Effects of a Brief Mobile Mindfulness Application on Mindful Parenting, Noncompliance of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder, Perceived Parenting Stress, and Parent-Child Interactions
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AbstractParents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at an increased risk of stress, anxiety, depression, and caregiver burnout compared to parents of children without ASD. These risks remain stable over time due to the pervasiveness of autism and its associated behavioural challenges. Parent-focused mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to positively impact parenting behaviour, behavioural difficulties of children with ASD, parenting stress, and parent-child interactions. Research examining the impact of mobile mindfulness application interventions on parenting children with ASD is needed. In the current study, we used an AB design (pilot) followed by a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design to examine the effects of Headspace®, a mindfulness mobile application (app), on mindful parenting vocal statements, child noncompliance, parenting stress, and parent-child interactions of three parents and their children with or without ASD. Behavioural observations and self-report data were collected throughout the study. Behavioural data indicated an increase in the mean level of mindful parenting vocal statements per minute from baseline to intervention phases. Relative to baseline, parent-reported mindful parenting and positive parent-child interactions increased for two parents and parenting stress decreased for two parents. Parent-child observational data demonstrated a variable decreasing trend in child noncompliance across two participants and a decrease in parent reactivity. Overall, these findings suggest that Headspace® is a promising tool for improving mindful parenting behaviours, parent-reported parenting stress, child noncompliance, and parent-child interactions. Future studies should consider evaluating the effects of a parent-targeted virtual self-guided mindful parenting intervention and its effects on both parent and child outcomes.
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The Family Game: A Parent Education Intervention to Increase Positive Parent-Child Interactions in Parents with Learning DifficultiesTahir, Munazza; Center for Applied Disability Studies (Brock University, 2014-04-21)Children of parents with learning difficulties (LD) are at risk for a variety of developmental problems including behavioural and psychiatric disorders. However, there are no empirically supported programs to prevent behavioural and psychiatric problems in these children. The purpose of the study was to test the effectiveness of a parenting intervention designed to teach parents with learning difficulties positive child behaviour management strategies. A multiple baseline across skills design was used with two parents, who were taught three skills: 1) clear instructions, 2) recognition of compliance and 3) correction of noncompliance. Training scores improved on each skill and maintained at a 1-month follow-up. Scores on generalization cards were high and showed maintenance, but improvements in parenting skills in the naturalistic environment were low at posttest and follow-up. Increases were seen in child compliance at posttest and 1-month follow-up. Results of pre-post social validity measures were also generally positive.
Teaching Principled negotiation skills to parents and their children : the impact of parental involvement /Rizzo, Kelly-Joelle.; Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies in Education (Brock University, 2000-05-21)This study explored the impact of training parents and children concurrently in principled negotiation skills for the purpose of developing negotiation skills and problem solving abilities in children. A second experimental group was utilized to determine the viability of negotiation skills training of junior elementary students for the purpose of improving problem solving and conflict resolving abilities. The student population in each experimental group was trained using The Program for Young Negotiators (Curhan, 1996). A control group was also established using the remaining grade four and five students attending the participating school. These students did not receive training as part of this study. Student group distribution was as follows: Experimental group 1 (students with parent participant) consisted of 10 (5 grade five and 5 grade 4 students), Experimental group 2 students without parent participant) consisted of 48 (20 grade 4 and 28 grade 5 students), and the Control group 3 (55 grade 4 and 5 students). The impact of training was measured using the Five Factor Negotiation Scale developed for use with the Program for Young Negotiators (Curhan, 1996). This measure was employed as a pre- and post-test questionnaire to the total student population, (113 students) to determine levels of ability in each of the key elements of negotiation, personal initiative, collaboration, communication, conflict based perspective taking, and conflict resolution approach (Nakkula & Nikitopoulos, unpublished). This measure has a coefficient alpha of .75 which is acceptable for this type of affective instrument. As well, open ended ability questions designed to measure ability, knowledge, and behaviour as they relate to negotiation skill application were given to the total student population, (113 students). Finally, journals were maintained by the students in both experimental groups, and informal feedback discussions were held with students and parents participating in the study.The intent of using both qualitative and quantitative measures was to provide an overall perspective of student abilities as they related to principled negotiation skills. While the quantitative measures were from the student perspective, more qualitative information was sought from parents and teachers through informal interviews, discussions, and use of confidential feedback cards. For analysis purposes, the ability questions were randomly selected for Experimental group 2 and Control group 3 in an effort to balance the groups more equitably with Experimental group 1. The findings of this study indicate that students of the junior elementary school age can be taught how to perceive conflict in a more constructive way. However, they are not as likely to use their skills when the conflict is with a sibling as they are with a peer, a teacher, or a parent. While no statistically significant differences between mean scores for Experimental groups 1 and 2 exist some subtle differences are noted. Overall, increases in mean scores for grade 4 students exceeded the increases for grade 5 students within Experimental group 1 . The implication being that younger students benefit more from having a parent trained in principled negoUation skills than older students. The skill level of a parent in principled negotiation can not be underesUmated. Without a consistent and effective role model the likelihood of developing student skill level to a point of automaticity is greatly reduced. Enough so that perhaps the emphasis should be placed on training parents more so than the students.
Parental goals among Italian-Canadian and Anglo-Canadian families : their connection to socialization practices and the quality of parent-young adult relationship /Cortese, Caterina.; Department of Psychology (Brock University, 1999-05-21)Parenting goals are the behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes that parents implicitly or explicitly strive to achieve during specific interactions with their children. In the present study, intergenerational parenting practices and goals in Italian-Canadian and Anglo-Canadian families were examined. The association between parenting goals, parents' socialization practices, and the quality of relationship between parent and child were investigated. Participants included individuals ranging in age from 1 8-26 years and their mothers from Anglo-Canadian (n= 31) and Italian-Canadian families (n= 50). The young adults and their mothers were asked to imagine how their respective parents would have reacted to five hypothetical vignettes depicting difficult parent-child interactions. Young adults and their mothers were also asked to rate the importance of parenting goals within these parent-child situations. In addition, young adults assessed the perceived quality of their present relationships with each parent. Cultural differences were revealed such that Italian-Canadian parents endorsed more authoritarian parenting strategies and relationship-centered goals than Anglo-Canadian parents. However, Italian-Canadian and Anglo-Canadian parents were not found to differ on their endorsement of parent-centered goals. Italian-Canadian parents' who did use authoritarian strategies were found to have young-adult children who perceived their relationship with their parents as less satisfying, intimate, affectionate and having relatively high levels of conflict than parents who did not use authoritarian strategies. Anglo-Canadian parents' authoritative strategies were correlated with a better perceived relationship quality by young-adult children.