Reactivity characteristics of cytochrome c, cytochrome oxidase and the electrostatic cytochrome c - cytochrome oxidase complex /
AbstractThe mechanism whereby cytochrome £ oxidase catalyses elec-. tron transfer from cytochrome £ to oxygen remains an unsolved problem. Polarographic and spectrophotometric activity measurements of purified, particulate and soluble forms of beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase presented in this thesis confirm the following characteristics of the steady-state kinetics with respect to cytochrome £: (1) oxidation of ferrocytochrome c is first order under all conditions. -(2) The relationship between sustrate concentration and velocity is of the Michaelis-Menten type over a limited range of substrate. concentrations at high ionic strength. (3) ~he reaction rate is independent from oxygen concentration until very low levels of oxygen. (4) "Biphasic" kinetic plots of enzyme activity as a function of substrate concentration are found when the range of cytochrome c concentrations is extended; the biphasicity ~ is more apparent in low ionic strength buffer. These results imply two binding sites for cytochrome £ on the oxidase; one of high affinity and one of low affinity with Km values of 1.0 pM and 3.0 pM, respectively, under low ionic strength conditions. (5) Inhibition of the enzymic rate by azide is non-c~mpetitive with respect to cytochrome £ under all conditions indicating an internal electron transfer step, and not binding or dissociation of £ from the enzyme is rate limiting. The "tight" binding of cytochrome '£ to cytochrome c oxidase is confirmed in column chromatographic experiments. The complex has a cytochrome £:oxidase ratio of 1.0 and is dissociated in media of high ionic strength. Stopped-flow spectrophotometric studies of the reduction of equimolar mixtures and complexes of cytochrome c and the oxidase were initiated in an attempt to assess the functional relevance of such a complex. Two alternative routes -for reduction of the oxidase, under conditions where the predominant species is the £ - aa3 complex, are postulated; (i) electron transfer via tightly bound cytochrome £, (ii) electron transfer via a small population of free cytochrome c interacting at the "loose" binding site implied from kinetic studies. It is impossible to conclude, based on the results obtained, which path is responsible for the reduction of cytochrome a. The rate of reduction by various reductants of free cytochrome £ in high and low ionic strength and of cytochrome £ electrostatically bound to cytochrome oxidase was investigated. Ascorbate, a negatively charged reagent, reduces free cytochrome £ with a rate constant dependent on ionic strength, whereas neutral reagents TMPD and DAD were relatively unaffected by ionic strength in their reduction of cytochrome c. The zwitterion cysteine behaved similarly to uncharged reductants DAD and TI~PD in exhibiting only a marginal response to ionic strength. Ascorbate reduces bound cytochrome £ only slowly, but DAD and TMPD reduce bound cytochrome £ rapidly. Reduction of cytochrome £ by DAD and TMPD in the £ - aa3 complex was enhanced lO-fold over DAD reduction of free £ and 4-fold over TMPD reduction of free c. Thus, the importance of ionic strength on the reactivity of cytochrome £ was observed with the general conclusion being that on the cytochrome £ molecule areas for anion (ie. phosphate) binding, ascorbate reduction and complexation to the oxidase overlap. The increased reducibility for bound cytochrome £ by reductants DAD and TMPD supports a suggested conformational change of electrostatically bound c compare.d to free .£. In addition, analysis of electron distribution between cytochromes £ and a in the complex suggest that the midpotential of cytochrome ~ changes with the redox state of the oxidase. Such evidence supports models of the oxidase which suggest interactions within the enzyme (or c - enzyme complex) result in altered midpoint potentials of the redox centers.
