanne.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1999-07-09)In light of the fact that literature on toxicity of heavy metals in non-acidified freshwater systems is sparse, this project was initiated to conduct an environmental assessment of Lake Gibson. Chemistry of soils from adjacent areas and vineyards in the region provide a comparative background database. Water quality determinations were used to identify and highlight areas of environmental concern within the Lake Gibson watershed. A Shelby Corer was used to obtain 66 sediment cores from Lake Gibson. These were sectioned according to lithology and color to yield 298 samples. A suite of 122 soil samples was collected in the region and vicinity of Lake Gibson. All were tested for metals and some for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). Evaluation of the results leads to the following conclusions: 1. Metal concentrations ofAI, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Fe and Zn in soils from the Niagara Region are well below background limits set by the Ministry of the Environment and Energy (MOEE) for provincial soils. 2. There is a spatial and depth difference for some of the metals within the various soils. The Cr, Ni and Pb contents of soils vary throughout the region (p<O.05). In addition, Pb contents tend to be highest in surficial soil samples (p<O.05), an observation consistent with deposition by airborne particulates. 3. The Ni contents of sediments from Lake Gibson fall below the LEL (Lower Effect Level) guideline specified by the MOEE for aquatic ecosystems. 4. All other metal contents exceed the LEL, and in some instances they also exceed the SEL (Severe Effect Level) guideline. In this instance acute toxicity testing of 11 the sediments is required to assess impact on the aquatic biota. 5. Specifically, effluents and discharges from outfalls, roadways, railways and industrial activities are all degrading the local ecosystem. 6. Mineral oil and greases are a major environmental concern in the sediments of Lake Gibson. Ofthe 240 samples tested for TPH, 200 samples exceed the MOEE Open Water Disposal Guideline of 1,500 mg/kg. 7. Four areas within Lake Gibson are especially degraded with respect to TPH. One area is just downstream from the Old WeIland Canal divergence point and waterfall. Other areas of concern are located just south of Beaverdams Road and just west ofthe Ontario Hydro control pipes; south ofthe Village ofBeaverdams. The fourth area of environmental concern and TPH impact is located between Highway 406 and Merrittville Highway.
National energy policies of the Federal Republic of Germany and Canada in the 1970s and 1980s: are economic and/or environmental concerns responsible for change?Pfleger, Anita Angelika.; Department of Political Science (Brock University, 1991-07-09)The thesis presents a comparison of the national energy policies of the Federal Republic of Germany and Canada from 1973 until the late 1980s. The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether economic and/or environmental concerns were responsible for changes in the· West-German and Canadian national energy policies. Furthermore, the feasibility of implementing a soft energy path in West-Germany and Canada is examined. For better comprehension of the policy-making process and implemented changes in the national energy policies of the two states, the West-German and Canadian parliamentary systems and the political cultures were compared. For the analysis, several events with international impact were taken as guidelines. Furthermore, based on statistical data, the West-German and Canadian energy production and consumption were analyzed. With reference to these results the degree of the de facto changes in the national energy policies were analyzed. In addition, the thesis discusses the possibilities which a soft energy path offers to both national governments to renounce themselves from the dependencies on a few energy resources. The thesis reveals that changes in the West-German and Canadian national energy policies, in their energy production and consumption are correlated to various world events. In particular, governmental reponses security of energy supply by the two international oil crises of 1973 and 1979/1980 demonstrate that changes in the West-German and Canadian national energy policies were implemented in reaction to economic concerns than environmental ones. With the policies "away from oil" and "off oil", the West-German and Canadian government implemented the i i substitution of oil through various diverse energy supply resources. However, energy savings concepts and policies were initiated through the first oil crisis in 1973. The world recessions in 1975 and 1982 had no 'profound impacts on the agenda of West-German and Canadian energy policies. As a consequence of the stagnation or the negative growth of the world economic market, changes in their energy production and consumption can be perceived. However, the West-German and Canadian energy production and consumption intensified with the augmentation of the world economy. During the period of study, environmental concerns were taken into account in the energy policy agendas of the Federal Republic of Germany and Canada but they were not of primary concern. wi thin the decade of. the 1980s notably more environmental considerations were taken into account in the energy policies of the two states. The two nuclear reactor accidents in 1979 and 1986 sharpened to various degrees West-German and Canadian public discourse of present energy supply mix and attitude towards energy production and consumption. The statistical data reflects yet no changes in the energy policies in regard to the position of nuclear power. However, in the next several years possible changes can be observed through statistical data, because the planning, the construction and possible phase out of nuclear power requires several years. Finally, the thesis reveals that the implementation of a soft energy path requires profound changes in the consumer behaviour. As several studies indicate, a soft energy path is technological and economically feasible for the Federal Republic of Germany and Canada, its implementation remains to be a political decision.