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Hydrogen sulphide as inhibitor and substrates for the cytochrome c-cytochrome c oxidase system /Kim, Jae-Kyoung.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1981-09-23)It has previously been recognized that the major biochemical toxicity induced by sulphide is due to an inhibition of cytochrome ~ oxidase. Inhibition of this enzyme occurs at 30°C and pH 7.4 with a Ki of approximately 0.2 ~M, and a kon of 104 M-1 s-l, under catalytic conditions. However, the equimo1ar mixture of sulphide and the enzyme shows identical catalytic behaviour to that of the native enzyme. This cannot readily be attributed to rapid dissociation of sulphide, as both spectroscopic and plot analysis indicate the koff value is low. The addition of stoichiometric sulphide to the resting oxidized enzyme gives rise to the appearance of a low-spin ferric-type spectrum not identical with that seen on the addition of excess sulphide to the enzyme aerobically. Sulphide added to the enzyme anaerobically gives rise to another low-spin, probably largely ferric, form which upon admission of oxygen is then converted into a 607 nm species closely resembling Compound C. The 607 nm form is probably the precursor of oxyferricytochrome aa3. The addition of successive a1iquots of Na2S solution to the enzyme induces initial uptake of approximately 3 moles of oxygen per mole of the enzyme. Thus, it is concluded that: 1. the initial product of sulphide-cytochrome c oxidase interaction is not an inhibited form of the enzyme, but the low-spin (oxyferri) ~3+~+ species; 2. a subsequent step in which sulphide reduces cytochrome ~ occurs; 3. the final inhibitory step, in which a further molecule of sulphide binds to the cytochrome ~ iron centre in the cytochrome ~2+~+ species, gives the cytochrome a2+~+-H2S form which is a half-reduced fully inhibited species;4. a 607 run form of the enzyme is produced which may be converted into a catalytically active low-spin (oxyferri) state; and therefore 5. liganded sulphide may be able to reduce the cytochrome 33 -Cu centre without securing the prior reduction of the cytochrome a_ haem group or the Cud centre associated with it.
Effects of large anphiphilic ligands upon the spectra and kinetics of cytochrome C oxidaseHe, Jia.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1992-11-04)Cytoch ro me c oxidase (ferrocytochrome c : 02 oxidoreductase ; EC 1.9. 3.1) is the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, catalyzing the transfer of electrons from ferrocytochrome c to molecular oxygen. The effects of two large amphiphilic molecules - valinomycin and dibucaine upon the spectra of the isolated enzyme and upon the activity of both isolated enzyme and enzyme in membrane systems are investigated by using spectrophotometric and oxygen electrode techniques. The results show that both valinomycin and dibucaine change the Soret region of the speetrum and cause a partial inhibition in a concentration range higher than that in which they act as ionophores. It is concluded that both valinomycin and dibucaine binding induce a conformational change of the protein structure which modifies the spectrum of the a3 CUB centre and diminishes the rate of electron transfer between cytochrome a and the binuclear centre.
Proton translocation by cytochrome c oxidase reconstituted into proteoliposomesShaughnessy, Stephen G.; Department of Biological Sciences (Brock University, 1984-07-09)Cytochrome c oxidase .inserted into proteoliposomes translocates protons with a stoichiometry of approx-, imately 0.4-0.6 H+/e- in the presence of valinomycin plus pottasium. The existance .ofsuchproton translocation is .supportedby experiments with lauryl maltoside which abolished the pulses but~~d not inhibit cyt. c binding .or oxidase turnover. Pulses with K3FeCN6 did not induce acidification further supporting vectorial proton transport by cyt ..aa3 . Upon lowering the ionic strength and pulsing with ferrocytochrome c, H+/eratios increased. This increase is attributed to scaler proton release consequent upon cyt.c-phospholipid binding. Oxygen pulses at low ionic strength however did not exhibit this large scaler increase in H+/e- ratios.A-small increase was observed upon .02 pul'sing at·low ionic strengt.h. This increase was KeN and, ,pcep sensitive and thus possibly due to a redox linked scaler deprotonation. Increases in the H+/e- ratio also occurred ifp~lses ,were performed in the presence of nonactin rather.than valinomycin. The fluorescent pH indicator pyranine was internally trapped inaa3 conta~ning "proteoliposomes. Internal alkalinization, as mon,itored by pyranine fluorescence leads to a of approx.imately 0.35 units, which is proportional to electron flux. This internal alkalinization was also DCCD sensitive, being inhibited by approximately 50%. This 50% inhibition of internal alkalinization supports the existance of vectorial proton transport.